ABSTRACT: Here we introduce a new class of ratiometric O2 sensors for hypoxic environments. Two-component structures composed of phosphorescent cyclometalated Ir(iii) complexes and the well-known organic fluorophore BODIPY have been prepared by the 1?:?1 reaction of bis-cyclometalated iridium synthons with pyridyl-substituted BODIPY compounds. Two different cyclometalating ligands are used, which determine the relative energies of the iridium-centered and BODIPY-centered excited states, and the nature of the linker between iridium and BODIPY also has a small influence on the photoluminescence. Some of the conjugates exhibit dual emission, with significant phosphorescence from the iridium site and fluorescence from the BODIPY, and thus function as ratiometric oxygen sensors. Oxygen quenching experiments demonstrate that as O2 is added the phosphorescence is quenched while the fluorescence is unaffected, with dynamic ranges that are well suited for hypoxic sensing (pO2 < 160 mmHg).
Project description:Cysteine (Cys) is important in biosynthesis, detoxification, and metabolism. The selective detection of Cys over structurally similar homocysteine (Hcy) or glutathione (GSH) remains an immense challenge. Although there are many methods for detecting Cys, photoluminescence (PL) and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) techniques are well-suited for clinical diagnostics and analytical technology because of their high sensitivities. Herein, we report PL and ECL dual-channel sensors using cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes for the discrimination of Cys from Hcy and GSH. The sensors react with cysteine preferentially because of kinetic differences in intramolecular conjugate addition/cyclization, enabling phosphorescence enhancement and ECL decrease in the blue-shifted region. Sensor 1 shows ratiometric PL turn-on and ECL turn-off for Cys. In addition, unique ECL-enhancing behavior of sensor 1 toward GSH enables discrimination between Cys and GSH. Sensor 1 was successfully applied to the detection of Cys in human serum by the ECL method. We demonstrate the first case of a Cys-selective PL and ECL dual-channel chemodosimetric sensor based on cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes and expect that the rational design of efficient PL and ECL dual-channel sensors will be useful in diagnostic technology.
Project description:Cyclometalated iridium complexes have emerged as top-performing emitters in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and other optoelectronic devices. A persistent challenge has been the development of cyclometalated iridium complexes with deep blue luminescence that have the requisite color purity, efficiency, and stability to function in color displays. In this work we report a new class of cyclometalated iridium complexes with saturated blue luminescence. These complexes have the general structure Ir(C^C:<sup>NHC</sup>)<sub>2</sub>(C^C:<sup>ADC</sup>), where C^C:<sup>NHC</sup> is an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) derived cyclometalating ligand and C^C:<sup>ADC</sup> is a different type of cyclometalating ligand featuring an acyclic diaminocarbene (ADC). The complexes are prepared by a cascade reaction that involves nucleophilic addition of propylamine to an isocyanide precursor followed by base-assisted cyclometalation of the ADC intermediate. All three emit deep blue light with good quantum efficiencies (<i>?</i> <sub>PL</sub> = 0.13-0.48) and color profiles very close to the ideal primary blue standards for color displays.
Project description:New water-soluble polynorbornenes P1–P4 containing oligoether, amino acid groups and luminophoric complexes of iridium(III) were synthesized by ring-opening metathesis polymerization. The polymeric products in organic solvents and in water demonstrate intense photoluminescence in the red spectral region. The polymers P1 and P3 with 1-phenylisoquinoline cyclometalating ligands in iridium fragments reveal 4–6 fold higher emission quantum yields in solutions than those of P2 and P4 that contain iridium complexes with 1-(thien-2-yl)isoquinoline cyclometalating ligands. The emission parameters of P1–P4 in degassed solutions essentially differ from those in the aerated solutions showing oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence. Biological testing of P1 and P3 demonstrates that the polymers do not penetrate into live cultured cancer cells and normal skin fibroblasts and do not possess cytotoxicity within the concentrations and time ranges reasonable for biological studies. In vivo, the polymers display longer phosphorescence lifetimes in mouse tumors than in muscle, as measured using phosphorescence lifetime imaging (PLIM), which correlates with tumor hypoxia. Therefore, preliminary evaluation of the synthesized polymers shows their suitability for noninvasive in vivo assessments of oxygen levels in biological tissues.
Project description:Photosensitizers (PSs) are of particular importance for efficient photodynamic therapy (PDT). Challenges for PSs simultaneously possessing strong light-absorbing ability, high <sup>1</sup>O<sub>2</sub> generation by effective intersystem crossing from the singlet to the triplet state, good water-solubility and excellent photostability still exist. Reported here are a new kind of dual-emissive semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (SPNs) containing fluorescent BODIPY derivatives and near-infrared (NIR) phosphorescent iridium(iii) complexes. In the SPNs, the BODIPY units serve as the energy donors in the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process for enhancing the light absorption of the SPNs. The NIR emissive iridium(iii) complexes are chosen as the energy acceptors and efficient photosensitizers. The ionized semiconducting polymers can easily self-assemble to form hydrophilic nanoparticles and homogeneously disperse in aqueous solution. Meanwhile, the conjugated backbone of SPNs provides effective shielding for the two luminophores from photobleaching. Thus, an excellent overall performance of the SPN-based PSs has been realized and the high <sup>1</sup>O<sub>2</sub> yield (0.97) resulting from the synergistic effect of BODIPY units and iridium(iii) complexes through the FRET process is among the best reported for PSs. In addition, owing to the phosphorescence quenching of iridium(iii) complexes caused by <sup>3</sup>O<sub>2</sub>, the SPNs can also be utilized for O<sub>2</sub> mapping <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>, which assists in the evaluation of the PDT process and provides important instructions in early-stage cancer diagnosis.
Project description:Synthesis of biocompatible near infrared phosphorescent complexes and their application in bioimaging as triplet oxygen sensors in live systems are still challenging areas of organometallic chemistry. We have designed and synthetized four novel iridium [Ir(N^C)<sub>2</sub>(N^N)]<sup>+</sup> complexes (N^C-benzothienyl-phenanthridine based cyclometalated ligand; N^N-pyridin-phenanthroimidazol diimine chelate), decorated with oligo(ethylene glycol) groups to impart these emitters' solubility in aqueous media, biocompatibility, and to shield them from interaction with bio-environment. These substances were fully characterized using NMR spectroscopy and ESI mass-spectrometry. The complexes exhibited excitation close to the biological "window of transparency", NIR emission at 730 nm, and quantum yields up to 12% in water. The compounds with higher degree of the chromophore shielding possess low toxicity, bleaching stability, absence of sensitivity to variations of pH, serum, and complex concentrations. The properties of these probes as oxygen sensors for biological systems have been studied by using phosphorescence lifetime imaging experiments in different cell cultures. The results showed essential lifetime response onto variations in oxygen concentration (2.0-2.3 μs under normoxia and 2.8-3.0 μs under hypoxia conditions) in complete agreement with the calibration curves obtained "in cuvette". The data obtained indicate that these emitters can be used as semi-quantitative oxygen sensors in biological systems.
Project description:It is of paramount importance to develop new probes that can selectively, sensitively, accurately and rapidly detect fluoride in aqueous media and biological systems, because F(-) is found to be closely related to many health and environmental concerns. Herein, a dual-emissive conjugated polyelectrolyte P1 containing phosphorescent iridium(III) complex was designed and synthesized, which can form ultrasmall polymer dots (Pdots) in aqueous media. The F(-)-responsive tert-butyldiphenylsilyl moiety was introduced into iridium(III) complex as the signaling unit for sensing F(-) with the quenched phosphorescence. Thus, the dual-emissive Pdots can rapidly and accurately detect F(-) in aqueous media and live cells as a ratiometric probe by measuring the change in the ratio of the F(-)-sensitive red phosphorescence from iridium(III) complex to the F(-)-insensitive blue fluorescence from polyfluorene. Moreover, the interaction of Pdots with F(-) also changes its emission lifetime, and the lifetime-based detection of F(-) in live cells has been realized through photoluminescence lifetime imaging microscopy for the first time. Both the ratiometric luminescence and lifetime imaging have been demonstrated to be resistant to external influences, such as the probe's concentration and excitation power. This study provides a new perspective for the design of promising Pdots-based probes for biological applications.
Project description:An efficient synthetic access to new cationic porphyrin-bipyridine iridium(III) bis-cyclometalated complexes was developed. These porphyrins bearing arylbipyridine moieties at β-pyrrolic positions coordinated with iridium(III), and the corresponding Zn(II) porphyrin complexes were spectroscopically, electrochemically, and electronically characterized. The features displayed by the new cyclometalated porphyrin-bipyridine iridium(III) complexes, namely photoinduced electron transfer process (PET), and a remarkable efficiency to generate <sup>1</sup>O<sub>2</sub>, allowing us to envisage new challenges and opportunities for their applications in several fields, such as photo(catalysis) and photodynamic therapies.
Project description:Luminescent materials are important for imaging and sensing. Aromatic difluoroboron ?-diketonate complexes (BF<sub>2</sub>bdks) are classic fluorescent molecules that have been explored as photochemical reagents, two-photon dyes, and oxygen sensors. A series of BF<sub>2</sub>bdks with naphthyl and phenyl groups was synthesized, and photophysical properties were investigated in both methylene chloride and poly(lactic acid) (PLA). Polymer molecular weight and dye attachment site along with bromide heavy atom placement were varied to tune optical properties of dye-PLA materials. Systems without heavy atoms have long phosphorescence lifetimes, which is useful for lifetime-based oxygen sensing. Bromine substitution on the naphthyl ring resulted in intense, clearly distinguishable fluorescence and phosphorescence peaks important for ratiometric oxygen sensing and imaging.
Project description:A series of heteroleptic, neutral iridium(III) complexes of the form [Ir(L)2(N^O)] (where L = cyclometalated 2,3-disubstituted quinoxaline and N^O = ancillary picolinate or pyrazinoate) are described in terms of their synthesis and spectroscopic properties, with supporting computational analyses providing additional insight into the electronic properties. The 10 [Ir(L)2(N^O)] complexes were characterized using a range of analytical techniques (including 1H, 13C, and 19F NMR and IR spectroscopies and mass spectrometry). One of the examples was structurally characterized using X-ray diffraction. The redox properties were determined using cyclic voltammetry, and the electronic properties were investigated using UV-vis, time-resolved luminescence, and transient absorption spectroscopies. The complexes are phosphorescent in the red region of the visible spectrum (?em = 633-680 nm), with lifetimes typically of hundreds of nanoseconds and quantum yields ca. 5% in aerated chloroform. A combination of spectroscopic and computational analyses suggests that the long-wavelength absorption and emission properties of these complexes are strongly characterized by a combination of spin-forbidden metal-to-ligand charge-transfer and quinoxaline-centered transitions. The emission wavelength in these complexes can thus be controlled in two ways: first, substitution of the cyclometalating quinoxaline ligand can perturb both the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital levels (LUMO, Cl atoms on the ligand induce the largest bathochromic shift), and second, the choice of the ancillary ligand can influence the HOMO energy (pyrazinoate stabilizes the HOMO, inducing hypsochromic shifts).
Project description:Dual emissive luminescence properties of solid-state difluoroboron ?-diketonate-poly(lactic acid) (BF2bdk-PLA) materials have been utilized as biological oxygen sensors. Dyes with red-shifted absorption and emission are important for multiplexing and in vivo imaging, thus hydroxyl-functionalized dinaphthoylmethane initiators and dye-PLA conjugates BF2dnm(X)PLA (X = H, Br, I) with extended conjugation were synthesized. The luminescent materials show red-shifted absorbance (~435 nm) and fluorescence tunability by molecular weight. Fluorescence colors range from yellow (~530 nm) in 10 - 12 kDa polymers to green (~490 nm) in 20 - 30 kDa polymers. Room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) and thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) are present under a nitrogen atmosphere. For the iodine-substituted derivative, BF2dnm(I)PLA, clearly distinguishable fluorescence (green) and phosphorescence (orange) peaks are present, making it ideal for ratiometric oxygen-sensing and imaging. Bromide and hydrogen analogues with weaker relative phosphorescence intensities and longer phosphorescence lifetimes can be used as highly sensitive, concentration independent, lifetime-based oxygen sensors or for gated emission detection. BF2dnm(I)PLA nanoparticles were taken up by T41 mouse mammary cells and successfully demonstrated differences in vitro ratiometric measurement of oxygen.