FAK and Pyk2 activity promote TNF-α and IL-1β-mediated pro-inflammatory gene expression and vascular inflammation.
ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity has been implicated in pro-inflammatory gene expression following tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or interkeukin-1β (IL-1β) stimulation. However, the identity of responsible PTK(s) in cytokine signaling have not been elucidated. To evaluate which PTK is critical to promote the cytokine-induced inflammatory cell adhesion molecule (CAM) expression including VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin in human aortic endothelial cells (HAoECs), we have tested pharmacological inhibitors of major PTKs: Src and the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) family kinases - FAK and proline-rich tyrosine kinase (Pyk2). We found that a dual inhibitor of FAK/Pyk2 (PF-271) most effectively reduced all three CAMs upon TNF-α or IL-1β stimulation compared to FAK or Src specific inhibitors (PF-228 or Dasatinib), which inhibited only VCAM-1 expression. In vitro inflammation assays showed PF-271 reduced monocyte attachment and transmigration on HAoECs. Furthermore, FAK/Pyk2 activity was not limited to CAM expression but was also required for expression of various pro-inflammatory molecules including MCP-1 and IP-10. Both TNF-α and IL-1β signaling requires FAK/Pyk2 activity to activate ERK and JNK MAPKs leading to inflammatory gene expression. Knockdown of either FAK or Pyk2 reduced TNF-α-stimulated ERK and JNK activation and CAM expression, suggesting that activation of ERK or JNK is specific through FAK and Pyk2. Finally, FAK/Pyk2 activity is required for VCAM-1 expression and macrophage recruitment to the vessel wall in a carotid ligation model in ApoE-/- mice. Our findings define critical roles of FAK/Pyk2 in mediating inflammatory cytokine signaling and implicate FAK/Pyk2 inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents to treat vascular inflammatory disease such as atherosclerosis.
Project description:The inflammasome adaptor protein, ASC, contributes to both innate immune responses and inflammatory diseases via self-oligomerization, which leads to the activation of the protease, caspase-1. Here, we report that the cytosolic tyrosine kinases, FAK and Pyk2, are differentially involved in NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome activation. The inhibition of FAK and Pyk2 with RNA interference or chemical inhibitors dramatically abolished ASC oligomerization, caspase-1 activation, and IL-1? secretion in response to NLRP3 or AIM2 stimulation. Pyk2 is phosphorylated by the kinase Syk and relocalizes to the ASC specks upon NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Pyk2, but not FAK, could directly phosphorylate ASC at Tyr146, and only the phosphorylated ASC could participate in speck formation and trigger IL-1? secretion. Moreover, the clinical-trial-tested Pyk2/FAK dual inhibitor PF-562271 reduced monosodium urate-mediated peritonitis, a disease model used for studying the consequences of NLRP3 activation. Our results suggest that although Pyk2 and FAK are involved in inflammasome activation, only Pyk2 directly phosphorylates ASC and brings ASC into an oligomerization-competent state by allowing Tyr146 phosphorylation to participate ASC speck formation and subsequent NLRP3 inflammation.
Project description:We have previously shown the presence of a TRAF4/p47phox/Hic5/Pyk2 complex associated with the platelet collagen receptor, GPVI, consistent with a potential role of this complex in GPVI-dependent ROS formation. In other cell systems, NOX-dependent ROS formation is facilitated by Pyk2, which along with its closely related homologue FAK are known to be activated and phosphorylated downstream of ligand binding to GPVI.To evaluate the relative roles of Pyk2 and FAK in GPVI-dependent ROS formation and to determine their location within the GPVI signaling pathway.Human and mouse washed platelets (from WT or Pyk2 KO mice) were pre-treated with pharmacological inhibitors targeting FAK or Pyk2 (PF-228 and Tyrphostin A9, respectively) and stimulated with the GPVI-specific agonist, CRP. FAK, but not Pyk2, was found to be essential for GPVI-dependent ROS production and aggregation. Subsequent human platelet studies with PF-228 confirmed FAK is essential for GPVI-mediated phosphatidylserine exposure, ?-granule secretion (P-selectin (CD62P) surface expression) and integrin ?IIb?3 activation. To determine the precise location of FAK within the GPVI pathway, we analyzed the effect of PF-228 inhibition in CRP-stimulated platelets in conjunction with immunoprecipitation and pulldown analysis to show that FAK is downstream of Lyn, Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), PI3-K and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) and upstream of Rac1, PLC?2, Ca2+ release, PKC, Hic-5, NOX1 and ?IIb?3 activation.Overall, these data suggest a novel role for FAK in GPVI-dependent ROS formation and platelet activation and elucidate a proximal signaling role for FAK within the GPVI pathway.
Project description:Current therapies for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) target individual tumor cells. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is activated in PDA, and levels are inversely associated with survival. We investigated the effects of PF-562,271 (a small-molecule inhibitor of FAK/PYK2) on (i) in vitro migration, invasion, and proliferation; (ii) tumor proliferation, invasion, and metastasis in a murine model; and (iii) stromal cell composition in the PDA microenvironment. Migration assays were conducted to assess tumor and stromal cell migration in response to cellular factors, collagen, and the effects of PF-562,271. An orthotopic murine model was used to assess the effects of PF-562,271 on tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Proliferation assays measured PF-562,271 effects on in vitro growth. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the effects of FAK inhibition on the cellular composition of the tumor microenvironment. FAK and PYK2 were activated and expressed in patient-derived PDA tumors, stromal components, and human PDA cell lines. PF-562,271 blocked phosphorylation of FAK (phospho-FAK or Y397) in a dose-dependent manner. PF-562,271 inhibited migration of tumor cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts, and macrophages. Treatment of mice with PF-562,271 resulted in reduced tumor growth, invasion, and metastases. PF-562,271 had no effect on tumor necrosis, angiogenesis, or apoptosis, but it did decrease tumor cell proliferation and resulted in fewer tumor-associated macrophages and fibroblasts than control or gemcitabine. These data support a role for FAK in PDA and suggest that inhibitors of FAK may contribute to efficacious treatment of patients with PDA.
Project description:Signaling by the B cell receptor (BCR) promotes integrin-mediated adhesion and cytoskeletal reorganization. This results in B cell spreading, which enhances the ability of B cells to bind antigens and become activated. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase (Pyk2) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are related cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases that regulate cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell migration. In this report we show that BCR signaling and integrin signaling collaborate to induce the phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK on key tyrosine residues, a modification that increases the kinase activity of Pyk2 and FAK. Activation of the Rap GTPases is critical for BCR-induced integrin activation as well as for BCR- and integrin-induced reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. We now show that Rap activation is essential for BCR-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2 and for integrin-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK. Moreover Rap-dependent phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK required an intact actin cytoskeleton as well as actin dynamics, suggesting that Rap regulates Pyk2 and FAK via its effects on the actin cytoskeleton. Importantly B cell spreading induced by BCR/integrin co-stimulation or by integrin engagement was inhibited by short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of either Pyk2 or FAK expression and by treatment with PF-431396, a chemical inhibitor that blocks the kinase activities of both Pyk2 and FAK. Thus Pyk2 and FAK are downstream targets of the Rap GTPases that play a key role in regulating B cell morphology.
Project description:The non-receptor cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is known to play a key role in a variety of normal and cancer cellular functions such as survival, proliferation, migration and invasion. It is highly active and overexpressed in various cancers including Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM). Here, initially, we demonstrate that FAK is overexpressed in both PDAC and MPM cell lines. Then we analyze effects of two small molecule inhibitors PF-573228, and PF-431396, which are dual specificity inhibitors of FAK and proline rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2), as well as VS-6063, another small molecule inhibitor that specifically inhibits FAK but not PYK2 for cell growth, motility and invasion of PDAC and MPM cell lines. Treatment with PF-573228, PF-431396 and VS-6063 cells resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of growth and anchorage-independent colony formation in both cancer cell lines. Furthermore, these compounds suppressed the phosphorylation of FAK at its active site, Y397, and functionally induced significant apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in both cell lines. Using the ECIS (Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing) system, we found that treatment of both PF compounds suppressed adherence and migration of PDAC cells on fibronectin. Interestingly, 3D-tumor organoids derived from autochthonous KC (Kras;PdxCre) mice treated with PF-573228 revealed a significant decrease in tumor organoid size and increase in organoid cell death. Taken together, our results show that FAK is an important target for mesothelioma and pancreatic cancer therapy that merit further translational studies.
Project description:Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive and fatal brain cancers due to the highly invasive nature of glioma cells. Microglia infiltrate most glioma tumors and, therefore, make up an important component of the glioma microenvironment. In the tumor environment, microglia release factors that lead to the degradation of the extracellular matrix and stimulate signaling pathways to promote glioma cell invasion. In the present study, we demonstrated that microglia can promote glioma migration through a mechanism independent of extracellular matrix degradation. Using western blot analysis, we found upregulation of proline rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) protein phosphorylated at Tyr579/580 in glioma cells treated with microglia conditioned medium. This upregulation occurred in rodent C6 and GL261 as well as in human glioma cell lines with varying levels of invasiveness (U-87MG, A172, and HS683). siRNA knock-down of Pyk2 protein and pharmacological blockade by the Pyk2/focal-adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor PF-562,271 reversed the stimulatory effect of microglia on glioma migration in all cell lines. A lower concentration of PF-562,271 that selectively inhibits FAK, but not Pyk2, did not have any effect on glioma cell migration. Moreover, with the use of the CD11b-HSVTK microglia ablation mouse model we demonstrated that elimination of microglia in the implanted tumors (GL261 glioma cells were used for brain implantation) by the local in-tumor administration of Ganciclovir, significantly reduced the phosphorylation of Pyk2 at Tyr579/580 in implanted tumor cells. Taken together, these data indicate that microglial cells activate glioma cell migration/dispersal through the pro-migratory Pyk2 signaling pathway in glioma cells.
Project description:Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) plays important roles in development and inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are key regulators of inflammatory and integrin-matrix signaling, respectively. Integrin costimulatory signals modulate inflammatory gene expression, but the important control points between these pathways remain unresolved. We report that pharmacological FAK inhibition prevented TNF-?-induced VCAM-1 expression within heart vessel-associated endothelial cells in vivo, and genetic or pharmacological FAK inhibition blocked VCAM-1 expression during development. FAK signaling facilitated TNF-?-induced, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and, surprisingly, FAK inhibition resulted in the loss of the GATA4 transcription factor required for TNF-?-induced VCAM-1 production. FAK inhibition also triggered FAK nuclear localization. In the nucleus, the FAK-FERM (band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin homology) domain bound directly to GATA4 and enhanced its CHIP (C terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein) E3 ligase-dependent polyubiquitination and degradation. These studies reveal new developmental and anti-inflammatory roles for kinase-inhibited FAK in limiting VCAM-1 production via nuclear localization and promotion of GATA4 turnover.
Project description:Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been implicated in the acceleration of vascular disease and chronic allograft rejection. Recently, the virus has been associated with glioblastoma and other tumors. We have previously shown that the HCMV-encoded chemokine receptor pUS28 mediates smooth muscle cell (SMC) and macrophage motility and this activity has been implicated in the acceleration of vascular disease. pUS28 induced SMC migration involves the activation of the protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) Src and Focal adhesion kinase as well as the small GTPase RhoA. The PTK Pyk2 has been shown to play a role in cellular migration and formation of cancer, especially glioblastoma. The role of Pyk2 in pUS28 signaling and migration are unknown.In the current study, we examined the involvement of the PTK Pyk2 in pUS28-induced cellular motility. We utilized in vitro migration of SMC to determine the requirements for Pyk2 in pUS28 pro-migratory signaling. We performed biochemical analysis of Pyk2 signaling in response to pUS28 activation to determine the mechanisms involved in pUS28 migration. We performed mass spectrometric analysis of Pyk2 complexes to identify novel Pyk2 binding partners.Expression of a mutant form of Pyk2 lacking the autophosphorylation site (Tyr-402) blocks pUS28-mediated SMC migration in response to CCL5, while the kinase-inactive Pyk2 mutant failed to elicit the same negative effect on migration. pUS28 stimulation with CCL5 results in ligand-dependent and calcium-dependent phosphorylation of Pyk2 Tyr-402 and induced the formation of an active Pyk2 kinase complex containing several novel Pyk2 binding proteins. Expression of the autophosphorylation null mutant Pyk2 F402Y did not abrogate the formation of an active Pyk2 kinase complex, but instead prevented pUS28-mediated activation of RhoA. Additionally, pUS28 activated RhoA via Pyk2 in the U373 glioblastoma cells. Interestingly, the Pyk2 kinase complex in U373 contained several proteins known to participate in glioma tumorigenesis.These findings represent the first demonstration that pUS28 signals through Pyk2 and that this PTK participates in pUS28-mediated cellular motility via activation of RhoA. Furthermore, these results provide a potential mechanistic link between HCMV-pUS28 and glioblastoma cell activation.
Project description:Pyk2 is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase related to focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Compensatory Pyk2 expression occurs upon FAK loss in mice. However, the impact of Pyk2 up-regulation remains unclear. Previous studies showed that nuclear-localized FAK promotes cell proliferation and survival through FAK FERM domain-enhanced p53 tumor suppressor degradation (Lim, S. T., Chen, X. L., Lim, Y., Hanson, D. A., Vo, T. T., Howerton, K., Larocque, N., Fisher, S. J., Schlaepfer, D. D., and Ilic, D. (2008) Mol. Cell 29, 9-22). Here, we show that FAK knockdown triggered p53 activation and G(1) cell cycle arrest in human umbilical vein endothelial cells after 4 days. However, by 7 days elevated Pyk2 expression occurred with a reduction in p53 levels and the release of the G(1) block under conditions of continued FAK knockdown. To determine whether Pyk2 regulates p53, experiments were performed in FAK(-/-)p21(-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts expressing endogenous Pyk2 and in ID8 ovarian carcinoma cells expressing both Pyk2 and FAK. In both cell lines, Pyk2 knockdown increased p53 levels and inhibited cell proliferation associated with G(1) cell cycle arrest. Pyk2 FERM domain re-expression was sufficient to reduce p53 levels and promote increased BrdUrd incorporation. Pyk2 FERM promoted Mdm2-dependent p53 ubiquitination. Pyk2 FERM effects on p53 were blocked by proteasomal inhibition or mutational-inactivation of Pyk2 FERM nuclear localization. Staurosporine stress of ID8 cells promoted endogenous Pyk2 nuclear accumulation and enhanced Pyk2 binding to p53. Pyk2 knockdown potentiated ID8 cell death upon staurosporine addition. Moreover, Pyk2 FERM expression in human fibroblasts upon FAK knockdown prevented cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. Our studies demonstrate that nuclear Pyk2 functions to limit p53 levels, thus facilitating cell growth and survival in a kinase-independent manner.
Project description:Signals from fibronectin-binding integrins promote neural crest cell motility during development in part through protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) activation. Neuroblastoma (NB) is a neural crest malignancy with high metastatic potential. We find that alpha4 and alpha5 integrins are present in late-stage NB tumors and cell lines derived thereof. To determine the signaling connections promoting either alpha4beta1- or alpha5beta1-initiated NB cell motility, pharmacological, dominant negative and short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) inhibitory approaches were undertaken. shRNA knockdown revealed that alpha5beta1-stimulated NB motility is dependent upon focal adhesion kinase (FAK) PTK, Src PTK and p130Cas adapter protein expression. Cell reconstitution showed that FAK catalytic activity is required for alpha5beta1-stimulated Src activation in part through direct FAK phosphorylation of Src at Tyr-418. Alternatively, alpha4beta1-stimulated NB cell motility is dependent upon Src and p130Cas but FAK is not essential. Catalytically inactive receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase-alpha overexpression inhibited alpha4beta1-stimulated NB motility and Src activation consistent with alpha4-regulated Src activity occurring through Src Tyr-529 dephosphorylation. In alpha4 shRNA-expressing NB cells, alpha4beta1-stimulated Src activation and NB cell motility were rescued by wild type but not cytoplasmic domain-truncated alpha4 re-expression. These studies, supported by results using reconstituted fibroblasts, reveal that alpha4beta1-mediated Src activation is mechanistically distinct from FAK-mediated Src activation during alpha5beta1-mediated NB migration and support the evaluation of inhibitors to alpha4, Src and FAK in the control of NB tumor progression.