Molecular Identification of Anisakis Larvae Extracted by Gastrointestinal Endoscopy from Health Check-up Patients in Korea.
ABSTRACT: Anisakiasis is a zoonotic disease induced by anisakid nematodes, and endoscopic inspection is used for a diagnosis or remedy for it. Anisakis simplex, Anisakis physeteris, and Pseudoterranova decipiens had been reported to be the major species causing human infections, particularly, in Japan. However, in Korea, recent studies strongly suggested that Anisakis pegreffii is the major species of human infections. To support this suggestion, we collected anisakid larvae (n=20) from 20 human patients who were undergone gastrointestinal endoscopy at a health check-up center in Korea, and molecular identification was performed on the larvae using PCR-RFLP analysis and gene sequencing of rDNA ITS regions and mtDNA cox2. In addition, anisakid larvae (n=53) collected from the sea eel (Astroconger myriaster) were also examined for comparison with those extracted from humans. The results showed that all human samples (100%) were identified as A. pegreffii, whereas 90.7% of the samples from the sea eel were A. pegreffii with the remaining 9.3% being Hysterothylacium aduncum. Our study confirmed that A. pegreffii is the predominant species causing human anisakiasis in Korea, and this seems to be due to the predominance of this larval type in the fish (sea eels) popularly consumed by the Korean people. The possibility of human infection with H. aduncum in Korea is also suggested.
Project description:Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.), Anisakis pegreffii, Anisakis berlandi (=A. simplex sp. C), and Anisakis typica are the 4 major species of Anisakis type I larvae. In the Republic of Korea (Korea), A. pegreffii, A. berlandi, and A. typica larvae in fish hosts has seldom been documented. In this study, molecular analysis was performed on Anisakis larvae from the sea eels (Astroconger myriaster), the major source of human anisakiasis in Korea, collected from Tongyeong City, a southern coastal area of Korea. All 20 sea eels examined were infected with Anisakis type I larvae (160 larvae; 8 per fish). Their species were analyzed using PCR-RFLP patterns and nucleotide sequences of internal transcribed spacers (ITS1, 5.8 subunit gene, and ITS2) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 2 (cox2). Most (86.8%; 112/129) of the Anisakis type I larvae were A. pegreffii, and 7.8% (10/129) were A. typica. The remaining 5.4% (7/129) was not identified. Thus, A. pegreffii is the major species of anisakid larvae in sea eels of the southern coast of Korea.
Project description:Anisakiasis, a human infection of Anisakis L3 larvae, is one of the common foodborne parasitic diseases in Korea. Studies on the identification of anisakid larvae have been performed in the country, but most of them have been focused on morphological identification of the larvae. In this study, we analyzed the molecular characteristics of 174 Anisakis type I larvae collected from 10 species of fish caught in 3 different sea areas in Korea. PCR-RFLP and sequence analyses of rDNA ITS and mtDNA cox1 revealed that the larvae showed interesting distribution patterns depending on fish species and geographical locations. Anisakis pegreffii was predominant in fish from the Yellow Sea and the South Sea. Meanwhile, both A. pegreffii and A. simplex sensu stricto (A. simplex s.str.) larvae were identified in fish from the East Sea, depending on fish species infected. These results suggested that A. pegreffii was primarily distributed in a diverse species of fish in 3 sea areas around Korea, but A. simplex s.str. was dominantly identified in Oncorhynchus spp. in the East Sea.
Project description:Anisakiasis in humans in South Korea has been considered to be caused exclusively by the larvae of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and Pseudoterranova decipiens. Recently, however, DNA sequencing of larvae from 15 of 16 anisakiasis patients confirmed the cause to be Anisakis pegreffii infection. Molecular analysis should be performed for all extracted larvae.
Project description:Sardina pilchardus and Engraulis encrasicolus are considered the principal target species for commercial fishing in Europe and are widely consumed as semipreserved products. Although they are considered shelf-stable products, if treatment is not correctly applied, their consumption may represent a public health risk in regard to anisakiasis and allergic reactions. Little is known about the prevalence of Anisakis spp. in ripened products. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of Anisakis spp. larvae in deboned, in-oil anchovy and sardine fillets marketed in the EU to assess the influence of processing techniques on the prevalence of larvae. Ninety semipreserved anchovy and sardine products deriving from the Mediterranean Sea or Atlantic Ocean were collected from different EU retailers and examined using chloropeptic digestion to evaluate the presence of larvae and identify them. Thirty nonviable Anisakid larvae-A. pegreffii (30%) and A. simplex (70%)-were found. The frequency of larvae was higher in anchovies (28.8%). The low frequency of parasites found proved that processing technologies can influence the presence of larvae in final products, but it is important that visual inspection is performed only by trained people. The sources of raw materials should be considered in the production flow chart.
Project description:Anisakidosis is a zoonotic parasitosis induced by members of the family Anisakidae. The anisakid genera includes Anisakis, Pseudoterranova, Hysterothylacium and Contracaecum. The final definitive hosts of these nematodes are marine mammals with a complex life cycle. These nematode parasites use different crustaceans and fish species as intermediate or paratenic hosts and humans are accidental hosts. Human anisakiasis, the infections caused by members of the genus Anisakis, occurs, when seafoods, particularly fish, contaminated with the infective stage (third stage larvae [L3]) of this parasite, are consumed. Pseudoterranovosis, on the other hand is induced by members of the genus Pseudoterranova. These two genera of anisakids have been implicated in human disease globally. There is a rise in reports of gastro-intestinal infections accompanied by allergic reactions caused by Anisakis simplex and Anisakis pegreffii. This review provides an update on current knowledge on Anisakis as a food-borne parasite with special focus on the increasingly reported diversity of fish and crustacean hosts, allergens and immunological cross-reactivity with invertebrate proteins rendering this parasite a significant public health issue.
Project description:Consumption of raw or thermally inadequately treated fishery products represents a public health risk, with the possibility of propagation of live Anisakis larvae, the causative agent of the zoonotic disease anisakidosis, or anisakiasis. We investigated the population dynamics of Anisakis spp. in commercially important fish-anchovies (Anisakis), sardines (Sardina pilchardus), European hake (Merluccius merluccius), whiting (Merlangius merlangus), chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), and Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus)-captured in the main Adriatic Sea fishing ground. We observed a significant difference in the numbers of parasite larvae (1 to 32) in individual hosts and between species, with most fish showing high or very high Anisakis population indices. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that commercial fish in the Adriatic Sea are parasitized by Anisakis pegreffii (95.95%) and Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (4.05%). The genetic structure of A. pegreffii in demersal, pelagic, and top predator hosts was unstructured, and the highest frequency of haplotype sharing (n = 10) was between demersal and pelagic fish.
Project description:In this work a total of 949 fish samples were analysed for the identification of nematode larvae belonging to the Anisakidae family. Biomolecular application for the identification of Anisakidae larvae can be an optimal instrument for the traceability of fish products, described on the Reg. EC 178/2002. Results confirm a correlation between geographical distribution of fishes and presence of specific Anisakid larvae. FAO 37 zone (Mediterranean sea) showed a prevailing distribution of Anisakis pegreffii and a minimal presence of A. simplex s.s. in hybrid form with Anisakis pegreffii. FAO 27 zone showed a prevailing distribution of A. simplex s.s. in fish like Brosme (Brosme brosme) and infestation prevalence of Pseudoterranova krabbei and P. decipiens s.s. in Gadus morhua. Obtained results validate the hypothesis that molecular biology methods for identifying Anisakidae larvae are effective traceability markers of fish products.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Anisakiasis is an important fish-borne zoonosis provoked by larval stages of nematodes belonging to the genus Anisakis. The detection and identification of human infections is difficult. This is due to: a) the low specificity of the clinical features and symptomatology related to human infections; b) the paucity of diagnostic features of larvae found in granulomatous lesions characteristic of "invasive anisakiasis"; and c) the lack morphological characters diagnostic at the specific level when larvae of Anisakis are detected. Thus, molecular-based diagnostic approaches are warranted. METHOD:We have developed a PCR method that amplifies the DNA of Anisakis spp. in fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. This method was applied to a granuloma removed from a human case of intestinal anisakiasis in Italy. Specific primers of the mtDNA cox2 gene were used and sequence analysis was performed according to the procedures already established for species of Anisakis. RESULTS:The sequence obtained (629 bp) was compared with those of the other species of Anisakis which have so far been genetically characterized and with sequences obtained from larval stages of Anisakis collected from the Mediterranean fish Engraulis encrasicolus. This enabled the genetic identification of the larva in the human tissue as A. pegreffii. This is the first instance of human intestinal anisakiasis diagnosed using PCR of DNA purified from a fixed eosinophilic granuloma embedded in paraffin. CONCLUSION:The case of human anisakiasis presented reinforces the pathological significance of the species A. pegreffii to humans. The molecular/genetic methodological approach based on mtDNA cox2 sequence analysis, described here, can allow easy and rapid identification of Anisakis spp. in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissues removed from cases of either gastric or intestinal human anisakiasis.
Project description:Ascaridoid nematodes are widespread in marine fishes. Despite their major socioeconomic importance, mechanisms associated to the fish-borne zoonotic disease anisakiasis are still obscure. RNA-Seq and de-novo assembly were herein applied to RNA extracted from larvae and dissected pharynx of Hysterothylacium aduncum (HA), a non-pathogenic nematode. Assembled transcripts in HA were annotated and compared to the transcriptomes of the zoonotic species Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (AS) and Anisakis pegreffii (AP). Approximately 60,000,000 single-end reads were generated for HA, AS and AP. Transcripts in HA encoded for 30,254 putative peptides while AS and AP encoded for 20,574 and 20,840 putative peptides, respectively. Differential gene expression analyses yielded 471, 612 and 526 transcripts up regulated in the pharynx of HA, AS and AP. The transcriptomes of larvae and pharynx of HA were enriched in transcripts encoding collagen, peptidases, ribosomal proteins and in heat-shock motifs. Transcripts encoding proteolytic enzymes, anesthetics, inhibitors of primary hemostasis and virulence factors, anticoagulants and immunomodulatory peptides were up-regulated in AS and AP pharynx. This study represents the first transcriptomic characterization of a marine parasitic nematode commonly recovered in fish and probably of negligible concern for public health.
Project description:Background: Anisakiasis is a zoonotic disease caused by accidental ingestion of live Anisakis spp. third-stage larvae present in raw or undercooked seafood. Symptoms of this emerging infectious disease include mild-to-severe abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea. Some patients experience significant allergic reactions. Aims: In order to better understand the onset of anisakiasis, we aimed to: (i) histopathologically describe severe inflammatory/hemorrhagic infection site lesions in Sprague-Dawley rats experimentally infected with Anisakis pegreffii larvae; and (ii) qualitatively and quantitatively characterize the transcriptomes of affected tissues using RNA-Seq. Methodology: The experiment was performed on 35 male rats, sacrificed at 5 time points (6, 10, 18, 24, and 32 h post-infection). Gastric intubation was performed with 10 A. pegreffii larvae (N = 5 infected rats per time point) or 1.5 ml of saline (external control N = 2 rats). 16 pools, seven for muscle tissues and nine for stomach tissues, were created to obtain robust samples for estimation of gene expression changes depicting common signatures of affected versus unaffected tissues. Illumina NextSeq 500 was used for paired-end sequencing, while edgeR was used for count data and differential expression analyses. Results: In total, there were 1372 (855 up and 517 down) differentially expressed (DE) genes in the Anisakis-infected rat stomach tissues, and 1633 (1230 up and 403 down) DE genes in the muscle tissues. Elicited strong local proinflammatory reaction seems to favor the activation of the interleukin 17 signaling pathway and the development of the T helper 17-type response. The number of DE ribosomal genes in the Anisakis-infected stomach tissue suggests that A. pegreffii larvae might induce ribosomal stress in the early infection stage. However, the downstream pathways and post-infection responses require further study. Histopathology revealed severe inflammatory/hemorrhagic lesions caused by Anisakis infection in the rat stomach and muscle tissues in the first 32 h. The lesion sites showed infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (predominantly neutrophils and occasional eosinophils), and to a lesser extent, macrophages. Conclusion: Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying host responses to Anisakis infection is important to elucidate many aspects of the onset of anisakiasis, a disease of growing public health concern.