Clinical and serological follow-up of patients with WDEIA.
ABSTRACT: The clinical threshold in wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis seems to be lowered in patients on wheat free diet, whereas the opposite is seen in patients on regular wheat intake. Therefore, a recommendation of wheat consumption, if considered safe to the patient based on case-history and challenge results, could be advised.
Project description:PURPOSE:To investigate the causative allergens and clinical characteristics of Korean adult patients with food allergy (FA). METHODS:This retrospective, cross-sectional single-institutional study enrolled Korean adult patients (n = 812) suspected of having FA. For diagnosis, causality assessment history taking, ImmunoCAP specific immunoglobulin E measurement and/or skin prick test were performed. RESULTS:Among 812 patients, 415 were diagnosed as having FA. The most common causative allergen was fruit, with a diagnosis of pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS: 155, 37.3%), followed by crustaceans (111, 26.7%), wheat (63, 15.1%), fruits in patients without PFAS(43, 10.3%), buckwheat (31, 7.4%), peanut (31, 7.4%), walnut (25, 6.0%), red meat due to reaction to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) (8, 1.9%), and silkworm pupa (13, 3.1%). Allergy to egg, milk, fish, or shellfish was rare in Korean adults. One-third of patients with FA exhibited multiple FAs (238/415, 57.3%); the average number of causative allergens was 2.39. About 129 patients (31.0%) were diagnosed as having anaphylaxis; in these patients, wheat was the most frequent causative food. Twenty patients were further diagnosed with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA); all were due to wheat. In particular, crustaceans, wheat, PFAS, buckwheat, and red meat (α-Gal) were also frequent causes of anaphylaxis. CONCLUSIONS:Wheat, fruits with or without PFAS, and crustaceans are important and frequent causative allergens in Korean adult FA; these allergens differ from those found in childhood FA. It is notable that non-classic allergies, such as PFAS, FDEIA, and α-Gal allergy, are the important causes of anaphylaxis in Korean adult FA.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Wheat allergy is among the most common food allergy in children, but few publications are available assessing the risk of anaphylaxis due to wheat. METHODS: In this study, we report the case of near-fatal anaphylaxis to wheat in a patient undergoing an oral food challenge (OFC) after the ingestion of a low dose (256 mg) of wheat. Moreover, for the first time, we analyzed the risk of anaphylaxis during an OFC to wheat in 93 children, compared to other more commonly challenged foods such as milk, egg, peanuts, and soy in more than 1000 patients. RESULTS: This study, which includes a large number of OFCs to wheat, shows that wheat is an independent risk factor that is associated with anaphylaxis requiring epinephrine administration (Odds Ratio [OR]?=?2.4) and anaphylaxis requiring epinephrine administration to low dose antigen (OR?=?8.02). Other risk factors for anaphylaxis, anaphylaxis requiring epinephrine administration, and anaphylaxis to low dose antigen was a history of a prior reaction not involving only the skin (OR?=?1.8, 1.9 and 1.8 respectively). None of the clinical variables available prior to performing the OFC could predict which children among those undergoing OFCs to wheat would develop anaphylaxis or anaphylaxis for low dose antigen. CONCLUSION: This study shows that wheat is an independent risk factor that is associated with anaphylaxis requiring epinephrine administration and anaphylaxis requiring epinephrine administration to low dose antigen.
Project description:Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker's asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to wheat.
Project description:We previously developed Hokushin wheat line as a hypoallergenic wheat lacking ?5-gliadin (1BS-18), a major allergen for wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis. However, the allergenicity of 1BS-18 has not been understood completely. In this study, we evaluated the allergenicity of 1BS-18 such as anaphylactic elicitation ability and sensitization ability using rats sensitized with ?5-gliadin or glutens prepared from Hokushin (Hokushin gluten) or 1BS-18 (1BS-18 gluten). Rats were sensitized by intraperitoneal administration of ?5-gliadin, Hokushin gluten or 1BS-18 gluten. Immunoglobulin E-mediated systemic anaphylaxis was evaluated by measuring changes in rectal temperature for 30?min after intravenous challenge with ?5-gliadin or the test glutens in unsensitized rats or rats sensitized with ?5-gliadin or the test glutens. In ?5-gliadin-sensitized rats, intravenous challenge with ?5-gliadin or Hokushin gluten significantly decreased the rectal temperature at 30?min after challenge while challenge with 1BS-18 gluten did not reduce the rectal temperature. Furthermore, intravenous challenge with ?5-gliadin significantly decreased the rectal temperature in rats sensitized with Hokushin gluten or 1BS-18 gluten. However, the reduced degree observed in 1BS-18 gluten-sensitized rats was smaller than that in Hokushin gluten-sensitized rats. In conclusion, 1BS-18 elicited no allergic reaction in ?5-gliadin-sensitized rats and had less sensitization ability for ?5-gliadin than that of Hokushin wheat.
Project description:To examine a 1-year follow-up of a 4-month, controlled clinical trial of exercise and antidepressant medication in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).In the original study, 202 sedentary adults with MDD were randomized to: a) supervised exercise; b) home-based exercise; c) sertraline; or d) placebo pill. We examined two outcomes measured at 1-year follow-up (i.e., 16 months post randomization): 1) continuous Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score; and 2) MDD status (depressed; partial remission; full remission) in 172 available participants (85% of the original cohort). Regression analyses were performed to examine the effects of treatment group assignment, as well as follow-up antidepressant medication use and self-reported exercise (Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire), on the two outcomes.In the original study, patients receiving exercise achieved similar benefits compared with those receiving sertraline. At the time of the 1-year follow-up, rates of MDD remission increased from 46% at post treatment to 66% for participants available for follow-up. Neither initial treatment group assignment nor antidepressant medication use during the follow-up period were significant predictors of MDD remission at 1 year. However, regular exercise during the follow-up period predicted both Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores and MDD diagnosis at 1 year. This relationship was curvilinear, with the association concentrated between 0 minute and 180 minutes of weekly exercise.The effects of aerobic exercise on MDD remission seem to be similar to sertraline after 4 months of treatment; exercise during the follow-up period seems to extend the short-term benefits of exercise and may augment the benefits of antidepressant use.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00331305.
Project description:The aim of the work was to test a relatively simple proteomics approach based on phenol extraction and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) with 7 cm immobilized pH gradient strips for the determination of clinically relevant proteins in wheat grain. Using this approach, 157 2-DE spots were quantified in biological triplicate, out of which 55 were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization - time of flight tandem mass spectrometry. Clinically relevant proteins associated with celiac disease, wheat dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis, baker's asthma, and food allergy, were detected in 24 2-DE spots. However, alcohol-soluble gliadins were not detected with this approach. The comparison with a recent quantitative study suggested that gel-based and gel-free proteomics approaches are complementary for the detection and quantification of clinically relevant proteins in wheat grain.
Project description:Two hundred and fifty seven service personnel with established diagnosis of (a) silent ischaemia (40.47%) (b) Q-infarction (25.68%) and (c) non-Q-infarction (33.85%) along with 50 age-matched controls were subjected to stress tests before and after identification and control of risk factors. Lack of exercise (63.0%), dietetic indiscretion (47.4%) and cigarette smoking (40.4%) were the main risk factors. Hypercholesterolaemia (22.1%), alcohol over-indulgence (17.1%), positive family history (16.3%), diabetes mellitus (9.7%) and hypertension (6.2%) were other contributing factors. Clustering or multiplicity of risk factors was seen in 61.1% cases. All patients were advised for control of risk factors along with necessary specific therapy wherever indicated. Initial stress test was positive in 83.3% of the total and on repetition, after 4 years, the positivity dropped to 45.9% with a rate of improvement of 44.9%. Patients with silent ischaemia showed the maximum improvement (57.8%) following the risk factor intervention. Only 4 cases (1.56%) showed deterioration with reinfarction during the 4-year follow up.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Physical activity is related to health-related quality of life, but little evidence from multiple waves of panel data in Asian countries area available. This study aims to explore the impacts of different degree of regular exercise on the trajectories of physical and mental dimensions of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for community-dwelling Taiwanese adults during 2006-2014. METHODS:Data were derived from the "Landseed Integrated Outreaching Neighborhood Screening (LIONS)" study, with 6182 adults enrolled at the baseline and subsequently followed up to three times till 2014. Linear mixed-effects modeling approach was employed to evaluate the growth curve models of HRQOL (with 16,281 observations) by linear & quadratic time effects, regular exercise (5-level moderate-intensity physical activity), and major influential factors of HRQOL. RESULTS:Regular exercise showed significantly positive dose-response effects on physical HRQOL (β =1.27~2.54), and regular exercise of 150 min or more showed positive effects on mental HRQOL (β = 1.55~2.03). Besides, irregular exercise could also improve both physical and mental HRQOL (β = 1.27 & β = 0.87). However, such effects were not significant over time (at time slope) on HRQOL. In addition, physical and mental HRQOL improved across time (β = 1.01 and 1.49, respectively), but the time quadratic effect would significantly offset a little bit on physical dimension (β = - 0.22). Moreover, being female, increasing age, living alone, or poorer health status were related to lower physical HRQOL; and being younger, living alone, or poorer health status were associated with lower mental HRQOL. CONCLUSIONS:The positive dose-response relationship between regular exercise and HRQOL or its domains was demonstrated for community-dwelling Taiwanese adults. Thus, a regular exercise habit (better ≧150 min per week) is advised for community-based healthcare professionals and the government to incorporate into health promotion strategies and plans.
Project description:Nearly four decades ago, the World Health Organization stated that functional capacity explorations best reflected the impact of a chronic disease on quality of life. Today, cardio-pulmonary exercise test (CPET) is recommended in the follow-up of patients with congenital heart diseases (CHDs). Indeed, the maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2 slope) correlate with both the prognosis and the quality of life in this population. Atrial septal defects (ASDs) represent the second most frequent CHD and are usually considered as simple CHDs. However, the exercise capacity of ASD patients may be impaired. Therefore, the CPET provides important information in assessment and follow-up of patients with ASDs, for both children and adults. Exercise capacity of patients with unrepaired ASDs depends on the importance of the shunt, the right ventricular (RV) function and volume overload, the level of pulmonary arterial pressure, and the occurrence of arrhythmias. For repaired ASDs, exercise capacity also depends on the delay before closure and the type of procedure (catheter or surgery). In most cases, the exercise capacity is nearly normal and CPET contributes to promote sports participation. In addition, a regular CPET follow-up is necessary to evaluate the occurrence, severity and physiological mechanisms of comorbidities, i.e., heart failure, pulmonary hypertension and arrhythmia. Furthermore, CPET follow-up in patients with ASDs may detect early onset of muscular deconditioning, for which cardiac rehabilitation may be considered.
Project description:Wheat is an important staple grain for humankind globally because of its end-use quality and nutritional properties and its adaptability to diverse climates. For a small proportion of the population, specific wheat proteins can trigger adverse immune responses and clinical manifestations such as celiac disease, wheat allergy, baker's asthma, and wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). Establishing the content and distribution of the immunostimulatory regions in wheat has been hampered by the complexity of the wheat genome and the lack of complete genome sequence information. We provide novel insights into the wheat grain proteins based on a comprehensive analysis and annotation of the wheat prolamin Pfam clan grain proteins and other non-prolamin allergens implicated in these disorders using the new International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium bread wheat reference genome sequence, RefSeq v1.0. Celiac disease and WDEIA genes are primarily expressed in the starchy endosperm and show wide variation in protein- and transcript-level expression in response to temperature stress. Nonspecific lipid transfer proteins and α-amylase trypsin inhibitor gene families, implicated in baker's asthma, are primarily expressed in the aleurone layer and transfer cells of grains and are more sensitive to cold temperature. The study establishes a new reference map for immunostimulatory wheat proteins and provides a fresh basis for selecting wheat lines and developing diagnostics for products with more favorable consumer attributes.