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P190RhoGAPs, the ARHGAP35- and ARHGAP5-Encoded Proteins, in Health and Disease.

ABSTRACT: Small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) gathered in the Rat sarcoma (Ras) superfamily represent a large family of proteins involved in several key cellular mechanisms. Within the Ras superfamily, the Ras homolog (Rho) family is specialized in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton-based mechanisms. These proteins switch between an active and an inactive state, resulting in subsequent inhibiting or activating downstream signals, leading finally to regulation of actin-based processes. The On/Off status of Rho GTPases implicates two subsets of regulators: GEFs (guanine nucleotide exchange factors), which favor the active GTP (guanosine triphosphate) status of the GTPase and GAPs (GTPase activating proteins), which inhibit the GTPase by enhancing the GTP hydrolysis. In humans, the 20 identified Rho GTPases are regulated by over 70 GAP proteins suggesting a complex, but well-defined, spatio-temporal implication of these GAPs. Among the quite large number of RhoGAPs, we focus on p190RhoGAP, which is known as the main negative regulator of RhoA, but not exclusively. Two isoforms, p190A and p190B, are encoded by ARHGAP35 and ARHGAP5 genes, respectively. We describe here the function of each of these isoforms in physiological processes and sum up findings on their role in pathological conditions such as neurological disorders and cancers.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC6523970 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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