Degradation of azo dyes by Alcaligenes aquatilis 3c and its potential use in the wastewater treatment.
ABSTRACT: In the present study, Alcaligenes aquatilis was found to decolorize 82% Synazol red 6HBN after incubation of 4 days at 37 °C and pH 7. Maximum decolorization was found under static conditions by using saw dust and yeast extract as carbon and nitrogen source. It also showed promising potential to decolorize mixture of multiple dyes at a rate of more than 86% in 5 days. Decolorization of dye had positive influence on the growth of bacterium as growth rate was increased along with decolorization. The cleavage of azo bond was confirmed through TLC, HPLC and GC-MS analysis. The dye metabolites produced during bacterial treatment are linked to various pathways including ATP synthesis process. The absence of peaks of wavelength 1612/cm and 1532/cm in bacterially treated FTIR sample demonstrated the cleavage of azo bond. Microbial growth in decolorized dye wastewater shows that bacterially decolorized wastewater is unharmful for the growth of micro-flora. The high decolorization ability of A. aquatilis 3c to convert toxic azo dyes into useful end products may find potential applications in the environmental biotechnology.
Project description:An anaerobic sludge (AS), capable of decolorizing a variety of synthetic dyes, was acclimated and is reported here. The sludge presented a much better dye decolorizing ability than that of different individual strains. A broad spectrum of dyes could be decolorized by the sludge. Continuous decolorization tests showed that the sludge exhibited the ability to decolorize repeated additions of dye. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate of the dye wastewater reached 52% after 12 h of incubation. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles revealed that the microbial community changed as a result of varying initial concentrations of dyes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that microbial populations in the sludge belonged to the phyla Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The degradation products of the three types of dye were identified. For azo dyes, the anaerobic sludge converted Methyl Orange to N,N-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid; for triphenylmethane dyes, after Malachite Green was decolorized, the analyzed products were found to be a mixture of N,N-dimethylbenzenamine, 3-dimethyl-aminophenol and 4-dimethylaminobenzophenone; for anthraquinone dyes, two products (acetophenone and 2-methylbenzoic acid) were observed after Reactive Blue 19 decolorization. Together, these results suggest that the anaerobic sludge has promising potential for use in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing various types of dyes.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Synthetic dyes are recalcitrant to degradation and toxic to different organisms. Decolorization of textile wastewaters is one of the major concerns since last decades. Physical-chemical treatments are very expensive and frequently producing large amounts of toxic wastes. Biological treatments can be more convenient. In the present study, an attempt has been made for decolorization of azo dyes using microbial process. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Screening of microorganisms capable of azo dye decolorization was performed from activated sludge. The decolorization of various dyes (Reactive Black 5, Reactive Orange 16, Reactive Red 198, Direct Blue 71, Direct Yellow 12 and Direct Black 22) was determined by measuring the absorbance of culture supernatant at their ?max. Culture supernatants were also analyzed for UV-Vis absorption between 200-800 nm. The effect of aeration, temperature, different concentrations of glucose and NaCl was studied with an aim to determine the optimal conditions required for maximum decolorization. RESULTS:The yeast (strain JKS4) which had high ability to decolorize different azo dyes was isolated. Under aerobic condition, the yeast strain showed 85.7% of decolorization at 200 mg/l Reactive Black 5 (as a model azo dye), 1% (w/v) glucose concentration and 35°C after 24 h. All the examined dyes were extensively decolorized (53.35-97.9%) after 24 h. With elongated incubation period, complete decolorization was observed in presence of all dyes. From the physiological properties and phylogenetic analysis based on the 26S rDNA sequences, strain JKS4 was classified into Candida palmioleophila. CONCLUSIONS:Because of high decolorizing activity against various azo dyes commonly used in the textile industries, it is proposed that the isolated yeast may have a practical application in the biotransformation of various dye effluents.
Project description:This study was conducted to elucidate the inherent potential of Bacillus sp. MR-1/2, which was isolated from root zone of maize crop grown on a textile wastewater-irrigated soil. The isolated strain was identified through its ribosomal RNA sequence. Under in vitro conditions, the strain demonstrated its tolerance for high concentrations of various heavy metal ions as determined by minimum inhibitory concentration. Moreover, the strain MR-1/2 exhibited many important phytobeneficial traits such as inorganic P solubilization and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase ability even under high metal and salt stress. Results showed that the strain proficiently decolorizes various azo dye compounds, e.g., reactive black-5, reactive red-120, and direct blue-1 and congo red, in broth culture. The bioremediation potential of the strain MR-1/2 was further confirmed by analyzing the retrieved azoreductase gene sequence through bioinformatics tools, whereby a subsequent prediction revealed that the azoreductase enzyme activity was involved in decolorization process. When mung bean seeds were grown in pots under various concentrations of decolorized and non-decolorized azo dye, the Bacillus sp. MR-1/2 not only alleviated the azo dye toxicity, but also increased the plant growth parameters. In conclusion, the strain MR-1/2 efficiently decolorized the azo dyes and helped in mung bean plant growth by alleviating azo dye toxicity.
Project description:The strain Ganoderma cupreum AG-1 (Genbank accession no. HQ328947) isolated from the decayed wood was evaluated for its ability to decolorize azo dye reactive violet 1 as well as for the production of ligninolytic enzymes. In the initial decolorization study, the strain was capable of decolorizing 19 different azo dyes. The strain was capable of decolorizing dye over a pH range of 4.5-6 at 30 °C. The optimum pH was found to be 4.5. Various other process parameters like additional carbon and nitrogen source and initial dye concentration were also optimized. The decolorization medium was supplemented with appropriate nitrogen source (yeast extract, 5 g l-1) and carbon source (mannose, 2 g l-1); the decolorization obtained was 98 %. The pattern of enzymes involved in the biodegradation was studied and laccase and MnP were found to be the major enzymes. High laccase activity shown by G. cupreum AG-1 and its ability to decolorize dyes are a good indication of its possible use in the treatment of textile effluents.
Project description:A potential bacterial strain GSM2, capable of degrading an azo dye Reactive Violet 5 as a sole source of carbon, was isolated from textile mill effluent from Solapur, India. The 16S rDNA sequence and phenotypic characteristics indicated an isolated organism as Paracoccus sp. GSM2. This strain exhibited complete decolorization of Reactive Violet 5 (100 mg/L) within 16 h, while maximally it could decolorize 800 mg/L of dye within 38 h with 73% decolorization under static condition. For color removal, the most suitable pH and temperature were pH 6.0-9.0 and 25-40 °C, respectively. The isolate was able to decolorize more than 70% of five structurally different azo dyes within 38 h. The isolate is salt tolerant as it can bring out more than 90% decolorization up to a salt concentration of 2% (w/v). UV-Visible absorption spectra before and after decolorization suggested that decolorization was due to biodegradation and was further confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Overall results indicate the effectiveness of the strain GSM2 explored for the treatment of textile industry effluents containing various azo dyes. To our knowledge, this could be the first report on biodegradation of Reactive Violet 5 by Paracoccus sp. GSM2.
Project description:A multicopper oxidase (IOX) produced by Iodidimonas sp. Q-1 has high catalytic efficiency for iodide (I-) oxidation to form molecular iodine (I2). In this study, the potential capacity of IOX for decolorization of recalcitrant dyes was determined. Although IOX did not decolorize any dyes in the absence of redox mediator, significant decolorization of Orange G, Indigo Carmine, Amido Black, and Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) was observed in the presence of iodide. Addition of 0.1?mM iodide was sufficient to decolorize a total of 3?mM Indigo Carmine, suggesting that iodide functions as a mediator. Such mediator-like function of iodide was not observed in commercially available fungal laccases. The IOX-iodide decolorization system showed much alkaline pH optima of 5.5-6.5 and stronger salt tolerance than fungal laccases did. In addition, actual wastewater discharged from a dyeing factory could be decolorized more than 50% by the system. Since iodide is naturally occurring, non-toxic, and cheaper than common synthetic mediators, the IOX-iodide system is potentially more advantageous than fungal laccase-mediator systems for decolorization of recalcitrant dyes.
Project description:A halotolerant yeast, Pichia occidentalis A2, was recently isolated that can decolorize various azo dyes. The azo dye decolorization performance of this strain was characterized, including the degradation pathway and detoxification effects of this yeast. Additionally, the effect of static magnetic field (SMF) on this decolorization process was investigated. Activities of key enzymes were analyzed to estimate the change of metabolic activity. Furthermore, possible mechanisms were analyzed through detecting differentially expressed genes between yeast A2 in the absence and presence of SMF. The results indicated that yeast A2 displayed the optimal decolorization performance when the concentrations (in g/L) of glucose, (NH4)2SO4, yeast extract, and NaCl were 4.0, 1.0, 0.1, and ?30.0, respectively. Meanwhile, the optimal rotation speed, temperature, and pH were 160 rpm, 30°C, and 5.0, respectively. Acid Red B was decolorized and detoxified by yeast A2 through successive steps, including cleavage of the naphthalene-amidine bond, reductive deamination, oxidative deamination/desulfurization, open-loop of hydroxy-substituted naphthalene, and tricarboxylic acid cycle. The dye decolorization efficiency and halotolerance of yeast A2 were enhanced by 206.3 mT SMF. The activities of manganese peroxidase, and laccase were elevated 1.37- and 1.16-fold by 206.3 mT SMF, but lignin peroxidase activity showed little change. It was suggested from the transcriptome sequence that the enhanced halotolerance might be related to the upregulated genes encoding the enzymes or functional proteins related to intracellular synthesis and accumulation of glycerol.
Project description:Background:Azo dyes are xenobiotic compounds that have bioaccumulated in the environment due to escalated industrial development. These are hazardous in nature, possessing carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on human beings. Objectives:The perspective of the present study was to isolate and to determine azo dye (Reactive Orange-16) degrading potential of marine actinobacteria isolated from sediment samples of Port Blair, India. Material and Methods:Actinobacteria with dye decolorization potential were isolated from sea sediment samples. The actinobacterial isolate with the highest dye decolorizing percentage was identified with the help of phenotypic, biochemical and molecular studies. The different physico-chemical parameters for dye decolorization were also optimized. The nature of decolorization by the potent isolate was determined with the help of High Performance Liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Further the toxicity of RO-16 decolorized products was investigated with the help of phytotoxcity assay. Results:Out of six actinobacterial isolates, VITVAMB 1 possessed the most efficient RO-16 decolorization property. It decolorized 85.6% of RO-16 (250 mg L-1) within 24hrs. Isolate VITVAMB 1 was identified to be Nocardiopsis sp. Maximum dye decolorization occurred at pH 8, temperature 35°C, 3% salt concentration and a dye concentration of 50 mg L-1. Conclusions:The nature of decolorization by Nocardiopsis sp. was biodegradation. Additionally, the degraded dye metabolites were found to be less toxic than pure dye. The high decolorization potential of VITVAMB 1 and the low toxicity of its degradation products make it a prospective dye removal system. The marine origin of VITVAMB 1 also makes it an attractive source for novel azo dye reducing enzymes.
Project description:Textile azo dye decolorizing bacteria were isolated from alkaline Lakes Abaya and Chamo using Reactive Red 239 (RR239) dye. Through subsequent screening process, strain CH12 was selected to investigate the effects of nutrient supplement, DO, pH, temperature, dye concentration and types on decolorization. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain CH12 was identified as Bacillus sp. Decolorization efficiencies were significantly enhanced with carbon (?98%) and organic nitrogen (?100%) supplements. Complete decolorization was also observed under anoxic and anaerobic conditions, and at the temperature of 30 °C and the pH of 10. However, the azo dye decolorization efficiency of strain CH12 was significantly reduced when NaNO3 (1-8%) was supplemented or under aerobic culturing condition (?6%), indicating that RR239 was less preferred electron acceptor. Overall, strain CH12 can be a promising candidate for decolorization applications due to its potential to effectively decolorize higher RR239 concentrations (50-250 mg/L) and six additional dyes.
Project description:Anthraquinone dye represents an important group of recalcitrant pollutants in dye wastewater. Aspergillus sp XJ-2 CGMCC12963 showed broad-spectrum decolorization ability, which could efficiently decolorize and degrade various anthraquinone dyes (50 mg L-1) under microaerophilic condition. And the decolorization rate of 93.3% was achieved at 120 h with Disperse Blue 2BLN (the target dye). Intermediates of degradation were detected by FTIR and GC-MS, which revealed the cleavage of anthraquinone chromophoric group and partial mineralization of target dye. In addition, extracellular manganese peroxidase showed the most closely related to the increasing of decolorization rate and biomass among intracellular and extracellular ligninolytic enzymes. Given these results, 2 possible degraded pathways of target dye by Aspergillus sp XJ-2 CGMCC12963 were proposed first in this work. The degradation of Disperse Blue 2BLN and broad spectrum decolorization ability provided the potential for Aspergillus sp XJ-2 CGMCC12963 in the treatment of wastewater containing anthraquinone dyes.