Repeatability of choroidal thickness measurements with Spectralis OCT images.
ABSTRACT: Objective:To investigate the repeatability of choroidal thickness measurements determined from enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) images of eyes after wearing single-vision spectacles (SV) and orthokeratology (ortho-k) lenses. Methods and analysis:Two EDI-OCT images of 40 children (SV: 20, ortho-k: 20) taken at a single visit were analysed twice. Subjects in the ortho-k group had been wearing ortho-k for 1-4 weeks. The choroidal thickness was determined from each image using a graph theory-based software and, where appropriate, manual correction of choroidal boundaries was undertaken by an experienced examiner. Results:The mean (±SD) choroidal thickness was 227.3±42.2?µm for the SV subjects and 251.1±54.4?µm for the ortho-k subjects. The interimage differences in choroidal thickness were -0.99±3.54?and -1.14±5.03?µm for the SV and ortho-k subjects, respectively, and the limits of agreement were +5.96?to -7.93 and +8.72?to -11.00 µm, respectively. Conclusion:The coefficients of repeatability of choroidal thickness measurements from two EDI-OCT images taken at a single visit were 7.08?µm (SV) and 10.06?µm (ortho-k), suggesting that a change in choroidal thickness of less than 10 µm may not indicate a real change resulting from ortho-k lens wear.
Project description:PURPOSE: To evaluate a simplified method to measure choroidal thickness (CT) using commercially available enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: We measured CT in 31 subjects without ocular diseases using Spectralis EDI SD-OCT. The choroid-scleral interface of the acquired images was first enhanced using a post-processing compensation algorithm. The enhanced images were then analysed using Photoshop. Two graders independently graded the images to assess inter-grader reliability. One grader re-graded the images after 2 weeks to determine intra-grader reliability. Statistical analysis was performed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plot analyses. RESULTS: Using adaptive compensation both the intra-grader reliability (ICC: 0.95 to 0.97) and inter-grader reliability (ICC: 0.93 to 0.97) were perfect for all five locations of CT. However, with the conventional technique of manual CT measurements using built-in callipers provided with the Heidelberg explorer software, the intra- (ICC: 0.87 to 0.94) and inter-grader reliability (ICC: 0.90 to 0.93) for all the measured locations is lower. Using adaptive compensation, the mean differences (95% limits of agreement) for intra- and inter-grader sub-foveal CT measurements were -1.3 (-3.33 to 30.8) µm and -1.2 (-36.6 to 34.2) µm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of CT obtained from EDI SD-OCT using our simplified method was highly reliable and efficient. Our method is an easy and practical approach to improve the quality of choroidal images and the precision of CT measurement.
Project description:Purpose:We investigate the measurable range of subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) with conventional spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in normal healthy eyes. Methods:All subjects underwent an SD-OCT horizontal line scan centered at the fovea with standard and enhanced depth imaging (EDI) techniques. Two independent observers manually measured SFCT on standard and EDI-OCT images, if two choroidal borders were identified. The rate of successful measurement with standard OCT was evaluated. Inter- and intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were used for analysis. Results:OCT images of 724 normal healthy eyes from 374 subjects were evaluated. Although the inner choroidal border was identified on all OCT images, the outer choroidal border was identified on 378 of 724 (52.2%) conventional OCT images. Mean SFCT of all study eyes measured by EDI-OCT images was 292.6 ± 94.0. The number of successful measurements with conventional OCT was 100%, 87.5%, 48.1%, 33.0%, and 0%, in the SFCT ranges of <241, 241-280, 281-320, 321-360, and >360 ?m, respectively. The accumulated rate of successful measurement with conventional OCT was 100%, 96.4%, and 82.2% in the SFCT ranges of ?240, ?280, and ?320 ?m, respectively. Two protocols showed good inter-correlation of SFCT, when SFCT were measurable in both scans. Conclusions:SFCT can be measured by conventional OCT in eyes with thin choroid, and the measured value shows high agreement with those measured by EDI-OCT. In such eyes, conventional OCT can be used potentially to evaluate the retina and choroid. Translational Relevance:In eyes with a thin choroid, conventional OCT can be used potentially to evaluate the retina and choroid with high agreement with EDI-OCT.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To compare cross-sectional choroidal morphology in rhesus macaque and human eyes using enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and histologic analysis.<h4>Methods</h4>Enhanced-depth imaging-OCT images from 25 rhesus macaque and 30 human eyes were evaluated for choriocapillaris and choroidal-scleral junction (CSJ) visibility in the central macula based on OCT reflectivity profiles, and compared with age-matched histologic sections. Semiautomated segmentation of the choriocapillaris and CSJ was used to measure choriocapillary and choroidal thickness, respectively. Multivariate regression was performed to determine the association of age, refractive error, and race with choriocapillaris and CSJ visibility.<h4>Results</h4>Rhesus macaques exhibit a distinct hyporeflective choriocapillaris layer on EDI-OCT, while the CSJ cannot be visualized. In contrast, humans show variable reflectivities of the choriocapillaris, with a distinct CSJ seen in many subjects. Histologic sections demonstrate large, darkly pigmented melanocytes that are densely distributed in the macaque choroid, while melanocytes in humans are smaller, less pigmented, and variably distributed. Optical coherence tomography reflectivity patterns of the choroid appear to correspond to the density, size, and pigmentation of choroidal melanocytes. Mean choriocapillary thickness was similar between the two species (19.3 ± 3.4 vs. 19.8 ± 3.4 ?m, P = 0.615), but choroidal thickness may be lower in macaques than in humans (191.2 ± 43.0 vs. 266.8 ± 78.0 ?m, P < 0.001). Racial differences in uveal pigmentation also appear to affect the visibility of the choriocapillaris and CSJ on EDI-OCT.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Pigmented uveal melanocytes affect choroidal morphology on EDI-OCT in rhesus macaque and human eyes. Racial differences in pigmentation may affect choriocapillaris and CSJ visibility, and may influence the accuracy of choroidal thickness measurements.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>To determine the effects of dynamic exercise on the circulation and the luminal and stromal areas of the choroid in normal eyes.<h4>Methods</h4>This was a prospective interventional study of 38 eyes of 38 normal subjects enrolled by invitation. The systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate, intraocularpressure, mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP), choroidal blood velocity, and enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomographic (EDI-OCT) images were recorded before, and immediately after mild dynamic exercise. The same measurements were recorded after 10 min of rest. The choroidal blood velocity was measured bylaser speckle flowgraphy, and the mean blur rate was used for the evaluations. The horizontal EDI-OCT images of the subfoveal choroid were converted to binary images. The central choroidal thickness (CCT), total cross sectional choroidal area, luminal areas, stromal areas, and the ratio of luminal area to total choroidal area (L/C ratio) were determined from these images.<h4>Results</h4>The systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate, MOPP, and the mean blur rate were significantly increased immediately after the exercise and significantly decreased 10 minutes after the exercise. There wereno significant changes in the mean CCT, the mean total choroidal area, the mean luminal and stromal areas, and the mean L/C ratio after the exercise.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results suggest that a rest period is needed before measurements of blood flow velocity but not necessary for the EDI-OCT imaging to determine the choroidal thickness and area.
Project description:PURPOSE: To evaluate the variability in subfoveal choroidal thickness measurements in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and central serous chorioretinopathy using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). METHODS: One hundred and sixty eyes of 160 patients who were diagnosed with early AMD (N=40), exudative AMD (N=40), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV, N=40), or central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC, N=40) were included in this retrospective observational study. In addition, we included 40 normal eyes of 40 subjects. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured manually by two masked observers based on EDI-OCT images. The correlation of choroidal thickness with the absolute value of the difference in the choroidal thickness measurement was estimated for all 200 eyes. Intraobserver and interobserver coefficients of repeatability (CRs) were calculated. RESULTS: There was a significant positive correlation between subfoveal choroidal thickness and both intraobserver (P<0.001) and interobserver (P<0.001) difference in choroidal thickness measurements. The mean intraobserver CRs in nonexudative AMD, exudative AMD, PCV, CSC, and normal eyes were ~15-21, 23-29, 24-35, 32-38, and 19-25 μm, respectively. The mean interobserver CRs were ~24-28, 30-36, 39-45, 46-57, and 26-35 μm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Relatively great measurement variability should be considered when investigating eyes with pathologic conditions related to a thick choroid, including PCV or CSC.
Project description:Knowledgeof the choroidal structures in eyes with diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR) should provide information on the pathogenesis of DR. A prospective study was performed to determine the systemic and ocular factors that affect the choroidal structures in eyes with diabetes. Two-hundred consecutive diabetic subjects consisted of 160 treatment-naïve patients with different stages of DR and 40 patients with proliferative DR with prior panretinal photocoagulation (PRP). All underwent blood and urine tests and enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). The cross-sectional EDI-OCT images of the subfoveal choroid were binarized to measure the total choroidal area (TCA), luminal area, and stromal area. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine the systemic and ocular factors that were significantly correlated with the choroidal structures. The subfoveal choroidal thickness, TCA, luminal area, and stromal area were larger at more advanced stage of DR, and smaller in eyes with PRP than those without (P?<?0.001). The TCA and stromal area were significantly and positively correlated with the degree of albuminuria (P?=?0.034, P?=?0.025, respectively). The choroidal lumen and stroma may increase as the stages of DR progress and decrease after PRP. Albuminuria may be associated with the choroidal stromal edema.
Project description:We assessed the application of the choroidal vascularity index (CVI) in the follow-up of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH) patients derived from image binarization of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) images with Fiji software. Our secondary objective was to derive the retinochoroidal vascularity index based on en face fundus fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography (FFA and ICGA).In this retrospective cohort study, EDI-OCT scans of 18 eyes of 9 patients with VKH were obtained at baseline within 2 weeks of acute presentation, and again at 6 to 12 months. Images with poor quality were excluded. Choroidal thickness (CT) and CVI were analyzed and compared to 13 eyes of 13 healthy controls. En face FFA and ICGA obtained from 12 eyes of 7 patients were segmented to derive retinochoroidal vascularity index.There was no statistical difference in age or sex between the study group and controls. Choroidal thickness of patients with VKH was 359.23 ± 57.63 ?m at baseline, compared to 274.09 ± 56.98 ?m in controls (P = 0.003). Follow-up CT in VKH patients was 282.62 ± 42.51 ?m, which was significantly decreased from baseline (P = 0.0001). Choroidal vascularity index in VKH patients was 70.03 ± 1.93% at baseline, compared to 64.63 ± 1.92% in controls (P < 0.001). Choroidal vascularity index was 66.94 ± 1.82% at follow-up, significantly reduced from baseline (P < 0.0001). Fundus fluorescein angiography and ICGA retinochoroidal vascularity indices at baseline were 70.67 ± 2.65% and 66.42 ± 2.16%, respectively.In this small series of VKH patients, EDI-OCT-derived CVI had a statistically significant reduction over time, similar to CT. We propose that OCT, FFA, and ICGA-derived vascularity indices may be potential novel supportive tools in monitoring disease progression in VKH.Choroidal vascularity index can be used potentially to study and analyze the structural changes in choroid. It can be a useful tool to explain the changes in the CT in different retinochoroidal disorders. Choroidal vascularity index also can be used for longitudinal follow-up in patients with VKH disease and other inflammatory disease involving the choroid.
Project description:<i>(1) Background</i>: We aimed to reveal the relationship between the choroid and the outer retina with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) with mild or no diabetic retinopathy (DR) in order to find early biomarkers for progressing retinopathy. <i>(2) Methods</i>: We performed a prospective study including 61 eyes of patients with type 1 or type 2 DM and 36 eyes of healthy controls. All subjects were imaged with Spectralis OCT. The choroid was assesseed using enhanced depth imaging OCT (EDI-OCT). Binarization of subfoveal choroidal images was done with public domain software, ImageJ (version 1.53a; National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA). <i>(3) Results</i>: Luminal area, stromal area and total choroidal area were significantly decreased in diabetic patients compared to control: 0.23 ± 0.07 vs. 0.28 ± 0.08, <i>p</i> = 0.012; 0.08 ± 0.03 vs. 0.10 ± 0.04, <i>p</i> = 0.026; 0.31 ± 0.09 vs. 0.38 ± 0.11, <i>p</i> = 0.008. The thickness of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) correlated positively with the choroidal vascularity index (CVI). The correlations between outer nuclear layer (ONL), photoreceptors (PR) and foveal choroidal thickness (FChT) were moderately negative. <i>(4) Conclusion</i>: Thicker RPE and a thinner PR layer may be assigned the role of early biomarkers signaling the conversion time to progressing retinopathy.
Project description:Choroid thinning occurs in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, it remains unclear whether the reduction is due to reduction in choroidal vessels or shrinkage of choroidal stroma, or both. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes of the choroidal vascular and stromal area in 118 patients with typical AMD (t-AMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) over a 12-month period. We used spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with enhanced depth imaging (EDI) mode to measure the subfoveal choroidal thickness (CT), central retinal thickness (CRT) and choroidal vascularity index (CVI - ratio of luminal area to total choroidal area). At baseline, PCV eyes had higher CRT (471.6 µm vs 439.1 µm, p = 0.02), but comparable subfoveal CT and CVI, compared to t-AMD. Eyes with high CVI at baseline showed marked reduction in stromal area compared with eyes with average or low CVI. Over 12 months, CRT and subfoveal CT significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in both subtypes. Eyes with high baseline CVI showed significant CVI reduction from baseline to month 12 (p < 0.001), whereas eyes with average to low baseline CVI showed increase in CVI. These differences in choroidal vascularity may reflect different predominant pathogenic processes and remodeling in AMD eyes with varying spectrum.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is one of the disorders within the pachychoroid spectrum diseases. The presence of pachyvessels is one of the characteristics of pachychoroid disorders. However, the relationship between the presence of pachyvessels and the clinical characteristics of PCV eyes has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of choroidal pachyvessels and the clinical characteristics of eyes with PCV. METHODS:The medical records of patients who were diagnosed with PCV and were treatment-naïve were reviewed. Fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, fundus photography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and enhanced depth imaging OCT (EDI-OCT) were used to obtain images of the choroid. The presence of pathologically dilated outer choroidal vessels, pachyvessels, was determined by ICGA images. These pachyvessels were confirmed to correspond with the large choroidal vessels in the EDI OCT images. The PCV eyes were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of pachyvessels and clinical features and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) were evaluated between the two groups. RESULTS:Eighty-six eyes of 84 patients with PCV were evaluated. Pachyvessels were detected in 48 eyes (55.8%). The mean SFCT was 203.9?±?83.9??m in all 86 eyes, and it was significantly thinner in eyes with pachyvessels (+) than without pachyvessels (-) (183.2?±?58.4??m vs 230.2?±?103.1??m; P =?0.01). The differences in the incidence of subretinal fluid, pigment epithelial detachments, and hemorrhages between the two groups were not significant. However, the PCV eyes in pachyvessels (+) group with hemorrhage had the thinnest choroid (P =?0.047). The choroidal features of the fellow eyes were similar to those of the PCV affected eyes, that is, the fellow eyes in pachyvessels (+) group had pachyvessels and the fellow eyes in pachyvessels (-) group did not have pachyvessels. CONCLUSIONS:Pachyvessels were presented 55.8% in eyes with PCV, and these eyes had the thin SFCT. The presence of pachyvessels and attenuation of the inner choroid were probably due to the pathological changes in the eyes with PCV.