Directional Topography Influences Adipose Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Plasticity: Prospects for Tissue Engineering and Fibrosis.
ABSTRACT: Introduction:Progenitor cells cultured on biomaterials with optimal physical-topographical properties respond with alignment and differentiation. Stromal cells from connective tissue can adversely differentiate to profibrotic myofibroblasts or favorably to smooth muscle cells (SMC). We hypothesized that myogenic differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASC) depends on gradient directional topographic features. Methods:Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) samples with nanometer and micrometer directional topography gradients (wavelength (w) = 464-10, 990?nm; amplitude (a) = 49-3, 425?nm) were fabricated. ASC were cultured on patterned PDMS and stimulated with TGF-?1 to induce myogenic differentiation. Cellular alignment and adhesion were assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy after 24?h. After seven days, myogenic differentiation was examined by immunofluorescence microscopy, gene expression, and immunoblotting. Results:Cell alignment occurred on topographies larger than w = 1758?nm/a = 630?nm. The number and total area of focal adhesions per cell were reduced on topographies from w = 562?nm/a = 96?nm to w = 3919?nm/a = 1430?nm. Focal adhesion alignment was increased on topographies larger than w = 731?nm/a = 146?nm. Less myogenic differentiation of ASC occurred on topographies smaller than w = 784?nm/a = 209?nm. Conclusion:ASC adherence, alignment, and differentiation are directed by topographical cues. Our evidence highlights a minimal topographic environment required to facilitate the development of aligned and differentiated cell layers from ASC. These data suggest that nanotopography may be a novel tool for inhibiting fibrosis.
Project description:The topography of a biomaterial regulates cellular interactions and determine stem cell fate. A complete understanding of how topographical properties affect cell behavior will allow the rational design of material surfaces that elicit specified biological functions once placed in the body. To this end, we fabricate substrates with aligned or randomly organized fibrous nanostructured topographies. Culturing adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), we explore the dynamic relationship between the alignment of topography, cell shape and cell differentiation to osteogenic and myogenic lineages. We show aligned topographies differentiate cells towards a satellite cell muscle progenitor state - a distinct cell myogenic lineage responsible for postnatal growth and repair of muscle. We analyze cell shape between the different topographies, using fluorescent time-lapse imaging over 21 days. In contrast to previous work, this allows the direct measurement of cell shape at a given time rather than defining the morphology of the underlying topography and neglecting cell shape. We report quantitative metrics of the time-based morphological behaviors of cell shape in response to differing topographies. This analysis offers insights into the relationship between topography, cell shape and cell differentiation. Cells differentiating towards a myogenic fate on aligned topographies adopt a characteristic elongated shape as well as the alignment of cells.
Project description:Understanding how endothelial cell phenotype is affected by topography could improve the design of new tools for tissue engineering as many tissue engineering approaches make use of topography-mediated cell stimulation. Therefore, we cultured human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) on a directional topographical gradient to screen the EC vascular-like network formation and alignment response to nano to microsized topographies. The cell response was evaluated by microscopy. We found that ECs formed unstable vascular-like networks that aggregated in the smaller topographies and flat parts whereas ECs themselves aligned on the larger topographies. Subsequently, we designed a mixed topography where we could explore the network formation and proliferative properties of these ECs by live imaging for three days. Vascular-like network formation continued to be unstable on the topography and were only produced on the flat areas and a fibronectin coating did not improve the network stability. However, an instructive adipose tissue-derived stromal cell (ASC) coating provided the correct environment to sustain the vascular-like networks, which were still affected by the topography underneath. It was concluded that large microsized topographies inhibit vascular endothelial network formation but not proliferation and flat and nano/microsized topographies allow formation of early networks that can be stabilized by using an ASC instructive layer.
Project description:Biomaterials varying in physical properties, chemical composition and biofunctionalities can be used as powerful tools to regulate skeletal muscle-specific cellular behaviors, including myogenic differentiation of progenitor cells. Biomaterials with defined topographical cues (e.g., patterned substrates) can mediate cellular alignment of progenitor cells and improve myogenic differentiation. In this study, we employed soft lithography techniques to create substrates with microtopographical cues and used these substrates to study the effect of matrix topographical cues on myogenic differentiation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived mesodermal progenitor cells expressing platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA). Our results show that the majority (>80%) of PDGFRA+ cells on micropatterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates were aligned along the direction of the microgrooves and underwent robust myogenic differentiation compared to those on non-patterned surfaces. Matrix topography-mediated alignment of the mononucleated cells promoted their fusion resulting in mainly (~86%?93%) multinucleated myotube formation. Furthermore, when implanted, the cells on the micropatterned substrates showed enhanced in vivo survival (>5?7 times) and engraftment (>4?6 times) in cardiotoxin-injured tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of NOD/SCID mice compared to cells cultured on corresponding non-patterned substrates.
Project description:The generation of micro- and nano-topography similar to those found in the extra cellular matrix of three-dimensional tissues is one technique used to recapitulate the cell-tissue physiology found in the native tissues. Despite the fact that ample studies have been conducted on the physiological significance of endothelial cells alignment parallel to shear stress, as this is the normal physiologic arrangement for healthy arterial EC, very few studies have examined the use of topographical signals to initiate endothelial cell alignment. Here, we have examined the ability for our mouse embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells (ESC-EC) to align on various microchip topographical systems. Briefly, we generated metal molds with 'wrinkled' topography using 1) 15 nm and 2) 30 nm of gold coating on the pre-strained polystryene (PS) sheets. After thermal-induced shrinkage of the PS sheets, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchips were then generated from the wrinkled molds. Using similar Shrink™-based technology, 3) larger selectively crazed acetone-etched lines in the PS sheets, and 4) fully crazed acetone-treated PS sheets of stochastic topographical morphology were also generated. The 15 nm and 30 nm gold coating generated 'wrinkles' of uniaxial anisotropic channels at nano-scaled widths while the crazing generated micron-sized channels. The ESC-EC were able to respond and align on the 320 nm, 510 nm, and the acetone-etched 10.5 μm channels, but not on the fully 'crazed' topographies. Moreover, the ESC-EC aligned most robustly on the wrinkles, and preferentially to ridge edges on the 10.5 μm-sized channels. The ability to robustly align EC on topographical surfaces enables a variety of controlled physiological studies of EC-EC and EC-ECM contact guidance, as well as having potential applications for the rapid endothelialization of stents and vascular grafts.
Project description:Developing a universal culture platform that manipulates cell fate is one of the most important tasks in the investigation of the role of the cellular microenvironment. This study focuses on the application of topographical and electrical field stimuli to human myogenic precursor cell (hMPC) cultures to assess the influences of the adherent direction, proliferation, and differentiation, and induce preconditioning-induced therapeutic benefits. First, a topographical surface of commercially available culture dishes was achieved by femtosecond laser texturing. The detachable biphasic electrical current system was then applied to the hMPCs cultured on laser-textured culture dishes. Laser-textured topographies were remarkably effective in inducing the assembly of hMPC myotubes by enhancing the orientation of adherent hMPCs compared with flat surfaces. Furthermore, electrical field stimulation through laser-textured topographies was found to promote the expression of myogenic regulatory factors compared with nonstimulated cells. As such, we successfully demonstrated that the combined stimulation of topographical and electrical cues could effectively enhance the myogenic maturation of hMPCs in a surface spatial and electrical field-dependent manner, thus providing the basis for therapeutic strategies.
Project description:We have previously shown that human corneal epithelial cells sense and react to nanoscale substrate topographic stimuli [Teixeira AI, Abrams GA, Bertics PJ, Murphy CJ, Nealey PF. Epithelial contact guidance on well-defined micro- and nanostructured substrates. J Cell Sci 2003;116(10):1881-92; Karuri NW, Liliensiek S, Teixeira AI, Abrams G, Campbell S, Nealey PF, et al. Biological length scale topography enhances cell-substratum adhesion of human corneal epithelial cells. J Cell Sci 2004;117(15):3153-64]. Here we demonstrate that cellular responses to nanoscale substrate topographies are modulated by the context in which these stimuli are presented to cells. In Epilife medium, cells aligned preferentially in the direction perpendicular to nanoscale grooves and ridges. This is in contrast to a previous study where cells cultured in DMEM/F12 medium aligned in the direction parallel to nanoscale topographic features [Teixeira AI, Abrams GA, Bertics PJ, Murphy CJ, Nealey PF. Epithelial contact guidance on well-defined micro- and nanostructured substrates. J Cell Sci 2003;116(10):1881-92]. Additionally, cell alignment in Epilife medium was dependent on pattern pitch. Cells switched from perpendicular to parallel alignment when the pitch was increased from 400 to 4,000 nm. There was a transition region (between 800 and 1,600 nm pitch) where both parallel and perpendicular alignments were favored compared to all other cellular orientations. Cells formed focal adhesions parallel to the substrate topographies in this transition region. On the nano- and microscale patterns, 400 and 4,000 nm pitch, focal adhesions were almost exclusively oriented obliquely to the topographic patterns.
Project description:Surface topography profoundly influences cell adhesion, differentiation, and stem cell fate control. Numerous studies using a variety of materials demonstrate that nanoscale topographies change the intracellular organization of actin cytoskeleton and therefore a broad range of cellular dynamics in live cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not well understood, leaving why actin cytoskeleton responds to topographical features unexplained and therefore preventing researchers from predicting optimal topographic features for desired cell behavior. Here we demonstrate that topography-induced membrane curvature plays a crucial role in modulating intracellular actin organization. By inducing precisely controlled membrane curvatures using engineered vertical nanostructures as topographies, we find that actin fibers form at the sites of nanostructures in a curvature-dependent manner with an upper limit for the diameter of curvature at ?400 nm. Nanotopography-induced actin fibers are branched actin nucleated by the Arp2/3 complex and are mediated by a curvature-sensing protein FBP17. Our study reveals that the formation of nanotopography-induced actin fibers drastically reduces the amount of stress fibers and mature focal adhesions to result in the reorganization of actin cytoskeleton in the entire cell. These findings establish the membrane curvature as a key linkage between surface topography and topography-induced cell signaling and behavior.
Project description:Achieving ultrasmall dimensions of materials and retaining high throughput are critical fabrication considerations for nanotechnology use. This article demonstrates an integrated approach for developing isolated sub-20 nm silicon oxide features through combined "top-down" and "bottom-up" methods: nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and block copolymer (BCP) lithography. Although techniques like those demonstrated here have been developed for nanolithographic application in the microelectronics processing industry, similar approaches could be utilized for sensor, fluidic, and optical-based devices. Thus, this article centers on looking at the possibility of generating isolated silica structures on substrates. NIL was used to create intriguing three-dimensional (3-D) polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) topographical arrays that guided and confined polystyrene-<i>block</i>-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-<i>b</i>-PDMS) BCP nanofeatures in isolated regions. A cylinder forming PS-<i>b</i>-PDMS BCP system was successfully etched using a one-step etching process to create line-space arrays with a period of 35 nm in confined POSS arrays. We highlight large-area (>6 ?m) coverage of line-space arrays in 3-D topographies that could potentially be utilized, for example, in nanofluidic systems. Aligned features for directed self-assembly application are also demonstrated. The high-density, confined silicon oxide nanofeatures in soft lithographic templates over macroscopic areas illustrate the advantages of integrating distinct lithographic methods for attaining discrete features in the deep nanoscale regime.
Project description:Like the morphology of native tissue fiber arrangement (such as skeletal muscle), unidirectional anisotropic scaffolds are highly desired as a means to guide cell behavior in anisotropic tissue engineering. In contrast, contour-like staircases exhibit directional topographical cues and are judged as an inevitable defect of fused deposition modeling (FDM). In this study, we will translate this staircase defect into an effective bioengineering strategy by integrating FDM with surface coating technique (FCT) to investigate the effect of topographical cues on regulating behaviors of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) toward skeletal muscle tissues. This integrated approach serves to fabricate shape-specific, multiple dimensional, anisotropic scaffolds using different biomaterials. 2D anisotropic scaffolds, first demonstrated with different polycaprolactone concentrations herein, efficiently direct hMSC alignment, especially when the scaffold is immobilized on a support ring. By surface coating the polymer solution inside FDM-printed sacrificial structures, 3D anisotropic scaffolds with thin wall features are developed and used to regulate seeded hMSCs through a self-established rotating bioreactor. Using layer-by-layer coating, along with a shape memory polymer, smart constructs exhibiting shape fix and recovery processes are prepared, bringing this study into the realm of 4D printing. Immunofluorescence staining and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis confirm that the topographical cues created via FCT significantly enhance the expression of myogenic genes, including myoblast differentiation protein-1, desmin, and myosin heavy chain-2. We conclude that there are broad application potentials for this FCT strategy in tissue engineering as many tissues and organs, including skeletal muscle, possess highly organized and anisotropic extracellular matrix components.
Project description:Contact interaction of neuronal cells with extracellular nanometric features can be exploited to investigate and modulate cellular responses. By exploiting nanogratings (NGs) with linewidth from 500?nm down to 100?nm, we here study neurite contact guidance along ultra-small directional topographies. The impact of NG lateral dimension on the neuronal morphotype, neurite alignment, focal adhesion (FA) development and YAP activation is investigated in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiating PC12 cells and in primary hippocampal neurons, by confocal and live-cell total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, and at molecular level. We demonstrate that loss of neurite guidance occurs in NGs with periodicity below 400?nm and correlates with a loss of FA lateral constriction and spatial organization. We found that YAP intracellular localization is modulated by the presence of NGs, but it is not sensitive to their periodicity. Nocodazole, a drug that can increase cell contractility, is finally tested for rescuing neurite alignment showing mild ameliorative effects. Our results provide new indications for a rational design of biocompatible scaffolds for enhancing nerve-regeneration processes.