Optical properties of high-pressure fluid hydrogen across molecular dissociation.
ABSTRACT: Optical properties of compressed fluid hydrogen in the region where dissociation and metallization is observed are computed by ab initio methods and compared with recent experimental results. We confirm that at T > 3,000 K, both processes are continuous, while at T < 1,500 K, the first-order phase transition is accompanied by a discontinuity of the dc conductivity and the thermal conductivity, while both the reflectivity and absorption coefficient vary rapidly but continuously. Our results support the recent analysis of National Ignition Facility (NIF) experiments [Celliers PM, et al. (2018) Science 361:677-682], which assigned the inception of metallization to pressures where the reflectivity is ∼0.3. Our results also support the conclusion that the temperature plateau seen in laser-heated diamond-anvil cell (DAC) experiments at temperatures higher than 1,500 K corresponds to the onset of optical absorption, not to the phase transition.
Project description:It was discovered that a peak appears near a pressure of Pc = 10 GPa in the electrical conductivity of ice VII as measured through impedance spectroscopy in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) during the process of compression from 2 GPa to 40 GPa at room temperature. The activation energy for the conductivity measured in the cooling/heating process between 278 K and 303 K reached a minimum near Pc. Theoretical modelling and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the origin of this unique peak is the transition of the major charge carriers from the rotational defects to the ionic defects.
Project description:Lead (Pb) free non-toxic perovskite solar cells have become more important in the commercialization of the photovoltaic devices. In this study the structural, electronic, optical and mechanical properties of Pb-free inorganic metal halide cubic perovskites CsBX3 (B?=?Sn, Ge; X?=?I, Br, Cl) for perovskite solar cells are simulated using first-principles Density Functional Theory (DFT). These compounds are semiconductors with direct band gap energy and mechanically stable. Results suggest that the materials have high absorption coefficient, low reflectivity and high optical conductivity with potential application in solar cells and other optoelectronic energy devices. On the basis of the optical properties, one can expect that the Germanium (Ge) would be a better replacement of Pb as Ge containing compounds have higher optical absorption and optical conductivity than that of Pb containing compounds. A combinational analysis of the electronic, optical and mechanical properties of the compounds suggests that CsGeI3 based perovskite is the best Pb-free inorganic metal halide semiconductor for the solar cell application. However, the compound with solid solution of CsGe(I0.7Br0.3)3 is found to be mechanically more ductile than CsGeI3. This study will also guide to obtain Pb-free organic perovskites for optoelectronic devices.
Project description:Over the past 60 years, the diamond anvil cell (DAC) has been developed into a widespread high static pressure device. The adaptation of laboratory and synchrotron analytical techniques to DAC enables a detailed exploration in the 100?GPa range. The strain of the anvils under high load explains the 400?GPa limit of the conventional DAC. Here we show a toroidal shape for a diamond anvil tip that enables to extend the DAC use toward the terapascal pressure range. The toroidal-DAC keeps the assets for a complete, reproducible, and accurate characterization of materials, from solids to gases. Raman signal from the diamond anvil or X-ray signal from the rhenium gasket allow measurement of pressure. Here, the equations of state of gold, aluminum, and argon are measured with X-ray diffraction. The data are compared with recent measurements under similar conditions by two other approaches, the double-stage DAC and the dynamic ramp compression.
Project description:The diamond anvil cell (DAC) is considered one of the dominant devices to generate ultrahigh static pressure. The development of the DAC technique has enabled researchers to explore rich high-pressure science in the multimegabar pressure range. Here, we investigated the behavior of the DAC up to 400 GPa, which is the accepted pressure limit of a conventional DAC. By using a submicrometer synchrotron X-ray beam, double cuppings of the beveled diamond anvils were observed experimentally. Details of pressure loading, distribution, gasket-thickness variation, and diamond anvil deformation were studied to understand the generation of ultrahigh pressures, which may improve the conventional DAC techniques.
Project description:In recent years, layered materials display interesting properties and the quest for new sorts of two-dimensional (2D) structures is a significance for future device manufacture. In this paper, we study electronic and optical properties of 2D indiene allotropes with planar and buckled structures. The optical properties calculations are based on density functional theory (DFT) simulations including in-plane and out-of-plane directions of light polarization. We indicate that the optical properties such as complex refractive index, absorption spectrum, electron energy loss function (EELS), reflectivity and optical conductivity spectra are strongly dependent on the direction of light's polarization. High values and narrow peaks in optical spectra introduce indiene to the field of ultra-thin optical systems. The effect of external static electric field on electronic and optical properties of indiene is also observed and discussed. We show that the band gap in buckled indiene can be effectively changed by applying the external electric field. The discoveries here expand the group of 2D materials beyond graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and give valuable data for future experimental realization of new mono-elemental materials with conceivable applications in optical devices.
Project description:The insulator-to-metal transition in dense fluid hydrogen is an essential phenomenon in the study of gas giant planetary interiors and the physical and chemical behavior of highly compressed condensed matter. Using direct fast laser spectroscopy techniques to probe hydrogen and deuterium precompressed in a diamond anvil cell and laser heated on microsecond timescales, an onset of metal-like reflectance is observed in the visible spectral range at P >150 GPa and T ? 3000 K. The reflectance increases rapidly with decreasing photon energy indicating free-electron metallic behavior with a plasma edge in the visible spectral range at high temperatures. The reflectance spectra also suggest much longer electronic collision time (?1 fs) than previously inferred, implying that metallic hydrogen at the conditions studied is not in the regime of saturated conductivity (Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit). The results confirm the existence of a semiconducting intermediate fluid hydrogen state en route to metallization.
Project description:Developing of lead-free double perovskites have drawn significant interest for photovoltaics and optoelectronics as the materials have the potential to avoid toxicity and instability issues associated with lead-based organometallic perovskites. In this study, we report the optoelectronic properties of a new group of non-toxic lead-free organic-inorganic halide double perovskites composed of caesium (Cs), methylammonium (MA) or formamidinium (FA) with bismuth (Bi) and metal copper (Cu). We perform density functional theory investigations to calculate the structural, electronic and optical properties of 18 Pb-free compounds, ABiCuX6 [A?=?Cs2, (MA)2, (FA)2, CsMA, CsFA, MAFA; X?=?I, Br, Cl] to predict their suitability in photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. We found that the considered compounds are semiconductors with a tunable band gap characteristics that are suitable for some devices like light emitting diodes. In addition to this, the high dielectric constant, high absorption, high optical conductivity and low reflectivity suggest that the materials have the potential in a wide range of optoelectronic applications including solar cells. Furthermore, we predict that the organic-inorganic hybrid double perovskite (FA)2BiCuI6 is the best candidate in photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications as the material has superior optical and electronic properties.
Project description:We report development of micro-focusing optics for high-energy x-rays by combining a sagittally bent Laue crystal monchromator with Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) X-ray focusing mirrors. The optical system is able to provide a clean, high-flux X-ray beam suitable for pair distribution function (PDF) measurements at high pressure using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). A focused beam of moderate size (10-15 ?m) has been achieved at energies of 66 and 81 keV. PDF data for nanocrystalline platinum (n-Pt) were collected at 12.5 GPa with a single 5 s X-ray exposure, showing that the in-situ compression, decompression, and relaxation behavior of samples in the DAC can be investigated with this technique. PDFs of n-Pt and nano Au (n-Au) under quasi-hydrostatic loading to as high as 71 GPa indicate the existence of substantial reduction of grain or domain size for Pt and Au nanoparticles at pressures below 10?GPa. The coupling of sagittally bent Laue crystals with K-B mirrors provides a useful means to focus high-energy synchrotron X-rays from a bending magnet or wiggler source.
Project description:Recent progress towards demonstrating inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has sparked wide interest in Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) for carbon-free large-scale power generation. A LIFE-based fleet of power plants promises clean energy generation with no greenhouse gas emissions and a virtually limitless, widely available thermonuclear fuel source. For the LIFE concept to be viable, target costs must be minimized while the target material efficiency or x-ray albedo is optimized. Current ICF targets on the NIF utilize a gold or depleted uranium cylindrical radiation cavity (hohlraum) with a plastic capsule at the center that contains the deuterium and tritium fuel. Here we show a direct comparison of gold and lead hohlraums in efficiently ablating deuterium-filled plastic capsules with soft x rays. We report on lead hohlraum performance that is indistinguishable from gold, yet costing only a small fraction.
Project description:It is shown that it is possible to perform combined X-ray and neutron single-crystal studies in the same diamond anvil cell (DAC). A modified Merrill-Bassett DAC equipped with an inflatable membrane filled with He gas has been developed. It can be used on laboratory X-ray and synchrotron diffractometers as well as on neutron instruments. The data processing procedures and a joint structural refinement of the high-pressure synchrotron and neutron single-crystal data are presented and discussed for the first time.