A nanobody-based molecular toolkit provides new mechanistic insight into clathrin-coat initiation.
ABSTRACT: Besides AP-2 and clathrin triskelia, clathrin coat inception depends on a group of early-arriving proteins including Fcho1/2 and Eps15/R. Using genome-edited cells, we described the role of the unstructured Fcho linker in stable AP-2 membrane deposition. Here, expanding this strategy in combination with a new set of llama nanobodies against EPS15 shows an FCHO1/2-EPS15/R partnership plays a decisive role in coat initiation. A nanobody containing an Asn-Pro-Phe peptide within the complementarity-determining region 3 loop is a function-blocking pseudoligand for tandem EPS15/R EH domains. Yet, in living cells, EH domains gathered at clathrin-coated structures are poorly accessible, indicating residence by endogenous NPF-bearing partners. Forcibly sequestering cytosolic EPS15 in genome-edited cells with nanobodies tethered to early endosomes or mitochondria changes the subcellular location and availability of EPS15. This combined approach has strong effects on clathrin coat structure and function by dictating the stability of AP-2 assemblies at the plasma membrane.
Project description:Clathrin-coated vesicles form by rapid assembly of discrete coat constituents into a cargo-sorting lattice. How the sequential phases of coat construction are choreographed is unclear, but transient protein-protein interactions mediated by short interaction motifs are pivotal. We show that arrayed Asp-Pro-Phe (DPF) motifs within the early-arriving endocytic pioneers Eps15/R are differentially decoded by other endocytic pioneers Fcho1/2 and AP-2. The structure of an Eps15/R?Fcho1 ?-homology domain complex reveals a spacing-dependent DPF triad, bound in a mechanistically distinct way from the mode of single DPF binding to AP-2. Using cells lacking FCHO1/2 and with Eps15 sequestered from the plasma membrane, we establish that without these two endocytic pioneers, AP-2 assemblies are fleeting and endocytosis stalls. Thus, distinct DPF-based codes within the unstructured Eps15/R C terminus direct the assembly of temporary Fcho1/2?Eps15/R?AP-2 ternary complexes to facilitate conformational activation of AP-2 by the Fcho1/2 interdomain linker to promote AP-2 cargo engagement.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is an evolutionarily ancient membrane transport system regulating cellular receptivity and responsiveness. Plasmalemma clathrin-coated structures range from unitary domed assemblies to expansive planar constructions with internal or flanking invaginated buds. Precisely how these morphologically-distinct coats are formed, and whether all are functionally equivalent for selective cargo internalization is still disputed. We have disrupted the genes encoding a set of early arriving clathrin-coat constituents, FCHO1 and FCHO2, in HeLa cells. Endocytic coats do not disappear in this genetic background; rather clustered planar lattices predominate and endocytosis slows, but does not cease. The central linker of FCHO proteins acts as an allosteric regulator of the prime endocytic adaptor, AP-2. By loading AP-2 onto the plasma membrane, FCHO proteins provide a parallel pathway for AP-2 activation and clathrin-coat fabrication. Further, the steady-state morphology of clathrin-coated structures appears to be a manifestation of the availability of the muniscin linker during lattice polymerization.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the major pathway for ligand internalization into eukaryotic cells, is thought to be initiated by the clustering of clathrin and adaptors around receptors destined for internalization. However, here we report that the membrane-sculpting F-BAR domain-containing Fer/Cip4 homology domain-only proteins 1 and 2 (FCHo1/2) were required for plasma membrane clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) budding and marked sites of CCV formation. Changes in FCHo1/2 expression levels correlated directly with numbers of CCV budding events, ligand endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle marker recycling. FCHo1/2 proteins bound specifically to the plasma membrane and recruited the scaffold proteins eps15 and intersectin, which in turn engaged the adaptor complex AP2. The FCHo F-BAR membrane-bending activity was required, leading to the proposal that FCHo1/2 sculpt the initial bud site and recruit the clathrin machinery for CCV formation.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis occurs at multiple independent import sites on the plasma membrane, but how these positions are selected and how different cargo is simultaneously recognized is obscure. FCHO1 and FCHO2 are early-arriving proteins at surface clathrin assemblies and are speculated to act as compulsory coat nucleators, preceding the core clathrin adaptor AP-2. Here, we show that the ?-homology domain of FCHO1/2 represents an endocytic interaction hub. Translational silencing of fcho1 in zebrafish embryos causes strong dorsoventral patterning defects analogous to Bmp signal failure. The Fcho1 ?-homology domain interacts with the Bmp receptor Alk8, uncovering an endocytic component that positively modulates Bmp signal transmission. Still, the fcho1 morphant phenotype is distinct from severe embryonic defects apparent when AP-2 is depleted. Our data thus challenge the primacy of FCHO1/2 in coat initiation.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis involves a coordinated series of molecular events regulated by interactions among a variety of proteins and lipids through specific domains. One such domain is the Eps15 homology (EH) domain, a highly conserved protein-protein interaction domain present in a number of proteins distributed from yeast to mammals. Several lines of evidence suggest that the yeast EH domain-containing proteins Pan1p, End3p, and Ede1p play important roles during endocytosis. Although genetic and cell-biological studies of these proteins suggested a role for the EH domains in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, it was unclear how they regulate clathrin coat assembly. To explore the role of the EH domain in yeast endocytosis, we mutated those of Pan1p, End3p, or Ede1p, respectively, and examined the effects of single, double, or triple mutation on clathrin coat assembly. We found that mutations of the EH domain caused a defect of cargo internalization and a delay of clathrin coat assembly but had no effect on assembly of the actin patch. We also demonstrated functional redundancy among the EH domains of Pan1p, End3p, and Ede1p for endocytosis. Of interest, the dynamics of several endocytic proteins were differentially affected by various EH domain mutations, suggesting functional diversity of each EH domain.
Project description:A genetic screen for factors required for endocytosis in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae previously identified PAN1. Pan1p is a homologue of the mammalian protein eps15, which has been implicated in endocytosis by virtue of its association with the plasma membrane clathrin adaptor complex AP-2. Pan1p contains two eps15 homology (EH) domains, a protein-protein interaction motif also present in other proteins that function in membrane trafficking. To address the role of Pan1p and EH domains in endocytosis, a yeast two-hybrid screen was performed using the EH domain-containing region of Pan1p. This screen identified yAP180A, one of two yeast homologues of a class of clathrin assembly proteins (AP180) that exhibit in vitro clathrin cage assembly activity. In vitro binding studies using GST fusion proteins and yeast extracts defined distinct binding sites on yAP180A for Pan1p and clathrin. yAP180 proteins and Pan1p, like actin, localize to peripheral patches along the plasma membrane. Mammalian synaptojanin, a phosphatidylinositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase, also has been implicated in endocytosis recently, and three synaptojanin-like genes have been identified in yeast. We observed genetic interactions between the yeast SJL1 gene and PAN1, which suggest a role for phosphoinositide metabolites in Pan1p function. Together with other studies, these findings suggest that Pan1p coordinates regulatory interactions between proteins required for both endocytosis and actin-cytoskeleton organization; these proteins include the yAP180 proteins, clathrin, the ubiquitin-protein ligase Rsp5p, End3p, and synaptojanin. We suggest that Pan1p (and by extension eps15) serves as a multivalent adaptor around which dynamic interactions between structural and regulatory components of the endocytic pathway converge.
Project description:The AP-1 adaptor complex is associated with the TGN, where it links selected membrane proteins to the clathrin lattice, enabling these proteins to be concentrated in clathrin-coated vesicles. To identify other proteins that participate in the clathrin-coated vesicle cycle at the TGN, we have carried out a yeast two- hybrid library screen using the gamma-adaptin subunit of the AP-1 complex as bait. Two novel, ubiquitously expressed proteins were found: p34, which interacts with both gamma-adaptin and alpha-adaptin, and gamma-synergin, an alternatively spliced protein with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 110-190 kD, which only interacts with gamma-adaptin. gamma-Synergin is associated with AP-1 both in the cytosol and on TGN membranes, and it is strongly enriched in clathrin-coated vesicles. It binds directly to the ear domain of gamma-adaptin and it contains an Eps15 homology (EH) domain, although the EH domain is not part of the gamma-adaptin binding site. In cells expressing alpha-adaptin with the gamma-adaptin ear, a construct that goes mainly to the plasma membrane, much of the gamma-synergin is also rerouted to the plasma membrane, indicating that it follows AP-1 onto membranes rather than leading it there. The presence of an EH domain suggests that gamma-synergin links the AP-1 complex to another protein or proteins.
Project description:Endocytic adaptor proteins facilitate cargo recruitment and clathrin-coated pit nucleation. The prototypical clathrin adaptor AP2 mediates cargo recruitment, maturation, and scission of the pit by binding cargo, clathrin, and accessory proteins, including the Eps-homology (EH) domain proteins Eps15 and intersectin. However, clathrin-mediated endocytosis of some cargoes proceeds efficiently in AP2-depleted cells. We found that Dab2, another endocytic adaptor, also binds to Eps15 and intersectin. Depletion of EH domain proteins altered the number and size of clathrin structures and impaired the endocytosis of the Dab2- and AP2-dependent cargoes, integrin ?1 and transferrin receptor, respectively. To test the importance of Dab2 binding to EH domain proteins for endocytosis, we mutated the EH domain-binding sites. This mutant localized to clathrin structures with integrin ?1, AP2, and reduced amounts of Eps15. Of interest, although integrin ?1 endocytosis was impaired, transferrin receptor internalization was unaffected. Surprisingly, whereas clathrin structures contain both Dab2 and AP2, integrin ?1 and transferrin localize in separate pits. These data suggest that Dab2-mediated recruitment of EH domain proteins selectively drives the internalization of the Dab2 cargo, integrin ?1. We propose that adaptors may need to be bound to their cargo to regulate EH domain proteins and internalize efficiently.
Project description:Eps15 (EGFR pathway substrate clone 15) is well known for its role in clathrin-coated vesicle formation at the plasma membrane through interactions with other clathrin adaptor proteins such as AP-2. Interestingly, we observed that in addition to its plasma membrane localization, Eps15 is also present at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Therefore, we predicted that Eps15 might associate with clathrin adaptor proteins at the TGN and thereby mediate the formation of Golgi-derived vesicles. Indeed, we have found that Eps15 and the TGN clathrin adaptor AP-1 coimmunoprecipitate from rat liver Golgi fractions. Furthermore, we have identified a 14-amino acid motif near the AP-2-binding domain of Eps15 that is required for binding to AP-1, but not AP-2. Disruption of the Eps15-AP-1 interaction via siRNA knockdown of AP-1 or expression of mutant Eps15 protein, which lacks a 14-amino acid motif representing the AP-1 binding site of Eps15, significantly reduced the exit of secretory proteins from the TGN. Together, these findings indicate that Eps15 plays an important role in clathrin-coated vesicle formation not only at the plasma membrane but also at the TGN during the secretory process.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a multistep process which requires interaction between a number of conserved proteins. We have cloned two mammalian genes which code for a number of endocytic adaptor proteins. Two of these proteins, termed Ese1 and Ese2, contain two N-terminal EH domains, a central coiled-coil domain and five C-terminal SH3 domains. Ese1 is constitutively associated with Eps15 proteins to form a complex with at least 14 protein-protein interaction surfaces. Yeast two-hybrid assays have revealed that Ese1 EH and SH3 domains bind epsin family proteins and dynamin, respectively. Overexpression of Ese1 is sufficient to block clathrin-mediated endocytosis in cultured cells, presumably through disruption of higher order protein complexes, which are assembled on the endogenous Ese1-Eps15 scaffold. The Ese1-Eps15 scaffold therefore links dynamin, epsin and other endocytic pathway components.