Internal jugular vein tumor thrombus due to parapharyngeal extraosseous plasmacytoma.
ABSTRACT: Tumor thrombosis of the internal jugular vein (IJV) represents an uncommon event, usually in the setting of underlying thyroid neoplasms. Extraosseous plasmacytoma (EMP) with tumor thrombosis of the IJV has not yet been reported in the literature. We present a unique case of a plasmacytoma in the left parapharyngeal space with direct extension to the left IJV, documented with contrast enhanced computed tomography and US Doppler. Presence of avid thrombus enhancement allowed differentiation between tumoral extension and thrombothic changes.
Project description:Internal jugular vein (IJV) thrombosis is an unusual condition, especially when it develops bilaterally. This is a case of bilateral IJV thrombosis in a 77-year old female who presented to the emergency department with neck and arm swelling after discontinuing apixaban and undergoing an oropharyngeal procedure. The diagnosis of bilateral IJV thrombosis was made with the use of point-of-care ultrasound to evaluate bilateral jugular vein distention and bilateral upper extremity pitting edema found on her physical examination.
Project description:Plasma cell neoplasms in humans comprise plasma cell myeloma, otherwise known as multiple myeloma, Ig deposition and heavy chain diseases, and plasmacytoma (PCT). A subset of PCT, designated extramedullary PCT, is distinguished from multiple myeloma and solitary PCT of bone by its distribution among various tissue sites but not the bone marrow. Extramedullary (extraosseus) PCT are rare spontaneous neoplasms of mice but are readily induced in a susceptible strain, BALB/c, by treatment with pristane. The tumors develop in peritoneal granulomas and are characterized by Myc-activating T(12;15) chromosomal translocations and, most frequently, by secretion of IgA. A uniting feature of human and mouse plasma cell neoplasms is the critical role played by IL-6, a B cell growth, differentiation, and survival factor. To directly test the contribution of IL-6 to PCT development, we generated BALB/c mice carrying a widely expressed IL-6 transgene. All mice exhibited lymphoproliferation and plasmacytosis. By 18 months of age, over half developed readily transplantable PCT in lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and sometimes spleen. These neoplasms also had T(12;15) translocations, but remarkably, none expressed IgA. Unexpectedly, approximately 30% of the mice developed follicular and diffuse large cell B cell lymphomas that often coexisted with PCT. These findings provide a unique model of extramedullary PCT for studies on pathogenesis and treatment and suggest a previously unappreciated role for IL-6 in the genesis of germinal center-derived lymphomas.
Project description:Importance:Exposure to a weightless environment during spaceflight results in a chronic headward blood and tissue fluid shift compared with the upright posture on Earth, with unknown consequences to cerebral venous outflow. Objectives:To assess internal jugular vein (IJV) flow and morphology during spaceflight and to investigate if lower body negative pressure is associated with reversing the headward fluid shift experienced during spaceflight. Design, Setting, and Participants:This prospective cohort study included 11 International Space Station crew members participating in long-duration spaceflight missions . Internal jugular vein measurements from before launch and approximately 40 days after landing were acquired in 3 positions: seated, supine, and 15° head-down tilt. In-flight IJV measurements were acquired at approximately 50 days and 150 days into spaceflight during normal spaceflight conditions as well as during use of lower body negative pressure. Data were analyzed in June 2019. Exposures:Posture changes on Earth, spaceflight, and lower body negative pressure. Main Outcomes and Measures:Ultrasonographic assessments of IJV cross-sectional area, pressure, blood flow, and thrombus formation. Results:The 11 healthy crew members included in the study (mean [SD] age, 46.9 [6.3] years, 9 [82%] men) spent a mean (SD) of 210 (76) days in space. Mean IJV area increased from 9.8 (95% CI, -1.2 to 20.7) mm2 in the preflight seated position to 70.3 (95% CI, 59.3-81.2) mm2 during spaceflight (P?<?.001). Mean IJV pressure increased from the preflight seated position measurement of 5.1 (95% CI, 2.5-7.8) mm Hg to 21.1 (95% CI, 18.5-23.7) mm Hg during spaceflight (P?<?.001). Furthermore, stagnant or reverse flow in the IJV was observed in 6 crew members (55%) on approximate flight day 50. Notably, 1 crew member was found to have an occlusive IJV thrombus, and a potential partial IJV thrombus was identified in another crew member retrospectively. Lower body negative pressure was associated with improved blood flow in 10 of 17 sessions (59%) during spaceflight. Conclusions and Relevance:This cohort study found stagnant and retrograde blood flow associated with spaceflight in the IJVs of astronauts and IJV thrombosis in at least 1 astronaut, a newly discovered risk associated with spaceflight. Lower body negative pressure may be a promising countermeasure to enhance venous blood flow in the upper body during spaceflight.
Project description:Solitary plasmacytoma is a rare disease characterized by a localized proliferation of neoplastic monoclonal plasma cells, without evidence of systemic disease. It can be subdivided into solitary bone plasmacytoma if the lesion originates in bone, or solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma if the lesion involves a soft tissue. The incidence of solitary bone plasmacytoma is higher than solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma. Also, the prognosis is different: even if both forms respond well to treatment, overall survival and progression-free survival of solitary bone plasmacytoma are poorer than solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma due to its higher rate of evolution in multiple myeloma. However, the recent advances in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma can better refine also the diagnosis of plasmacytoma. Flow cytometry studies and molecular analysis may reveal clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow; magnetic resonance imaging or 18 Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography could better define osteolytic bone lesions. A more explicit exclusion of possible occult systemic involvement can avoid cases of misdiagnosed multiple myeloma patients, which were previously considered solitary plasmacytoma and less treated, with an unavoidable poor prognosis. Due to the rarity of the disease, there is no uniform consensus about prognostic factors and treatment. Radiotherapy is the treatment of choice; however, some authors debate about the radiotherapy dose and the relationship with the response rate. Moreover, the role of surgery and chemotherapy is still under debate. Nevertheless, we must consider that the majority of studies include a small number of patients and analyze the efficacy of conventional chemotherapy; few cases are reported concerning the efficacy of novel agents.
Project description:Right internal jugular vein (IJV) is a preferred access route for tunneled (cuffed) dialysis catheters (TDCs), and both right external jugular vein (EJV) and left IJV are alternative routes for patients in case the right IJV isn't available for TDC placement. This retrospective study aimed to determine if a disparity exists between the two alternative routes in hemodialysis patients in terms of outcomes of TDCs.49 hemodialysis patients who required TDCs through right EJV (n = 21) or left IJV (n = 28) as long-term vascular access were included in this study. The primary end point was cumulative catheter patency. Secondary end points include primary catheter patency, proportion of patients that never required urokinase and incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI).A total of 20,870 catheter-days were evaluated and the median was 384 (interquartile range, 262-605) catheter-days. Fewer catheters were removed in the right EJV group than in the left IJV group (P = 0.007). Mean cumulative catheter patency was higher in the right EJV group compared with the left IJV group (P = 0.031). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the incidence of CRBSI, primary catheter patency or proportion of patients that never required urokinase use. Total indwell time of antecedent catheters was identified as an independent risk factor for cumulative catheter patency by Cox regression hazards test with an HR of 2.212 (95% CI, 1.363-3.588; p = 0.001).Right EJV might be superior to left IJV as an alternative insertion route for TDC placement in hemodialysis patients whose right IJVs are unavailable.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although ultrasonography is recommended in internal jugular vein (IJV) catheterization, the landmark-guided technique should still be considered. The central landmark using the two heads of the sternocleidomastoid muscle is widely used, but it is inaccurate for IJV access. As an alternative landmark, we investigated the accuracy of the new landmark determined by inspection of the respiratory jugular venodilation and direct IJV palpation in right IJV access by ultrasonography. METHODS AND FINDINGS:Thirty patients were enrolled. After induction of anesthesia, the central landmark was marked at the cricoid cartilage level (M1) and the alternative landmark determined by inspection of the respiratory jugular venodilation and direct palpation of IJV was also marked at the same level (M2). Using ultrasonography, the location of IJV was identified (M3) and the distance between M1 and M3 as well as between M2 and M3 were measured. The median (interquartile range) distance between the M2 and M3 was 3.5 (2.0-6.0) mm, compared to 17.5 (12.8-21.3) mm between M1 and M3. (P<0.001) The dispersion of distances between M2 and M3 was significantly smaller than between M1 and M3. (P<0.001) The visibility of respiratory jugular venodilation was associated with CVP more than 4 mmHg. Limitations of the present study are that the inter-observer variability was not investigated and that the visibility of the alternative landmark can be limited to right IJV in adults. CONCLUSION:The alternative landmark may allow shorter distance for the right side IJV access than the central landmark and can offer advantages in right IJV catheterization when ultrasound device is unavailable. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical Research Informational Service KCT0000812.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Acquiring central venous pressure (CVP), an important clinical parameter, requires an invasive procedure, which poses risk to patients. The aim of the study was to develop a non-invasive methodology for determining mean-CVP from ultrasound assessment of the jugular venous pulse. METHODS:In thirty-four adult patients (age = 60 ± 12 years; 10 males), CVP was measured using a central venous catheter, with internal jugular vein (IJV) cross-sectional area (CSA) variation along the cardiac beat acquired using ultrasound. The resultant CVP and IJV-CSA signals were synchronized with electrocardiogram (ECG) signals acquired from the patients. Autocorrelation signals were derived from the IJV-CSA signals using algorithms in R (open-source statistical software). The correlation r-values for successive lag intervals were extracted and used to build a linear regression model in which mean-CVP was the response variable and the lagging autocorrelation r-values and mean IJV-CSA, were the predictor variables. The optimum model was identified using the minimum AIC value and validated using 10-fold cross-validation. RESULTS:While the CVP and IJV-CSA signals were poorly correlated (mean r = -0.018, SD = 0.357) due to the IJV-CSA signal lagging behind the CVP signal, their autocorrelation counterparts were highly positively correlated (mean r = 0.725, SD = 0.215). Using the lagging autocorrelation r-values as predictors, mean-CVP was predicted with reasonable accuracy (r2 = 0.612), with a mean-absolute-error of 1.455 cmH2O, which rose to 2.436 cmH2O when cross-validation was performed. CONCLUSIONS:Mean-CVP can be estimated non-invasively by using the lagged autocorrelation r-values of the IJV-CSA signal. This new methodology may have considerable potential as a clinical monitoring and diagnostic tool.
Project description:The finding of intracranial, extramedullary plasmacytoma is rare in multiple myeloma, especially with dural involvement. Meningioma remains the most common intracranial extra-axial mass. We report a case of a 39-year-old male who presented with intracranial, extra-axial mass found later to be dural plasmacytoma and additional multiple lesions on skeletal survey, leading to a diagnosis of multiple myeloma. The objective of this case is to increase awareness of the possibility of dural plasmacytoma as a differential diagnosis of meningioma and a harbinger of multiple myeloma. Magnetic resonance imaging plays a vital role in the detection of additional lesions in individuals while excluding multiple myeloma.
Project description:Internal jugular vein (IJV) narrowing has been implicated in central nervous system pathologies, however normal physiological age- and gender-related IJV variance in healthy individuals (HIs) has not been adequately assessed.We assessed the relationship between IJV cross-sectional area (CSA) and aging.This study involved 193 HIs (63 males and 130 females) who received 2-dimensional magnetic resonance venography at 3T. The minimum CSA of the IJVs at cervical levels C2/C3, C4, C5/C6, and C7/T1 was obtained using a semi-automated contouring-thresholding technique. Subjects were grouped by decade. Pearson and partial correlation (controlled for cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, heart disease, smoking and body mass index) and analysis of variance analyses were used, with paired t-tests comparing side differences.Mean right IJV CSA ranges were: in males, 41.6 mm2 (C2/C3) to 82.0 mm2 (C7/T1); in females, 38.0 mm2 (C2/C3) to 62.3 mm2 (C7/T1), while the equivalent left side ranges were: in males, 28.0 mm2 (C2/C3) to 52.2 mm2 (C7/T1); in females, 27.2 mm2 (C2/C3) to 47.8 mm2 (C7/T1). The CSA of the right IJVs was significantly larger (p<0.001) than the left at all cervical levels. Controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, the correlation between age and IJV CSA was more robust in males than in the females for all cervical levels.In HIs age, gender, hand side and cervical location all affect IJV CSA. These findings suggest that any definition of IJV stenosis needs to account for these factors.
Project description:Arterial stiffness is an early marker of atherosclerosis. The carotid arteries are easily accessible by ultrasound and are commonly used for the evaluation of atherosclerosis development. However, this stiffness assessment is based on the elastic properties of the artery, which may be influenced by the adjacent internal jugular vein (IJV). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of internal jugular vein morphology on the stiffness of the common carotid artery.Bilateral carotid ultrasound was performed in 248 individuals. When no carotid plaque was detected (90.9 % cases), the distensibility coefficient and β - stiffness index were calculated. The global and segmental circumferential strain parameters of the carotid wall were evaluated with 2D-Speckle Tracking. The cross-sectional area of the IJV and degree of its adherence to the carotid wall (angle of adherence) were measured.The morphology of the IJV did not influence the standard stiffness parameters nor the global circumferential strain. However, segmental analysis found the sector adjacent to the IJV to have significantly higher strain parameters than its opposite counterpart. In addition, the strain correlated significantly and positively with IJV cross-sectional area and angle of adherence.The movement of the carotid artery wall caused by the passage of the pulse wave is not homogeneous. The greatest strain is observed in a segment adjacent to the IJV, and the degree of wall deformation is associated with the size of the vein and the degree of its adherence.