ABSTRACT: Metasurfaces open up unprecedented potential for wave engineering using subwavelength sheets. However, a severe limitation of current acoustic metasurfaces is their poor reconfigurability to achieve distinct functions on demand. Here a programmable acoustic metasurface that contains an array of tunable subwavelength unit cells to break the limitation and realize versatile two-dimensional wave manipulation functions is reported. Each unit cell of the metasurface is composed of a straight channel and five shunted Helmholtz resonators, whose effective mass can be tuned by a robust fluidic system. The phase and amplitude of acoustic waves transmitting through each unit cell can be modulated dynamically and continuously. Based on such mechanism, the metasurface is able to achieve versatile wave manipulation functions, by engineering the phase and amplitude of transmission waves in the subwavelength scale. Through acoustic field scanning experiments, multiple wave manipulation functions, including steering acoustic waves, engineering acoustic beams, and switching on/off acoustic energy flow by using one design of metasurface are visually demonstrated. This work extends the metasurface research and holds great potential for a wide range of applications including acoustic imaging, communication, levitation, and tweezers.
Project description:Acoustic metasurfaces, exhibiting superior performance with subwavelength thickness, are ideal alternatives for functionalities such as wavefront modulation and acoustic energy trapping, etc. However, most of the reported acoustic metasurfaces were passive. Here a magnetically tuned mechanism is reported for membrane-type acoustic metamaterials. Harnessing the geometric nonlinearity of membrane structures, the transmission spectrum is both theoretically and experimentally tuned over broadband by an external static magnetic force. Simultaneously, the phase profiles can be readily tailored by the magnetic stimulus. Further, a magnetic-control multifunctional metasurface is proposed for low-frequency wave manipulation. By switching the magnetic force distribution, multi extraordinary phenomena, such as acoustic wave redirecting, focusing, bending, etc., are realized without changing the physical structure. Besides, it is demonstrated the proposed metasurface, at deep subwavelength scale (~1/85?), supports anomalous reflected wave manipulation over a wide band. These results open up new degrees of freedom to steer acoustic wave and pave a way for designing active acoustic devices.
Project description:Acoustic metasurfaces represent a family of planar wavefront-shaping devices garnering increasing attention due to their capacity for novel acoustic wave manipulation. By precisely tailoring the geometry of these engineered surfaces, the effective refractive index may be modulated and, consequently, acoustic phase delays tuned. Despite the successful demonstration of phase engineering using metasurfaces, amplitude modulation remains overlooked. Herein, we present a class of metasurfaces featuring a horn-like space-coiling structure, enabling acoustic control with simultaneous phase and amplitude modulation. The functionality of this class of metasurfaces, featuring a gradient in channel spacing, has been investigated theoretically and numerically and an equivalent model simplifying the structural behavior is presented. A metasurface featuring this geometry has been designed and its functionality in modifying acoustic radiation patterns experimentally validated. This class of acoustic metasurface provides an efficient design methodology enabling complete acoustic wave manipulation, which may find utility in applications including biomedical imaging, acoustic communication, and non-destructive testing.
Project description:Space-coiling acoustic metasurfaces have been largely exploited and shown their outstanding wave manipulation capacity. However, they are complex in realization and cannot directly manipulate acoustic near-fields by controlling the effective path length. Here, we propose a comprehensive paradigm for acoustic metasurfaces to extend the wave manipulations to both far- and near-fields and markedly reduce the implementation complexity with a simple structure, which consists of an array of deep-subwavelength-spaced slits perforated in a thin plate. A semi-analytical approach for such a design is established using a microscopic coupled-wave model, which reveals that the acoustic diffractive pattern at every slit exit is the sum of the initial transmission and the secondary scatterings of the coupled fields from other slits. For proof-of-concept, we examine two metasurface lenses for sound focusing within and beyond the diffraction limit. This work provides a feasible strategy for creating ultra-compact acoustic components with versatile potentials.
Project description:Metasurfaces allow the rapid development of compact and flat electromagnetic devices owing to their capability in manipulating the wavefront of electromagnetic waves. Particularly, with respect to the metasurface lenses, wide operational bandwidth and wide incident angle behavior are critically required for practical applications. Herein, a single-layer phase gradient metasurface lens is presented to achieve millimeter-wave focusing at a focal point of 13 mm regardless of the incident angle. The proposed metasurface lens is fabricated by constructing subwavelength-thick (< λ/10) phase elements composed of two metallic layers separated by a single dielectric substrate that exhibits low-Q resonance properties and a wide phase modulation range with satisfactory transmissivity. By controlling the spatial phase distribution, the proposed metasurface lens successfully realises effective wavefront manipulation properties and high-performance electromagnetic-wave-focusing characteristics over a wide operating frequency range from 35 to 40 GHz with incident angle independency up to 30°.
Project description:Metamaterials are artificial materials made of subwavelength elementary cells that give rise to unexpected wave properties that do not exist naturally. However, these properties are generally achieved due to 3D patterning, which is hardly feasible at short wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared regions targeted by most photonic applications. To overcome this limitation, metasurfaces, which are the 2D counterparts of metamaterials, have emerged as promising platforms that are compatible with planar nanotechnologies and thus mass production, which platforms the properties of a metamaterial into a 2D sheet. In the linear regime, wavefront manipulation for lensing, holography, and polarization control has been achieved recently. Interest in metasurfaces operating in the nonlinear regime has also increased due to the ability of metasurfaces to efficiently convert incident light into harmonic frequencies with unusual polarization properties. However, to date, the nonlinear absorption of metasurfaces has been mostly ignored. Here, we demonstrate that plasmonic metasurfaces behave as saturable absorbers with modulation performances superior to the modulation performance of other 2D materials and exhibit unusual polarimetric nonlinear transfer functions. We quantify the link between saturable absorption, the plasmonic resonances of the unit cell and their distribution in a 2D metasurface, and finally provide a practical implementation by integrating the metasurfaces into a fiber laser cavity operating in pulsed regimes driven by the metasurface properties. As such, this work provides new perspectives on ultrathin nonlinear saturable absorbers for applications where tunable nonlinear transfer functions are needed, such as in ultrafast lasers or neuromorphic circuits.
Project description:Recently, metasurfaces have been proven to be effective and compact devices for the design of arbitrary wavefronts. Metasurfaces are planar metamaterials with a subwavelength thickness that allows wavefront shaping by introducing in-plane variations, namely, gradients, in the spatial wave response of these flat structures. Here we report a new class of acoustic gradient-index (GRIN) metasurfaces engineered from soft graded-porous silicone rubber with a high acoustic index for broadband ultrasonic three-dimensional wavefront shaping in water. The functionalities of these soft flat lenses are illustrated through various experiments, which demonstrate beam steering and beam focusing, as well as vortex beam generation in free space. These new GRIN metasurfaces may have important applications in various domains using designed ultrasonic fields (biomedical imaging, industrial non-destructive testing, contactless particle manipulation), since their fabrication is very straightforward with common polymer science engineering.
Project description:While elastic metasurfaces offer a remarkable and very effective approach to the subwavelength control of stress waves, their use in practical applications is severely hindered by intrinsically narrow band performance. In applications to electromagnetic and photonic metamaterials, some success in extending the operating dynamic range was obtained by using nonlocality. However, while electronic properties in natural materials can show significant nonlocal effects, even at the macroscales, in mechanics, nonlocality is a higher-order effect that becomes appreciable only at the microscales. This study introduces the concept of intentional nonlocality as a fundamental mechanism to design passive elastic metasurfaces capable of an exceptionally broadband operating range. The nonlocal behavior is achieved by exploiting nonlocal forces, conceptually akin to long-range interactions in nonlocal material microstructures, between subsets of resonant unit cells forming the metasurface. These long-range forces are obtained via carefully crafted flexible elements, whose specific geometry and local dynamics are designed to create remarkably complex transfer functions between multiple units. The resulting nonlocal coupling forces enable achieving phase-gradient profiles that are functions of the wavenumber of the incident wave. The identification of relevant design parameters and the assessment of their impact on performance are explored via a combination of semianalytical and numerical models. The nonlocal metasurface concept is tested, both numerically and experimentally, by embedding a total-internal-reflection design in a thin-plate waveguide. Results confirm the feasibility of the intentionally nonlocal design concept and its ability to achieve a fully passive and broadband wave control.
Project description:Reflection inherently occurs on the interfaces between different media. In order to perfectly manipulate waves on the interfaces, integration of antireflection function in metasurfaces is highly desired. In this work, we demonstrate an approach to realize exceptional metasurfaces that combine the two vital functionalities of antireflection and arbitrary phase manipulation in the deep subwavelength scale. Such ultrathin devices confer reflection-less transmission through impedance-mismatched interfaces with arbitrary wavefront shapes. Theoretically and experimentally, we demonstrate a three-layer antireflection metasurface that achieves an intriguing phenomenon: the simultaneous elimination of the reflection and refraction effects on a dielectric surface. Incident waves transmit straightly through the dielectric surface as if the surface turns invisible. We further demonstrate a wide variety of applications such as invisible curved surfaces, "cloaking" of dielectric objects, reflection-less negative refraction and flat axicons on dielectric-air interfaces, etc. The coalescence of antireflection and wavefront controllability in the deep subwavelength scale brings new opportunities for advanced interface optics with high efficiency and great flexibility.
Project description:The realization of phase discontinuities across metasurfaces has led to a new class of reflection and refraction. Here we present theory and experiment on the discontinuous propagation of wavepackets across subwavelength-thickness meta-atoms. Using acoustic waves, we observe the process of wavepackets traversing a meta-atom with abrupt displacements, which appear as path discontinuities on a space-time diagram. We construct a tunable meta-atom from two coupled resonators at ~500 Hz, map the spatiotemporal trajectories of individual sonic pulses, and reveal discontinuities at the meta-atom where the pulses exit at a time ~50 ms ahead or behind their arrivals. Applications include thin acoustic metasurface lenses.
Project description:Metasurfaces enable manipulation of light propagation at an unprecedented level, benefitting from a number of merits unavailable to conventional optical elements, such as ultracompactness, precise phase and polarization control at deep subwavelength scale, and multifunctionalities. Recent progress in this field has witnessed a plethora of functional metasurfaces, ranging from lenses and vortex beam generation to holography. However, research endeavors have been mainly devoted to static devices, exploiting only a glimpse of opportunities that metasurfaces can offer. We demonstrate a dynamic metasurface platform, which allows independent manipulation of addressable subwavelength pixels at visible frequencies through controlled chemical reactions. In particular, we create dynamic metasurface holograms for advanced optical information processing and encryption. Plasmonic nanorods tailored to exhibit hierarchical reaction kinetics upon hydrogenation/dehydrogenation constitute addressable pixels in multiplexed metasurfaces. The helicity of light, hydrogen, oxygen, and reaction duration serve as multiple keys to encrypt the metasurfaces. One single metasurface can be deciphered into manifold messages with customized keys, featuring a compact data storage scheme as well as a high level of information security. Our work suggests a novel route to protect and transmit classified data, where highly restricted access of information is imposed.