Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant for the Treatment of X-MAID.
ABSTRACT: We report outcomes after hematopoietic stem cell transplant for three patients with X-MAID, including 1 patient from the originally described cohort and two brothers with positive TREC newborn screening for SCID who were found to have a T-B-NK+ SCID phenotype attributable to X-linked moesin associated immunodeficiency (X-MAID). A c.511C>T variant in moesin was identified via exome sequencing in the older of these siblings in the setting of low lymphocyte counts and poor proliferative responses consistent with SCID. He received reduced intensity conditioning due to CMV, and was transplanted with a T-depleted haploidentical (maternal) donor. His post-transplant course was complicated by hemolytic anemia, neutropenia, and sepsis. He had poor engraftment, requiring a 2nd transplant. His younger brother presented with the same clinical phenotype and was treated with umbilical cord blood transplant following myeloablative conditioning, has engrafted and is doing well. The third case also presented with severe lymphopenia in infancy, received a matched related bone marrow transplant following myeloablative conditioning, has engrafted and is doing well. These cases represent a novel manifestation of non-radiosensitive X-linked form of T-B-NK+ SCID that is able to be detected by TREC based newborn screening and effectively treated with HCT.
Project description:Newborn screening has led to a better understanding of the prevalence of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) overall and in terms of specific genotypes. Survival has improved following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) with the best outcomes seen following use of a matched sibling donor. However, questions remain regarding the optimal alternative donor source, appropriate use of conditioning and the impact of these decisions on immune reconstitution and other late morbidities. Areas covered: The currently available literature reporting late effects after HCT for SCID and use of alternative therapies including enzyme replacement, alternative donors and gene therapy are reviewed. A literature search was performed on Pubmed and ClinicalTrials.gov using key words 'Severe Combined Immunodeficiency', 'SCID', 'hematopoietic stem cell transplant', 'conditioning', 'gene therapy', 'SCID newborn screening', 'TREC' and 'late effects'. Expert commentary: Newborn screening has dramatically changed the clinical presentation of newborn SCID. While the majority of patients with SCID survive HCT, data regarding late effects in these patients is limited and additional studies focused on genotype specific late effects are needed. Prospective studies aimed at minimizing the use of alkylating agents and reducing late effects beyond survival are needed. Gene therapy is being developed and will likely become a more commonly used treatment that will require separate consideration of survival and late effects.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Newborn screening (NBS) by quantifying T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) in neonatal dried blood spots (DBS) enables early diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID). In recent years, different screening algorithms for TREC based SCID screening were reported.<h4>Purpose</h4>To systematically review the diagnostic performance of published algorithms for TREC based NBS for SCID.<h4>Methods</h4>PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for case series and prospective cohort studies describing TREC based NBS for SCID. We extracted TREC content and cut-off values, number of retests, repeat DBS and referrals, and type and number of typical SCID and other T cell lymphopenia (TCL) cases. We calculated positive predictive value (PPV), test sensitivity and SCID incidence.<h4>Results</h4>Thirteen studies were included, re-confirming 89 known SCID cases in case series and reporting 53 new SCID cases in 3.15 million newborns. In case series, the sensitivity for typical SCID was 100%. In the prospective cohort studies, SCID incidence was ~1.7:100,000, re-test rate was 0.20-3.26%, repeat DBS rate 0.0-0.41% and referral rate 0.01-1.35%. PPV within the five largest cohorts was 0.8-11.2% for SCID and 18.3-81.0% for TCL. Individual TREC contents in all SCID patients was <25 TRECs/?l (except in those evaluated with the New York State assay).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The sensitivity of TREC based NBS for typical SCID was 100 %. The TREC cut-off score determines the percentage of non-SCID TCL cases detected in newborn screening for TCL. Adapting the screening algorithm for pre-term/ill infants reduces the amount of false positive test results.
Project description:Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) is the most severe form of primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID). T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) copy number analysis is an efficient tool for population-based newborn screening (NBS) for SCID and other T cell lymphopenias. We sought to assess the incidence of SCID among Saudi newborn population and examine the feasibility of using targeted next generation sequencing PID gene panel (T-NGS PID) on DNA isolated from dried blood spots (DBSs) in routine NBS programs as a mutation screening tool for samples with low TREC count. Punches from 8,718 DBS collected on Guthrie cards were processed anonymously for the TREC assay. DNA was extracted from samples with confirmed low TREC count, then screened for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome by real-time polymerase chain reaction and for mutations in PID-related genes by T-NGS PID panel. Detected mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Sixteen out of the 8,718 samples were confirmed to have low TREC copy number. Autosomal recessive mutations in AK2, JAK3, and MTHFD1 were confirmed in three samples. Two additional samples were positive for the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. In this study, we provide evidence for high incidence of SCID among Saudi population (1/2,906 live births) and demonstrate the feasibility of using T-NGS PID panel on DNA extracted from DBSs as a new reliable, rapid, and cost-effective mutation screening method for newborns with low TREC assay, which can be implemented as part of NBS programs for SCID.
Project description:Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), the most severe form of T cell immunodeficiency, is detectable through quantification of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) in dried blood spots obtained at birth. Herein, we describe the results of the first year of the Israeli SCID newborn screening (NBS) program. This important, life-saving screening test is available at no cost for every newborn in Israel. Eight SCID patients were diagnosed through the NBS program in its first year, revealing an incidence of 1:22,500 births in the Israeli population. Consanguine marriages and Muslim ethnic origin were found to be a risk factor in affected newborns, and a founder effect was detected for both IL7R? and DCLRE1C deficiency SCID. Lymphocyte subset analysis and TREC quantification in the peripheral blood appear to be sufficient for confirmation of typical and leaky SCID and ruling out false positive (FP) results. Detection of secondary targets (infants with non-SCID lymphopenia) did not significantly affect the management or outcomes of these infants in our cohort. In the general, non-immunodeficient population, TREC rises along with gestational age and birth weight, and is significantly higher in females and the firstborn of twin pairs. Low TREC correlates with both gestational age and birth weight in extremely premature newborns. Additionally, the rate of TREC increase per week consistently accelerates with gestational age. Together, these findings mandate a lower cutoff or a more lenient screening algorithm for extremely premature infants, in order to reduce the high rate of FPs within this group. A significant surge in TREC values was observed between 28 and 30?weeks of gestation, where median TREC copy numbers rise by 50% over 2?weeks. These findings suggest a maturational step in T cell development around week 29 gestation, and imply moderate to late preterms should be screened with the same cutoff as term infants. The SCID NBS program is still in its infancy, but is already bearing fruit in the early detection and improved outcomes of children with SCID in Israel and other countries.
Project description:Patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) are born with profound deficiency of functional T-lymphocytes. Early detection and diagnosis would allow for prompt institution of isolation from infection and referral for definitive treatment with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Universal newborn screening for SCID, using an assay to detect T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) in dried blood spots (DBS), is now being performed in all states in the United States. In this review, we discuss the development and outcomes of TREC screening, and continued challenges to implementation.
Project description:Newborn screening (NBS) for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) identifies affected infants before the onset of life-threatening infections, permitting optimal treatment. Navajo Native Americans have a founder mutation in the DNA repair enzyme Artemis, resulting in frequent Artemis SCID (SCID-A). A pilot study at 2 Navajo hospitals assessed the feasibility of SCID NBS in this population. Dried blood spots from 1800 infants were assayed by PCR for T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), a biomarker for naïve T cells. Starting in February 2012, TREC testing transitioned to standard care throughout the Navajo Area Indian Health Service, and a total of 7900 infants were screened through July 2014. One infant had low TRECs and was diagnosed with non-SCID T lymphopenia, while 4 had undetectable TRECs due to SCID-A, all of whom were referred for hematopoietic cell transplantation. This report establishes the incidence of SCID-A and demonstrates effectiveness of TREC NBS in the Navajo.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Assay of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) in dried blood spots obtained at birth permits population-based newborn screening (NBS) for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID).<h4>Objective</h4>We sought to report the first 2 years of TREC NBS in California.<h4>Methods</h4>Since August 2010, California has conducted SCID NBS. A high-throughput TREC quantitative PCR assay with DNA isolated from routine dried blood spots was developed. Samples with initial low TREC numbers had repeat DNA isolation with quantitative PCR for TRECs and a genomic control, and immunophenotyping was performed within the screening program for infants with incomplete or abnormal results. Outcomes were tracked.<h4>Results</h4>Of 993,724 infants screened, 50 (1/19,900 [0.005%]) had significant T-cell lymphopenia. Fifteen (1/66,250) required hematopoietic cell or thymus transplantation or gene therapy; these infants had typical SCID (n = 11), leaky SCID or Omenn syndrome (n = 3), or complete DiGeorge syndrome (n = 1). Survival to date in this group is 93%. Other T-cell lymphopenic infants had variant SCID or combined immunodeficiency (n = 6), genetic syndromes associated with T-cell impairment (n = 12), secondary T-cell lymphopenia (n = 9), or preterm birth (n = 8). All T-cell lymphopenic infants avoided live vaccines and received appropriate interventions to prevent infections. TREC test specificity was excellent: only 0.08% of infants required a second test, and 0.016% required lymphocyte phenotyping by using flow cytometry.<h4>Conclusions</h4>TREC NBS in California has achieved early diagnosis of SCID and other conditions with T-cell lymphopenia, facilitating management and optimizing outcomes. Furthermore, NBS has revealed the incidence, causes, and follow-up of T-cell lymphopenia in a large diverse population.
Project description:Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and other T cell lymphopenias can be detected during newborn screening (NBS) by measuring T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) in dried blood spot (DBS) DNA. Second tier next generation sequencing (NGS) with an amplicon based targeted gene panel using the same DBS DNA was introduced as part of our prospective pilot research project in 2015. With written parental consent, 21 000 newborns were TREC-tested in the pilot. Three newborns were identified with SCID, and disease-causing variants in IL2RG, RAG2, and RMRP were confirmed by NGS on the initial DBS DNA. The molecular findings directed follow-up and therapy: the IL2RG-SCID underwent early hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) without any complications; the leaky RAG2-SCID received prophylactic antibiotics, antifungals, and immunoglobulin infusions, and underwent HSCT at 1 year of age. The child with RMRP-SCID had complete Hirschsprung disease and died at 1 month of age. Since January 2018, all newborns in Norway have been offered NBS for SCID using 1st tier TRECs and 2nd tier gene panel NGS on DBS DNA. During the first 20 months of nationwide SCID screening an additional 88 000 newborns were TREC tested, and four new SCID cases were identified. Disease-causing variants in DCLRE1C, JAK3, NBN, and IL2RG were molecularly confirmed on day 8, 15, 8 and 6, respectively after birth, using the initial NBS blood spot. Targeted gene panel NGS integrated into the NBS algorithm rapidly delineated the specific molecular diagnoses and provided information useful for management, targeted therapy and follow-up i.e., X rays and CT scans were avoided in the radiosensitive SCID. Second tier targeted NGS on the same DBS DNA as the TREC test provided instant confirmation or exclusion of SCID, and made it possible to use a less stringent TREC cut-off value. This allowed for the detection of leaky SCIDs, and simultaneously reduced the number of control samples, recalls and false positives. Mothers were instructed to stop breastfeeding until maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) status was determined. Our limited data suggest that shorter time-interval from birth to intervention, may prevent breast milk transmitted CMV infection in classical SCID.
Project description:Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens have been increasingly used for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in follicular lymphoma (FL). We compared traditional myeloablative conditioning regimens to RIC in FL. Outcomes of HLA-identical sibling HSCT for FL in 208 recipients reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) between 1997 and 2002 were studied. Conditioning regimens were categorized as myeloablative (N = 120) or RIC (N = 88). Use of RIC regimens increased from <10% of transplants in 1997 to >80% in 2002 signaling a major shift in practice. Patients receiving RIC were older and had a longer interval from diagnosis to transplant. These differences did not correlate with outcomes. Median follow-up of survivors was 50 months (4-96 months) after myeloablative conditioning versus 35 months (4-82 months) after RIC (P < .001). At 3 years, overall survival (OS) for the myeloablative and RIC cohorts were 71 (63%-79%) and 62 (51%-72%; P = .15) and progression free survival (PFS), 67 (58%-75%) and 55 (44%-65%; P = .07), respectively. Lower Karnofsky performance score (KPS) and resistance to chemotherapy were associated with higher treatment-related mortality (TRM) and lower OS and PFS. On multivariate analysis, an increased risk of lymphoma progression after RIC was observed (relative risk = 2.97, P = .04). RIC has become the de facto standard in allogeneic HSCT for FL, and appears to result in similar long-term outcomes. Although disease-free survival (DPS) is similar compared to myeloablative conditioning, an increased risk of late disease progression after RIC is concerning.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a motor neuron disorder caused by the absence of a functional survival of motor neuron 1, telomeric (SMN1) gene. Type I SMA, a lethal disease of infancy, accounts for the majority of cases. Newborn blood spot screening (NBS) to detect severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) has been implemented in public health laboratories in the last 5 years. SCID detection is based on real-time PCR assays to measure T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC), a byproduct of T-cell development. We modified a multiplexed real-time PCR TREC assay to simultaneously determine the presence or absence of the SMN1 gene from a dried blood spot (DBS) punch in a single reaction well.<h4>Method</h4>An SMN1 assay using a locked nucleic acid probe was initially developed with cell culture and umbilical cord blood (UCB) DNA extracts, and then integrated into the TREC assay. DBS punches were placed in 96-well arrays, washed, and amplified directly using reagents specific for TREC, a reference gene [ribonuclease P/MRP 30kDa subunit (RPP30)], and the SMN1 gene. The assay was tested on DBS made from UCB units and from peripheral blood samples of SMA-affected individuals and their family members.<h4>Results</h4>DBS made from SMA-affected individuals showed no SMN1-specific amplification, whereas DBS made from all unaffected carriers and UCB showed SMN1 amplification above a well-defined threshold. TREC and RPP30 content in all DBS were within the age-adjusted expected range.<h4>Conclusions</h4>SMA caused by the absence of SMN1 can be detected from the same DBS punch used to screen newborns for SCID.