Long noncoding RNA LINC00978 promotes cancer growth and acts as a diagnostic biomarker in gastric cancer.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in cancer development and progression. The deregulated expression of LINC00978 has been reported in human cancers. However, the expression pattern and biological roles of LINC00978 in gastric cancer (GC) remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the potential roles and clinical value of LINC00978 in gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS:QRT-PCR was performed to investigate the expression of LINC00978 in gastric cancer cell lines, tissues and serum samples. Cell counting, colony formation, transwell migration and matrigel invasion assays were performed to determine the effects of shRNA-mediated knockdown of LINC00978 on gastric cancer cell functions. In vivo tumour growth assay was also conducted. Flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, western blot and qRT-PCR were used for potential mechanism study. RESULTS:LINC00978 expression level was elevated in GC tumour tissues, serum samples and cell lines. The expression level of LINC00978 was significantly correlated with tumour size (P = 0.02), lymphatic metastasis (P = 0.009) and TNM stage (P = 0.009). LINC00978 knockdown inhibited the proliferation of GC cells by suppressing cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis. LINC00978 knockdown also inhibited the migration and invasion of GC cells. In addition, LINC00978 knockdown inhibited the activation of TGF-?/SMAD signalling pathway and the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in GC cells. Moreover, the in vivo tumorigenicity of LINC00978 knockdown GC cells in mice was significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS:LINC00978 promotes gastric cancer progression and may serve as a potential biomarker for GC.
Project description:Background: CircRNAs play important roles in cancer development and progression and have the potential to serve as cancer biomarkers. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of circular RNA CCDC66 (circCCDC66) in gastric cancer and to reveal the underlying mechanisms. Methods: The expression of circCCDC66 in GC tissues and cell lines was examined by qRT-PCR. The correlation between circCCDC66 expression level and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. The biological roles of circCCDC66 in GC cell apoptosis, proliferation, migration and invasion were determined by flow cytometry, cell counting, cell colony formation, wound healing, transwell migration and matrigel invasion assays. The role of circCCDC66 in GC growth was further confirmed by mouse xenograft tumor model. Western blot and qRT-PCR were used to explore the effects of circCCDC66 on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related gene and protein expression. Results: CircCCDC66 expression was elevated in both GC tissues and cell lines compared to adjacent normal tissues and normal gastric epithelial cell line. The upregulation of circCCDC66 in GC tissues was related to tumor stage and lymphatic metastasis. CircCCDC66 knockdown significantly inhibited GC cell proliferation, migration and invasion and induced cell apoptosis in GC cells. On the contrary, circCCDC66 overexpression had the opposite effects. In addition, circCCDC66 knockdown suppressed the tumorigenesis of GC cells in nude mice. Furthermore, circCCDC66 knockdown inhibited the activation of c-Myc and TGF-? signaling pathways and reversed EMT in GC cells. c-Myc and TGF-? interference blocked circCCDC66-mediated promotion of gastric cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Conclusion: CircCCDC66 promotes GC growth and metastasis by activating c-Myc and TGF-? signaling pathways, suggesting that it may serve as a potential biomarker for GC.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of human cancers. However, the functional roles of lncRNAs and the mechanisms responsible for their aberrant expression in gastric cancer (GC) have not been well characterized.In this study, we examined the expression of lncRNA UFC1 in GC by qRT-PCR and explored its correlation with clinicopathological parameters. In vitro cell functional assays and in vivo animal studies were performed to determine the roles of UFC1 in GC progression.UFC1 was elevated and predicted poorer prognosis in GC. UFC1 knockdown inhibited while UFC1 overexpression promoted GC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. UFC1 bound to miR-498 to antagonize its tumor suppressive effect on Lin28b. Suppression of Lin28b by miR-498 could be rescued by UFC1 overexpression, whereas Lin28b overexpression partially rescued UFC1 knockdown-mediated inhibition of GC cell function. Lin28b expression was increased in GC and suggested a co-expression pattern with UFC1.UFC1 has a promoting role in GC progression, at least in part, by acting as a miR-498 sponge and derepressing Lin28b expression, which would provide a novel biomarker for GC diagnosis and prognosis and offer a potential target for GC therapy.
Project description:miR-375 is a tumor-suppressive microRNA (miRNA) in gastric cancer (GC). However, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study is to comprehensively investigate how miR-375 is involved in Hippo pathway by targeting multiple oncogenes. miR-375 expression in gastric cancer cell lines and primary GC was investigated by qRT-PCR. The regulation of YAP1, TEAD4, and CTGF expression by miR-375 was evaluated by qRT-PCR, western blot, and luciferase reporter assays, respectively. The functional roles of the related genes were examined by siRNA-mediated knockdown or ectopic expression assays. The clinical significance and expression correlation analysis of miR-375, YAP1, and CTGF were performed in primary GCs. TCGA cohort was also used to analyze the expression correlation of YAP1, TEAD4, CTGF, and miR-375 in primary GCs. miR-375 was down-regulated in GC due to promoter methylation and histone deacetylation. miR-375 downregulation was associated with unfavorable outcome and lymph node metastasis. Ectopic expression of miR-375 inhibited tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Three components of Hippo pathway, YAP1, TEAD4 and CTGF, were revealed to be direct targets of miR-375. The expression of three genes showed a negative correlation with miR-375 expression and YAP1 re-expression partly abolished the tumor-suppressive effect of miR-375. Furthermore, CTGF was confirmed to be the key downstream of Hippo-YAP1 cascade and its knockdown phenocopied siYAP1 or miR-375 overexpression. YAP1 nuclear accumulation was positively correlated with CTGF cytoplasmic expression in primary GC tissues. Verteporfin exerted an anti-oncogenic effect in GC cell lines by quenching CTGF expression through YAP1 degradation. In short, miR-375 was involved in the Hippo pathway by targeting YAP1-TEAD4-CTGF axis and enriched our knowledge on the miRNA dysregulation in gastric tumorigenesis.
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) play important roles in tumor development and progression. The expression of lncRNAs is frequently dysregulated in human cancer. DANCR (anti-differentiation noncoding RNA) is a newly identified lncRNA in human cancer, however, its functional roles and clinical value in gastric cancer (GC) remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of DANCR in the tumor tissues and serum of GC patients and analyzed the correlation between DANCR expression levels and the clinicopathological characteristics. Our results showed that the expression of DANCR was higher in the tumor tissues than that in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues. The expression level of DANCR was also elevated in the serum of GC patients compared to that of healthy controls. The expression levels of DANCR were significantly associated with tumor size, TNM stage, lymphatic metastasis and invasion depth. DANCR knockdown inhibited the proliferation of GC cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. In addition, DANCR knockdown suppressed gastric cancer growth in vivo. Moreover, DANCR knockdown inhibited the migration and invasion of GC cells via the suppression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, DANCR overexpression had the opposite effect. DANCR is activated by SALL4 in gastric cancer cells and exerted its oncogenic activities through the activation of ?-catenin pathway. Taken together, our findings suggest that DANCR promotes the progression of gastric cancer and have the potential to serve as a novel diagnostic biomarker.
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been reported to play critical roles in gastric cancer, but true biomarkers remain unknown. In this study, we found a new lncRNA LINC00355 that was involved in malignant progression of gastric cancer (GC) and further revealed its role and mechanism. Differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified through bioinformatics, and qRT-PCR was used to validate the expression of LINC00355 in gastric cancer tissues and cells. The biological role of LINC00355 in GC was detected by gene overexpression and knockdown experiments. Subcellular fractionation, qRT-PCR, and FISH were performed to detect the subcellular localization. Co-IP and western blotting were used to study the ubiquitination-mediated regulation of P53 and the expression of the E3 ligases RAD18 and UBE3C. The results showed that LINC00355 was significantly increased in gastric cancer cell lines and patient tissues and closely correlated with late stages, distant metastasis, and poor prognosis of patients. High expression of LINC00355 promoted the proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistic studies found that LINC00355 that mainly located in the nucleus, acting as a transcriptional activator, promoted transcription of RAD18 and UBE3C, which both bind to P53 and mediate the ubiquitination and degradation of P53. Furthermore, LINC00355 overexpression enhanced the ubiquitination process, and LINC00355 knockdown alleviated it. These results indicated that LINC00355 induces gastric cancer cell proliferation and invasion by promoting transcription of RAD18 and UBE3C, which mediates ubiquitination of P53 and thereby plays a critical role in survival and tumorigenicity of gastric cancer cells. LINC00355 may represent a new mechanism for GC progression and provide a potential marker for GC diagnosis and treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Forkhead Box P3 (FoxP3) is thought to be a key transcription factor in regulatory T cells (Tregs), and recent data indicate that it is expressed in several tumour cells. However, its precise roles in gastric cancer (GC) and the underlying mechanisms regulating the interaction between GC cells and lymphocytes remain unclear. METHODS: FoxP3 expression was examined in tumour cells and Tregs in 150 cases of gastric precancer and cancer, and their prognostic significances were evaluated, respectively, using a tissue microarray containing 135 GC patient samples with a mean 102-month follow-up. FoxP3 involvement in the tumour cells-lymphocytes interaction and its gene function were further investigated. RESULTS: strong cytoplasmic staining of FoxP3 was observed in GC cells. FoxP3 protein expression in tumour cells predicts a good prognosis, whereas high-density Treg predicts a poor prognosis. Moreover, FoxP3 expression in GC cells increased after coculture with peripheral blood mononuclear cells through coculture systems. Upregulation of FoxP3 inhibited tumour growth in tumour-bearing nude mice. CONCLUSIONS: High FoxP3 expression in tumour cells predicts better survival in GC, possibility in relation to interaction between tumour cells and lymphocytes in microenvironment. Interfering with FoxP3 expression may open a new therapeutic strategy against tumour progression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel type of noncoding RNAs and play important roles in tumorigenesis, including gastric cancer (GC). However, the functions of most circRNAs remain poorly understood. In our study, we aimed to investigate the functions of a new circRNA circ-DONSON in GC progression. METHODS:The expression of circ-DONSON in gastric cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues was analyzed by bioinformatics method, qRT-PCR, Northern blotting and in situ hybridization (ISH). The effects of circ-DONSON on GC cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion were measured by using CCK8, colony formation, EdU, immunofluorescence (IF), FACS and Transwell assays. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were utilized to validate how circ-DONSON regulates SOX4 expression. ChIP, DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (DNA-FISH) and DNA accessibility assays were used to investigate how circ-DONSON regulates SOX4 transcription. The interaction between circ-DONSON and NURF complex was evaluated by mass spectrum, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), pulldown and EMSA assays. Xenograft mouse model was used to analyze the effect of circ-DONSON on GC growth in vivo. RESULTS:Elevated expression of circ-DONSON was observed in GC tissues and positively associated with advanced TNM stage and unfavorable prognosis. Silencing of circ-DONSON significantly suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of GC cells while promoting apoptosis. circ-DONSON was localized in the nucleus, recruited the NURF complex to SOX4 promoter and initiated its transcription. Silencing of the NURF complex subunit SNF2L, BPTF or RBBP4 similarly attenuated GC cell growth and increased apoptosis. circ-DONSON knockdown inhibited GC growth in vivo. CONCLUSION:circ-DONSON promotes GC progression through recruiting the NURF complex to initiate SOX4 expression.
Project description:The stem cell factor SALL4 (Sal-like protein 4) plays important roles in the development and progression of cancer. SALL4 is critically involved in tumour growth, metastasis and therapy resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the oncogenic roles of SALL4 have not been well characterized. In this study, we demonstrated that SALL4 knockdown by short hairpin RNA greatly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells. We further confirmed the inhibitory effects of SALL4 knockdown on gastric cancer cells by using a tetracycline-inducible system. Mechanistically, SALL4 knockdown downregulated the expression of CD44. The results of luciferase assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation study showed that SALL4 bound to CD44 promoter region and transcriptionally activated CD44. The results of rescue study revealed that CD44 overexpression antagonized SALL4 knockdown-mediated inhibition of gastric cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and gastric cancer growth in vivo. Collectively, our findings indicate that SALL4 promotes gastric cancer progression through directly activating CD44 expression, which suggests a novel mechanism for the oncogenic roles of SALL4 in gastric cancer and represents a new target for gastric cancer therapy.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs which play important roles in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer (GC). Expression profiling of miRNAs in paired gastric cancer and adjacent normal gastric tissues has demonstrated that miR-4455 is down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues, but its functional role in the carcinogenesis of GC had not previously been investigated.The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional and biological mechanisms of miR-4455 in the progression of GC, in vitro.Expression of miR-4455 was compared in human GC tissue samples and paired adjacent normal tissue samples. The in vitro effects of miR-4455 expression in MGC-803 cells on their proliferation, invasion, and migration were assessed by MTT assays and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine staining, matrigel-invasion analysis and wound healing assays. Bioinformatics analysis (using PicTar, target scan and miRBase target) was used to identify potential targets for miR-4455, and the luciferase reporter assay, qRT-PCR and Western-blotting analyses were used to confirm VASP as the target of miR-4455. In addition, the effects of downregulation of VASP on the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway were measured using Western-blot analysis.The expression of miR-4455 was markedly down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues vs. adjacent normal tissues, and miR-4455 expression inhibited the proliferation, invasion and migration of MGC-803 GC cells in vitro. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that miR-4455 inhibited VASP expression by targeting the 3'-UTR sequence of VASP. Furthermore, silencing of VASP markedly inhibited the activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.Our results suggest that miR-4455 functions as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer, by targeting VASP leading to activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and the inhibition of VASP mediated proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Angiogenic factor with G-patch and FHA domain 1 (AGGF1), as a newly identified human angiogenic factor, is overexpressed in some types of malignant tumors and closely associated with patient's prognosis. However, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of AGGF1 in gastric cancer (GC) still remain unclear.<h4>Methods</h4>In this study, AGGF1 level in GC tissues and cell lines was analyzed by western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). After knockdown of AGGF expression by RNA interference in GC cell lines MKN-45 and MGC-803, wound healing and transwell assays were conducted to examine the effects of AGGF1 on migration and invasion. Tumor growth was assessed in a mouse xenograft model in vivo. Furthermore, expression levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) biomarkers and involvement of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway were detected by western blot and qRT-PCR.<h4>Results</h4>Compared to those in normal groups, the protein and mRNA of AGGF1 expression levels were significantly higher both in GC tissues and cell lines (all P?<?0.05). Knockdown of AGGF1 dramatically inhibited the invasion and migration of MKN-45 and MGC-803 cells (all P?<?0.01) in vitro, and suppressed the tumor growth of nude mice xenograft model in vivo. Western blot revealed alterations in EMT biomarkers, suggesting the role of AGGF1 in EMT. Moreover, we found that downregulated expression of AGGF1 attenuated Wnt/?-catenin related protein expression.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Collectively, knockdown of AGGF1 inhibits the invasion and migration of gastric cancer via epithelial-mesenchymal transition through Wnt/?-catenin pathway.