Genetic characterization of Portuguese allochthonous populations of Pinus nigra using ISSRs and SCoTs and extrapolation of their infraspecific taxonomy.
ABSTRACT: The Pinus nigra distribution in Portugal is restricted to six allochthonous populations with unknown origin and infraspecific taxonomy. This work intends to evaluate their genetic diversity, structure and relationships, and to infer about their infraspecific taxonomy by comparing molecular patterns produced by inter-simple sequence repeat and Start Codon Targeted markers among Portuguese and foreign samples with known taxonomy and provenance. 127 Portuguese P. nigra individuals were clustered per population. The genetic differentiation was higher within rather than among populations. The pooled molecular data indicated high genetic proximity among the Portuguese and foreign samples of subspecies laricio. However, the separate analysis per marker system demonstrated that two varieties of subspecies laricio (corsicana and calabrica) may have been used in the plantations of the Portuguese P. nigra stands performed in the last century. The genetic characterization and extrapolation of the intraspecific taxonomy of these populations provide useful information for forest management, afforestation and germplasm use.
Project description:This article contains tree rings data related to the research article entitled "An intra-stand approach to identify intra-annual growth responses to climate in Pinus nigra subsp. laricio Poiret trees from southern Italy" (Mazza et al., 2018). Most dendroclimatological studies on black pine have been conducted on the P. nigra subsp. nigra, while only few results on climate-growth relationships are available for other taxa such as P. nigra subsp. laricio, which has the narrowest distribution range of the collective species P. nigra. This data article provides tree rings data for the subsp. laricio at an intra-annual growth level, distinguishing early-wood (EW) and late-wood (LW), from an even aged forest stand from the Sila mountain area within the subspecies mesic to xeric distribution range.
Project description:The unprecedented detail with which contemporary molecular phylogenetics are visualizing infraspecific relationships within living species and species complexes cannot as yet be reliably extended into deep time. Yet paleontological systematics has routinely dealt in (mainly) morphotaxa envisaged in various ways to have been components of past species lineages. Bridging these perspectives can only enrich both. We present a visualization tool that digitally depicts infraspecific diversity within species through deep time. Our integrated species-phenon tree merges ancestor-descendant trees for fossil morphotaxa (phena) into reconstructed phylogenies of lineages (species) by expanding the latter into "species boxes" and placing the phenon trees inside. A key programming strategy to overcome the lack of a simple overall parent-child hierarchy in the integrated tree has been the progressive population of a species-phenon relationship map which then provides the graphical footprint for the overarching species boxes. Our initial case has been limited to planktonic foraminfera via Aze & others' important macroevolutionary dataset. The tool could potentially be appropriated for other organisms, to detail other kinds of infraspecific granularity within lineages, or more generally to visualize two nested but loosely coupled trees.
Project description:<i>Poasecunda</i> J. Presl. s.l. is a morphologically highly variable bunchgrass that is a valuable forage species in western North America. There has been much controversy as to whether multiple taxa should be recognised and at what rank in this taxonomically challenging apomictic complex. Here we propose an infraspecific classification for <i>Poasecunda</i> of six varieties within two subspecies, <i>juncifolia</i> and <i>secunda.</i> New combinations are <i>P.secunda</i> vars. <i>ampla</i>, <i>gracillima</i>, <i>juncifolia</i>, <i>nevadensis</i> and <i>scabrella</i>. Conflicting plastid and nrDNA phylogenies show that P.sect.Secundae is of ancient hybrid origin. Based on this and its distinct morphology, the section is raised to the rank of subgenus. A key is presented for <i>P.secunda</i> infraspecies and closely related non-arctic species. Suppl. materials are provided of chromosome counts for <i>Secundae</i> taxa and D.D. Keck specimen annotations of taxa here included in <i>P.secunda</i>.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A puzzle in evolution is the understanding of how the environment might drive subtle phenotypic variation, and whether this variation is adaptive. Under the neutral evolutionary theory, subtle phenotypes are almost neutral with little adaptive value. To test this idea, we studied the infraspecific variation in flower shape and color in Mammillaria haageana, a species with a wide geographical distribution and phenotypic variation, which populations are often recognized as infraspecific taxa.<h4>Results</h4>We collected samples from wild populations, kept them in the greenhouse for at least one reproductive year, and collected newly formed flowers. Our first objective was to characterize tepal natural variation in M. haageana through geometric morphometric and multivariate pigmentation analyses. We used landmark-based morphometrics to quantify the trends of shape variation and tepal color-patterns in 20 M. haageana accessions, belonging to five subspecies, plus 8 M. albilanata accessions for comparison as the sister species. We obtained eight geometric morphometric traits for tepal shape and color-patterns. We found broad variation in these traits between accessions belonging to the same subspecies, without taxonomic congruence with those infraspecific units. Also the phenetic cluster analysis showed different grouping patterns among accessions. When we correlated these phenotypes to the environment, we also found that solar radiation might explain the variation in tepal shape and color, suggesting that subtle variation in flower phenotypes might be adaptive. Finally we present anatomical sections in M. haageana subsp. san-angelensis to propose some of the underlying tepal structural features that may give rise to tepal variation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our geometric morphometric approach of flower shape and color allowed us to identify the main trends of variation in each accession and putative subspecies, but also allowed us to correlate these variation to the environment, and propose anatomical mechanisms underlying this diversity of flower phenotypes.
Project description:This study investigates the gene pool of Portuguese autochthonous dog breeds and their wild counterpart, the Iberian wolf subspecies (Canis lupus signatus), using standard molecular markers. A combination of paternal and maternal molecular markers was used to investigate the genetic composition, genetic differentiation and genetic relationship of native Portuguese dogs and the Iberian wolf. A total of 196 unrelated dogs, including breed and village dogs from Portugal, and other dogs from Spain and North Africa, and 56 Iberian wolves (wild and captive) were analyzed for nuclear markers, namely Y chromosome SNPs, Y chromosome STR loci, autosomal STR loci, and a mitochondrial fragment of the control region I. Our data reveal new variants for the molecular markers and confirm significant genetic differentiation between Iberian wolf and native domestic dogs from Portugal. Based on our sampling, no signs of recent introgression between the two subspecies were detected. Y chromosome data do not reveal genetic differentiation among the analyzed dog breeds, suggesting they share the same patrilineal origin. Moreover, the genetic distinctiveness of the Iberian wolf from other wolf populations is further confirmed with the description of new mtDNA variants for this endemism. Our research also discloses new molecular markers for wolf and dog subspecies assignment, which might become particularly relevant in the case of forensic or noninvasive genetic studies. The Iberian wolf represents a relic of the once widespread wolf population in Europe and our study reveals that it is a reservoir of unique genetic diversity of the grey wolf, Canis lupus. These results stress the need for conservation plans that will guarantee the sustainability of this threatened top predator in Iberia.
Project description:We describe Peucedanum officinale L. subsp. album Martínez-Fort & Donat-Torres subsp. nov., in which we grouped the thermomediterranean populations scattered along the eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula. The characters that differentiate this new subspecies from other infraspecific taxa in Peucedanum officinale are its canaliculated leaflet, the inflorescences much branched and lack of dominant terminal umbels, the umbels are few rayed, sometimes sessile and lateral, the petals are white and the fruit pedicels short, the same or shorter in length than the fruit. We provide here a full description of the new subspecies based on herbarium specimens and field measurements, as well as providing dichotomous keys to the subspecies within P. officinale. In addition, we provide a comparison of the ITS sequences of nrDNA with the most closely related taxons.
Project description:Subspecies are often used in ways that require their evolutionary independence, for example as proxies for units of conservation. Mitochondrial DNA sequence data reveal that 97% of continentally distributed avian subspecies lack the population genetic structure indicative of a distinct evolutionary unit. Subspecies considered threatened or endangered, some of which have been targets of expensive restoration efforts, also generally lack genetic distinctiveness. Although sequence data show that species include 1.9 historically significant units on average, these units are not reflected by current subspecies nomenclature. Yet, it is these unnamed units and not named subspecies that should play a major role in guiding conservation efforts and in identifying biological diversity. Thus, a massive reorganization of classifications is required so that the lowest ranks, be they species or subspecies, reflect evolutionary diversity. Until such reorganization is accomplished, the subspecies rank will continue to hinder progress in taxonomy, evolutionary studies and especially conservation.
Project description:Carniolan honey bees (Apis mellifera carnica) are considered as an indigenous subspecies in Hungary adapted to most of the ecological and climatic conditions in this area. However, during the last decades Hungarian beekeepers have recognized morphological signs of the Italian honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica). As the natural distribution of the honey bee subspecies can be affected by the importation of honey bee queens or by natural gene flow, we aimed at determining the genetic structure and characteristics of the local honey bee population using molecular markers. All together, 48 Hungarian and 84 foreign (Italian, Polish, Spanish, Liberian) pupae and/or workers were used for mitochondrial DNA analysis. Additionally, 53 sequences corresponding to 10 subspecies and the Buckfast hybrid were downloaded from GenBank. For the nuclear analysis, 236 Hungarian and 106 foreign honey bees were genotyped using nine microsatellites. Heterozygosity values, population-specific alleles, FST values, principal coordinate analysis, assignment tests, structure analysis, and dendrograms were calculated. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity values showed moderate values. We found that one haplotype (H9) was dominant in Hungary. The presence of the black honey bee (Apis mellifera mellifera) was negligible, but a few individuals resembling other subspecies were identified. We proved that the Hungarian honey bee population is nearly homogeneous but also demonstrated introgression from the foreign subspecies. Both mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite analyses corroborated the observations of the beekeepers. Molecular analyses suggested that Carniolan honey bee in Hungary is slightly affected by Italian and black honey bee introgression. Genetic differences were detected between Polish and Hungarian Carniolan honey bee populations, suggesting the existence of at least two different gene pools within A. m. carnica.
Project description:Heterotrophic plants provide excellent opportunities to study the effects of altered selective regimes on genome evolution. Plastid genome (plastome) studies in heterotrophic plants are often based on one or a few highly divergent species or sequences as representatives of an entire lineage, thus missing important evolutionary-transitory events. Here, we present the first infraspecific analysis of plastome evolution in any heterotrophic plant. By combining genome skimming and targeted sequence capture, we address hypotheses on the degree and rate of plastome degradation in a complex of leafless orchids (Corallorhiza striata) across its geographic range. Plastomes provide strong support for relationships and evidence of reciprocal monophyly between C. involuta and the endangered C. bentleyi. Plastome degradation is extensive, occurring rapidly over a few million years, with evidence of differing rates of genomic change among the two principal clades of the complex. Genome skimming and targeted sequence capture differ widely in coverage depth overall, with depth in targeted sequence capture datasets varying immensely across the plastome as a function of GC content. These findings will help to fill a knowledge gap in models of heterotrophic plastid genome evolution, and have implications for future studies in heterotrophs.
Project description:Infraspecific variation of the ITS rDNA region of some brown <i>Parmeliae</i> occurring in Poland is studied and compared with non-molecular characters. Haplotype networks are used to illustrate the variability within the species. Both newly-produced sequences from Central Europe and from all over the world, downloaded from the GenBank, are used. The number of haplotypes found for each taxon ranged from five in <i>Melaneliastygia</i> to 12 in <i>Melaneliahepatizon</i> and <i>Montaneliadisjuncta</i>; however, their numbers correlate with the number of specimens tested. New haplotypes for <i>Melaneliaagnata</i>, <i>M.hepatizon</i> and <i>Cetrariacommixta</i> are found. Based on our 169-sample dataset, we could not infer any geographical correlation, either locally or world-wide. Many of the analysed haplotypes were widely distributed and the same haplotype was often shared between temperate and polar populations. A comparison of molecular, morphological, anatomical and chemical characters also shows no correlation.