Complete Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli MT102, a Plasmid-Free Recipient Resistant to Rifampin, Azide, and Streptomycin, Used in Conjugation Experiments.
ABSTRACT: We present here the complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli MT102, which is resistant to rifampin, azide, and streptomycin and is used as a recipient in plasmid transfer experiments. The sequence will be utilized for chromosomal read removal in plasmid sequence analyses obtained from transconjugants within this strain and in comprehensive genetic studies.
Project description:The evolution of multiple-antibiotic-resistant bacteria is an increasing global problem. Even though mutations causing resistance usually incur a fitness cost in the absence of antibiotics, the magnitude of such costs varies across environments and genomic backgrounds. We studied how the combination of mutations that confer resistance to rifampin (Rif(r)) and streptomycin (Str(r)) affects the fitness of Escherichia coli when it interacts with cells from the immune system, i.e., macrophages (M?s). We found that 13 Rif(r) Str(r) doubly resistant genotypes, of the 16 tested, show a survival advantage inside M?s, indicating that double resistance can be highly beneficial in this environment. Our results suggest that there are multiple paths to acquire multiple-drug resistance in this context, i.e., if a clone carrying Rif(r) allele H526 or S531 acquires a second mutation conferring Str(r), the resulting double mutant has a high probability of showing increased survival inside M?s. On the other hand, we found two cases of sign epistasis between mutations, leading to a significant decrease in bacterial survival. Remarkably, infection of M?s with one of these combinations, K88R+H526Y, resulted in an altered pattern of gene expression in the infected M?s. This indicates that the fitness effects of resistance may depend on the pattern of gene expression of infected host cells. Notwithstanding the benefits of resistance found inside M?s, the Rif(r) Str(r) mutants have massive fitness costs when the bacteria divide outside M?s, indicating that the maintenance of double resistance may depend on the time spent within and outside phagocytic cells.
Project description:A novel spectinomycin/streptomycin resistance gene, designated aadA14, was detected on the mobilizable 5,198-bp plasmid pCCK647 from Pasteurella multocida. The aadA14 gene encodes an aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase of 261 amino acids. Sequence comparisons revealed that the AadA14 protein showed less than 60% identity to the AadA proteins known so far.
Project description:Mutations related to streptomycin resistance in the rpsL and rrs genes are well known and can explain about 70% of this phenotypic resistance. Recently, the gidB gene was found to be associated with low-level streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mutations in gidB have been reported with high frequency, and this gene appears to be very polymorphic, with frameshift and point mutations occurring in streptomycin-susceptible and streptomycin-resistant strains. In this study, mutations in gidB appeared in 27% of streptomycin-resistant strains that contained no mutations in the rpsL or rrs genes, and they were associated with low-level streptomycin resistance. However, the association of certain mutations in gidB with streptomycin resistance needs to be further investigated, as we also found mutations in gidB in streptomycin-susceptible strains. This occurred only when the strain was resistant to rifampin and isoniazid. Two specific mutations appeared very frequently in this and other studies of streptomycin-susceptible and -resistant strains; these mutations were not considered related to streptomycin resistance, but as a polymorphism. We stratified the strains according to the different phylogenetic lineages and showed that the gidB(16) polymorphism (16G allele) was exclusively present in the Latin American-Mediterranean (LAM) genotype, while the gidB(92) polymorphism (92C allele) was associated with the Beijing lineage in another population. In the sample studied, the two characterized single-nucleotide polymorphisms could distinguish LAM and Beijing lineages from the other lineages.
Project description:We have isolated the aph(3")-Ic gene, encoding an aminoglycoside 3"-O-phosphotransferase [APH(3")-Ic], from a genomic library of an environmental Mycobacterium fortuitum strain, selecting for streptomycin resistance. APH(3")-Ic phosphorylates and inactivates streptomycin. Similar genes have been described in Streptomyces griseus and plasmid RSF1010. It is also present in some M. fortuitum clinical isolates.
Project description:Because of operational limitations, a significant proportion of the health centers at the peripheral level are able to provide treatment to Buruli ulcer patients with the combination rifampin (rifampicin)-streptomycin (RIF-STR) only five times weekly (5/7) instead of seven times weekly (7/7), as recommended. The objective of this experiment is to assess the impacts of various dosing frequencies of the combination on its bactericidal and sterilizing activities against Mycobacterium ulcerans in mice. The results demonstrate that the bactericidal activities did not differ significantly among five dosing frequencies of the combination, ranging from seven times to twice weekly, whereas the sterilizing activities differed widely. RIF-STR 7/7 was the only regimen that was able to sterilize the infection after 4 to 8 weeks of treatment; the sterilizing activities associated with reduced dosing frequencies were significantly diminished, and 8 weeks of 5/7 administration yielded a relapse rate greater than the generally accepted level of 5%. We recommend that the duration of treatment with 5/7 administration be prolonged beyond 8 weeks and that additional experiments with mice be carried out, with sufficient statistical power to compare the relapse rates of M. ulcerans infection between 8 weeks of 7/7 administration and 10 and 12 weeks of 5/7 administration of RIF-STR.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Treatment regimens for active tuberculosis (TB) that are intermittent, or use rifampin during only the initial phase, offer practical advantages, but their efficacy has been questioned. We conducted a systematic review of treatment regimens for active TB, to assess the effect of duration and intermittency of rifampin use on TB treatment outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane CENTRAL database for clinical trials were searched for randomized controlled trials, published in English, French, or Spanish, between 1965 and June 2008. Selected studies utilized standardized treatment with rifampin-containing regimens. Studies reported bacteriologically confirmed failure and/or relapse in previously untreated patients with bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB. Pooled cumulative incidences of treatment outcomes and association with risk factors were computed with stratified random effects meta-analyses. Meta-regression was performed using a negative binomial regression model. A total of 57 trials with 312 arms and 21,472 participants were included in the analysis. Regimens utilizing rifampin only for the first 1-2 mo had significantly higher rates of failure, relapse, and acquired drug resistance, as compared to regimens that used rifampin for 6 mo. This was particularly evident when there was initial drug resistance to isoniazid, streptomycin, or both. On the other hand, there was little evidence of difference in failure or relapse with daily or intermittent schedules of treatment administration, although there was insufficient published evidence of the efficacy of twice-weekly rifampin administration throughout therapy. CONCLUSIONS: TB treatment outcomes were significantly worse with shorter duration of rifampin, or with initial drug resistance to isoniazid and/or streptomycin. Treatment outcomes were similar with all intermittent schedules evaluated, but there is insufficient evidence to support administration of treatment twice weekly throughout therapy.
Project description:A class II Tn3-type transposable element, designated Tn5393 and located on plasmid pEa34 from streptomycin-resistant strain CA11 of Erwinia amylovora, was identified by its ability to move from pEa34 to different sites in plasmids pGEM3Zf(+) and pUCD800. Nucleotide sequence analysis reveals that Tn5393 consists of 6,705 bp with 81-bp terminal inverted repeats and generates 5-bp duplications of the target DNA following insertion. Tn5393 contains open reading frames that encode a putative transposase (tnpA) and resolvase (tnpR) of 961 and 181 amino acids, respectively. The two open reading frames are separated by a putative recombination site (res) consisting of 194 bp. Two streptomycin resistance genes, strA and strB, were identified on the basis of their DNA sequence homology to streptomycin resistance genes in plasmid RSF1010. StrA is separated from tnpR by a 1.2-kb insertion element designated IS1133. The tnpA-res-tnpR region of Tn5393 was detected in Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans Psp36 and in many other gram-negative bacteria harboring strA and strB. Except for some strains of Erwinia herbicola, these other gram-negative bacteria lacked insertion sequence IS1133. The prevalence of strA and strB could be accounted for by transposition of Tn5393 to conjugative plasmids that are then disseminated widely among gram-negative bacteria.
Project description:Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the lactose-negative, rifampin-resistant, Escherichia coli strain 26R 793. This isolate has been widely used in conjugation experiments as a general recipient strain.
Project description:Colorimetric phenotypic tests recently gained interest because traditional primary drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates takes a long time. We used meta-analysis techniques to review the reliability and accuracy of the nitrate reductase assay (NRA), which is one of the most popular colorimetric methods to detect resistance to first-line drugs. Medline, PubMed, ISI Web, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were used to search for studies enrolled in the meta-analysis. The analysis included 35 studies for isoniazid (INH), 38 for rifampin (RIF), and 22 for ethambutol (EMB) and streptomycin (STR). Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves were applied to summarize diagnostic accuracy. The meta-analyses were performed by the use of Meta-DiSc software (version 1.4) and were focused on sensitivity and specificity values for measurements of accuracy. The pooled sensitivities were 96% for INH, 97% for RIF, 90% for EMB, and 82% for STR. The pooled specificities for INH, RIF, EMB, and STR were 99%, 100%, 98%, and 96%, respectively. The times required to obtain results were between 5 and 28 days by the direct NRA and between 5 and 14 days by the indirect test. In conclusion, the present meta-analysis showed that the NRA is a reliable low-cost rapid colorimetric susceptibility test that can be used for the detection of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis, including detection of EMB resistance. However, the test appears to have a relatively low sensitivity for STR and needs further improvement.
Project description:Plasmid-mediated high-level resistance to multiple antibiotics was reported in a clinical isolate of Yersinia pestis in Madagascar in 1997. We describe a second Y. pestis strain with high-level resistance to streptomycin, isolated from a human case of bubonic plague in Madagascar. The resistance determinants were carried by a self-transferable plasmid that could conjugate at high frequencies to other Y. pestis isolates. The plasmid and the host bacterium were different from those previously associated with multiple-drug resistance, indicating that acquisition of resistance plasmids is occurring in this bacterial species. Emergence of resistance to streptomycin in Y. pestis represents a critical public health problem since this antibiotic is used as the first-line treatment against plague in many countries.