Functional complementation reveals that 9 of the 13 human V-ATPase subunits can functionally substitute for their yeast orthologs.
ABSTRACT: Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is a highly conserved proton pump responsible for acidification of intracellular organelles and potential drug target. It is a multisubunit complex comprising a cytoplasmic V1 domain responsible for ATP hydrolysis and a membrane-embedded Vo domain that contributes to proton translocation across the membrane. Saccharomyces cerevisiae V-ATPase is composed of 14 subunits, deletion of any one of which results in well-defined growth defects. As the structure of V-ATPase and the function of each subunit have been well-characterized in yeast, this organism has been recognized as a preferred model for studies of V-ATPases. In this study, to assess the functional relatedness of the yeast and human V-ATPase subunits, we investigated whether human V-ATPase subunits can complement calcium- or pH-sensitive growth, acidification of the vacuolar lumen, assembly of the V-ATPase complex, and protein sorting in yeast mutants lacking the equivalent yeast genes. These assessments revealed that 9 of the 13 human V-ATPase subunits can partially or fully complement the function of the corresponding yeast subunits. Importantly, sequence similarity was not necessarily correlated with functional complementation. We also found that besides all Vo domain subunits, the V1 F subunit is required for proper assembly of the Vo domain at the endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, the human H subunit fully restored the level of vacuolar acidification, but only partially rescued calcium-sensitive growth, suggesting a specific role of the H subunit in V-ATPase activity. These findings provide important insights into functional homologies between yeast and human V-ATPases.
Project description:Vacuolar proton-translocating ATPases (V-ATPases) are highly conserved, ATP-driven proton pumps regulated by reversible dissociation of its cytosolic, peripheral V1 domain from the integral membrane V(o) domain. Multiple stresses induce changes in V1-V(o) assembly, but the signaling mechanisms behind these changes are not understood. Here we show that certain stress-responsive changes in V-ATPase activity and assembly require the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2). V-ATPase activation through V1-V(o) assembly in response to salt stress is strongly dependent on PI(3,5)P2 synthesis. Purified V(o) complexes preferentially bind to PI(3,5)P2 on lipid arrays, suggesting direct binding between the lipid and the membrane sector of the V-ATPase. Increasing PI(3,5)P2 levels in vivo recruits the N-terminal domain of V(o)-sector subunit Vph1p from cytosol to membranes, independent of other subunits. This Vph1p domain is critical for V1-V(o) interaction, suggesting that interaction of Vph1p with PI(3,5)P2-containing membranes stabilizes V1-V(o) assembly and thus increases V-ATPase activity. These results help explain the previously described vacuolar acidification defect in yeast fab1 and vac14 mutants and suggest that human disease phenotypes associated with PI(3,5)P2 loss may arise from compromised V-ATPase stability and regulation.
Project description:Vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases; V1Vo-ATPases) are rotary-motor proton pumps that acidify intracellular compartments and, in some tissues, the extracellular space. V-ATPase is regulated by reversible disassembly into autoinhibited V1-ATPase and Vo proton channel sectors. An important player in V-ATPase regulation is subunit H, which binds at the interface of V1 and Vo H is required for MgATPase activity in holo-V-ATPase but also for stabilizing the MgADP-inhibited state in membrane-detached V1 However, how H fulfills these two functions is poorly understood. To characterize the H-V1 interaction and its role in reversible disassembly, we determined binding affinities of full-length H and its N-terminal domain (HNT) for an isolated heterodimer of subunits E and G (EG), the N-terminal domain of subunit a (aNT), and V1 lacking subunit H (V1?H). Using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and biolayer interferometry (BLI), we show that HNT binds EG with moderate affinity, that full-length H binds aNT weakly, and that both H and HNT bind V1?H with high affinity. We also found that only one molecule of HNT binds V1?H with high affinity, suggesting conformational asymmetry of the three EG heterodimers in V1?H. Moreover, MgATP hydrolysis-driven conformational changes in V1 destabilized the interaction of H or HNT with V1?H, suggesting an interplay between MgADP inhibition and subunit H. Our observation that H binding is affected by MgATP hydrolysis in V1 points to H's role in the mechanism of reversible disassembly.
Project description:Vacuolar-type ATPases (V-ATPases) are ATP-powered proton pumps involved in processes such as endocytosis, lysosomal degradation, secondary transport, TOR signalling, and osteoclast and kidney function. ATP hydrolysis in the soluble catalytic V1 region drives proton translocation through the membrane-embedded VO region via rotation of a rotor subcomplex. Variability in the structure of the intact enzyme has prevented construction of an atomic model for the membrane-embedded motor of any rotary ATPase. We induced dissociation and auto-inhibition of the V1 and VO regions of the V-ATPase by starving the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, allowing us to obtain a ~3.9-Å resolution electron cryomicroscopy map of the VO complex and build atomic models for the majority of its subunits. The analysis reveals the structures of subunits ac8c'c?de and a protein that we identify and propose to be a new subunit (subunit f). A large cavity between subunit a and the c-ring creates a cytoplasmic half-channel for protons. The c-ring has an asymmetric distribution of proton-carrying Glu residues, with the Glu residue of subunit c? interacting with Arg735 of subunit a. The structure suggests sequential protonation and deprotonation of the c-ring, with ATP-hydrolysis-driven rotation causing protonation of a Glu residue at the cytoplasmic half-channel and subsequent deprotonation of a Glu residue at a luminal half-channel.
Project description:Proton-translocating vacuolar-type ATPases (V-ATPases) are necessary for numerous processes in eukaryotic cells, including receptor-mediated endocytosis, protein maturation, and lysosomal acidification. In mammals, V-ATPase subunit isoforms are differentially targeted to various intracellular compartments or tissues, but how these subunit isoforms influence enzyme activity is not clear. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, isoform diversity is limited to two different versions of the proton-translocating subunit a: Vph1p, which is targeted to the vacuole, and Stv1p, which is targeted to the Golgi apparatus and endosomes. We show that purified V-ATPase complexes containing Vph1p have higher ATPase activity than complexes containing Stv1p and that the relative difference in activity depends on the presence of lipids. We also show that VO complexes containing Stv1p could be readily purified without attached V1 regions. We used this effect to determine structures of the membrane-embedded VO region with Stv1p at 3.1-Å resolution, which we compare with a structure of the VO region with Vph1p that we determine to 3.2-Å resolution. These maps reveal differences in the surface charge near the cytoplasmic proton half-channel. Both maps also show the presence of bound lipids, as well as regularly spaced densities that may correspond to ergosterol or bound detergent, around the c-ring.
Project description:The vacuolar-type H<sup>+</sup>-ATPases (V-ATPase) hydrolyze ATP to pump protons across the plasma or intracellular membrane, secreting acids to the lumen or acidifying intracellular compartments. It has been implicated in tumor metastasis, renal tubular acidosis, and osteoporosis. Here, we report two cryo-EM structures of the intact V-ATPase from bovine brain with all the subunits including the subunit H, which is essential for ATPase activity. Two type-I transmembrane proteins, Ac45 and (pro)renin receptor, along with subunit c", constitute the core of the c-ring. Three different conformations of A/B heterodimers suggest a mechanism for ATP hydrolysis that triggers a rotation of subunits DF, inducing spinning of subunit d with respect to the entire c-ring. Moreover, many lipid molecules have been observed in the Vo domain to mediate the interactions between subunit c, c", (pro)renin receptor, and Ac45. These two structures reveal unique features of mammalian V-ATPase and suggest a mechanism of V1-Vo torque transmission.
Project description:Luminal pH and phosphoinositide content are fundamental features of organelle identity. Vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) drive organelle acidification in all eukaryotes, and membrane-bound a-subunit isoforms of the V-ATPase are implicated in organelle-specific targeting and regulation. Earlier work demonstrated that the endolysosomal lipid PI(3,5)P2 activates V-ATPases containing the vacuolar a-subunit isoform in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Here we demonstrate that PI(4)P, the predominant Golgi phosphatidylinositol (PI) species, directly interacts with the cytosolic amino terminal (NT) domain of the yeast Golgi V-ATPase a-isoform Stv1. Lysine-84 of Stv1NT is essential for interaction with PI(4)P in vitro and in vivo, and interaction with PI(4)P is required for efficient localization of Stv1-containing V-ATPases. The cytosolic NT domain of the human V-ATPase a2 isoform specifically interacts with PI(4)P in vitro, consistent with its Golgi localization and function. We propose that NT domains of Vo a-subunit isoforms interact specifically with PI lipids in their organelles of residence. These interactions can transmit organelle-specific targeting or regulation information to V-ATPases.
Project description:Eukaryotic vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is a multisubunit enzyme complex that acidifies subcellular organelles and the extracellular space. V-ATPase consists of soluble V1-ATPase and membrane-integral Vo proton channel sectors. To investigate the mechanism of V-ATPase regulation by reversible disassembly, we recently determined a cryo-EM reconstruction of yeast Vo The structure indicated that, when V1 is released from Vo, the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of subunit a (aNT) changes conformation to bind rotor subunit d However, insufficient resolution precluded a precise definition of the aNT-d interface. Here we reconstituted Vo into lipid nanodiscs for single-particle EM. 3D reconstructions calculated at ?15-Å resolution revealed two sites of contact between aNT and d that are mediated by highly conserved charged residues. Alanine mutagenesis of some of these residues disrupted the aNT-d interaction, as shown by isothermal titration calorimetry and gel filtration of recombinant subunits. A recent cryo-EM study of holo V-ATPase revealed three major conformations corresponding to three rotational states of the central rotor of the enzyme. Comparison of the three V-ATPase conformations with the structure of nanodisc-bound Vo revealed that Vo is halted in rotational state 3. Combined with our prior work that showed autoinhibited V1-ATPase to be arrested in state 2, we propose a model in which the conformational mismatch between free V1 and Vo functions to prevent unintended reassembly of holo V-ATPase when activity is not needed.
Project description:The subunit architecture of the yeast vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) was analyzed by single particle transmission electron microscopy and electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry. A three-dimensional model of the intact V-ATPase was calculated from two-dimensional projections of the complex at a resolution of 25 angstroms. Images of yeast V-ATPase decorated with monoclonal antibodies against subunits A, E, and G position subunit A within the pseudo-hexagonal arrangement in the V1, the N terminus of subunit G in the V1-V0 interface, and the C terminus of subunit E at the top of the V1 domain. ESI tandem mass spectrometry of yeast V1-ATPase showed that subunits E and G are most easily lost in collision-induced dissociation, consistent with a peripheral location of the subunits. An atomic model of the yeast V-ATPase was generated by fitting of the available x-ray crystal structures into the electron microscopy-derived electron density map. The resulting atomic model of the yeast vacuolar ATPase serves as a framework to help understand the role the peripheral stalk subunits are playing in the regulation of the ATP hydrolysis driven proton pumping activity of the vacuolar ATPase.
Project description:Vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) are a family of ATP-driven proton pumps. They maintain pH gradients between intracellular compartments and are required for proton secretion out of the cytoplasm. Mechanisms of extrinsic control of V-ATPase are poorly understood. Previous studies showed that glucose is an important regulator of V-ATPase assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Human V-ATPase directly interacts with aldolase, providing a coupling mechanism for glucose metabolism and V-ATPase function. Here we show that glucose is a crucial regulator of V-ATPase in renal epithelial cells and that the effect of glucose is mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Glucose stimulates V-ATPase-dependent acidification of the intracellular compartments in human proximal tubular cells HK-2 and porcine renal epithelial cells LLC-PK1. Glucose induces rapid ATP-independent assembly of the V1 and Vo domains of V-ATPase and extensive translocation of the V-ATPase V1 and Vo domains between different membrane pools and between membranes and the cytoplasm. In HK-2 cells, glucose stimulates polarized translocation of V-ATPase to the apical plasma membrane. The effects of glucose on V-ATPase trafficking and assembly can be abolished by pretreatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and can be reproduced in glucose-deprived cells by adenoviral expression of the constitutively active catalytic subunit p110alpha of PI3K. Taken together these data provide evidence that, in renal epithelial cells, glucose plays an important role in the control of V-ATPase-dependent acidification of intracellular compartments and V-ATPase assembly and trafficking and that the effects of glucose are mediated by PI3K-dependent signaling.
Project description:The vacuolar (H+) ATPases (V-ATPases) are large, multimeric proton pumps that, like the related family of F1F0 ATP synthases, employ a rotary mechanism. ATP hydrolysis by the peripheral V1 domain drives rotation of a rotary complex (the rotor) relative to the stationary part of the enzyme (the stator), leading to proton translocation through the integral V0 domain. One mechanism of regulating V-ATPase activity in vivo involves reversible dissociation of the V1 and V0 domains. Unlike the corresponding domains in F1F0, the dissociated V1 domain does not hydrolyze ATP, and the free V0 domain does not passively conduct protons. These properties are important to avoid generation of an uncoupled ATPase activity or an unregulated proton conductance upon dissociation of the complex in vivo. Previous results (Parra, K. J., Keenan, K. L., and Kane, P. M. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 21761-21767) showed that subunit H (part of the stator) inhibits ATP hydrolysis by free V1. To test the hypothesis that subunit H accomplishes this by bridging rotor and stator in free V1, cysteine-mediated cross-linking studies were performed. Unique cysteine residues were introduced over the surface of subunit H from yeast by site-directed mutagenesis and used as the site of attachment of the photo-activated cross-linking reagent maleimido benzophenone. After UV-activated cross-linking, cross-linked products were identified by Western blot using subunit-specific antibodies. The results indicate that the subunit H mutant S381C shows cross-linking between subunit H and subunit F (a rotor subunit) in the free V1 domain but not in the intact V1V0 complex. These results indicate that subunits H and F are proximal in free V1, supporting the hypothesis that subunit H inhibits free V1 by bridging the rotary and stator domains.