Downregulation of B-myb promotes senescence via the ROS-mediated p53/p21 pathway, in vascular endothelial cells.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:To reveal whether B-myb is involved in preventing senescence of vascular endothelial cells, and if so, to identify possible mechanisms for it. MATERIALS AND METHODS:C57/BL6 male mice and primary human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were used. Bleomycin was applied to induce stress-related premature senescence. B-myb knockdown was achieved using an siRNA technique and cell senescence was assessed using the senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal) assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was analysed using an ROS assay kit and cell proliferation was evaluated using KFluor488 EdU kit. Capillary tube network formation was determined by Matrigel assay. Expressions of mRNA and protein levels were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting. RESULTS:B-myb expression significantly decreased, while p53 and p21 expressions increased in the aortas of aged mice. This expression pattern was also found in replicative senescent HAECs and senescent HAECs induced by bleomycin. B-myb knockdown resulted in upregulation of p22phox , ROS accumulation and cell senescence of HAECs. Downregulation of B-myb significantly inhibited cell proliferation and capillary tube network formation and activated the p53/p21 signalling pathway. Blocking ROS production or inhibiting p53 activation remarkably attenuated SA-?-gal activity and delayed cell senescence induced by B-myb-silencing. CONCLUSION:Downregulation of B-myb induced senescence by upregulation of p22phox and activation of the ROS/p53/p21 pathway, in our vascular endothelial cells, suggesting that B-myb may be a novel candidate for regulating cell senescence to protect against endothelial senescence-related cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:Endothelial senescence plays crucial roles in diabetic vascular complication. Recent evidence indicated that transient hyperglycaemia could potentiate persistent diabetic vascular complications, a phenomenon known as "metabolic memory." Although SIRT1 has been demonstrated to mediate high glucose-induced endothelial senescence, whether and how "metabolic memory" would affect endothelial senescence through SIRT1 signaling remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the involvement of SIRT1 axis as well as the protective effects of resveratrol (RSV) and metformin (MET), two potent SIRT1 activators, during the occurrence of "metabolic memory" of cellular senescence (senescent "memory"). Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in either normal glucose (NG)/high glucose (HG) media for 6 days, or 3 days of HG followed by 3 days of NG (HN), with or without RSV or MET treatment. It was shown that HN incubation triggered persistent downregulation of deacetylase SIRT1 and upregulation of acetyltransferase p300, leading to sustained hyperacetylation (at K382) and activation of p53, and subsequent p53/p21-mediated senescent "memory." In contrast, senescent "memory" was abrogated by overexpression of SIRT1 or knockdown of p300. Interestingly, we found that SIRT1 and p300 could regulate each other in response to HN stimulation, suggesting that a delicate balance between acetyltransferases and deacetylases may be particularly important for sustained acetylation and activation of non-histone proteins (such as p53), and eventually the occurrence of "metabolic memory." Furthermore, we found that RSV or MET treatment prevented senescent "memory" by modulating SIRT1/p300/p53/p21 pathway. Notably, early and continuous treatment of MET, but not RSV, was particularly important for preventing senescent "memory." In conclusion, short-term high glucose stimulation could induce sustained endothelial senescence via SIRT1/p300/p53/p21 pathway. RVS or MET treatment could enhance SIRT1-mediated signaling and thus protect against senescent "memory" independent of their glucose lowering mechanisms. Therefore, they may serve as promising therapeutic drugs against the development of "metabolic memory."
Project description:Expression of p21(Sdi1) downstream of p53 is essential for induction of cellular senescence, although cancer cell senescence can also occur in the p53 null condition. We report herein that senescence-associated phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (SA-pErk1/2) enhanced p21(Sdi1) transcription by phosphorylating Sp1 on Ser(59) downstream of protein kinase C (PKC) alpha. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was increased in cellular senescence, significantly activated both PKCalpha and PKCbetaI. However, PKCalpha, but not PKCbetaI, regulated ROS generation and cell proliferation in senescent cells along with activation of cdk2, proven by siRNAs. PKCalpha-siRNA also reduced SA-pErk1/2 expression in old human diploid fibroblast cells, accompanied with changes of senescence phenotypes to young cell-like. Regulation of SA-pErk1/2 was also confirmed by using catalytically active PKCalpha and its DN-mutant construct. These findings strongly suggest a new pathway to regulate senescence phenotypes by ROS via Sp1 phosphorylation between PKCalpha and SA-pErk1/2: employing GST-Sp1 mutants and MEK inhibitor analyses, we found that SA-pErk1/2 regulated Sp1 phosphorylation on the Ser(59) residue in vivo, but not threonine, in cellular senescence, which regulated transcription of p21(Sdi1) expression. In summary, PKCalpha, which was activated in senescent cells by ROS strongly activated Erk1/2, and the SA-pErk1/2 in turn phosphorylated Sp1 on Ser(59). Sp1-enhanced transcription of p21(Sdi1) resulted in regulation of cellular senescence in primary human diploid fibroblast cells.
Project description:Senescent cells withdraw from the cell cycle and do not proliferate. The prevalence of senescent compared to normally functioning parenchymal cells increases with age, impairing tissue and organ homeostasis. A contentious principle governing this process has been the redox theory of aging. We linked matricellular protein thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) and its receptor CD47 to the activation of NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1), but not of the other closely related Nox isoforms, and associated oxidative stress, and to senescence in human cells and aged tissue. In human endothelial cells, TSP1 promoted senescence and attenuated cell cycle progression and proliferation. At the molecular level, TSP1 increased Nox1-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to the increased abundance of the transcription factor p53. p53 mediated a DNA damage response that led to senescence through Rb and p21cip, both of which inhibit cell cycle progression. Nox1 inhibition blocked the ability of TSP1 to increase p53 nuclear localization and p21cip abundance and its ability to promote senescence. Mice lacking TSP1 showed decreases in ROS production, p21cip expression, p53 activity, and aging-induced senescence. Conversely, lung tissue from aging humans displayed increases in the abundance of vascular TSP1, Nox1, p53, and p21cip Finally, genetic ablation or pharmacological blockade of Nox1 in human endothelial cells attenuated TSP1-mediated ROS generation, restored cell cycle progression, and protected against senescence. Together, our results provide insights into the functional interplay between TSP1 and Nox1 in the regulation of endothelial senescence and suggest potential targets for controlling the aging process at the molecular level.
Project description:Vessel damage by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the membrane receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), involving various vascular pathological processes. In this study, the role of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) as a cellular effector via the oxLDL-CD36 signaling axis, and its related mechanism as a downstream responder of CD36, was investigated in senescent human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). To inhibit oxLDL-triggered vascular damage, HAECs and monocytes were treated with the CD36-neutralizing antibody or the ASK1 inhibitor NQDI-1. The oxLDL-triggered increases in ROS and CD36 elevated active ASK1 in the senescent HAECs. The ROS increase induced apoptosis, whereas CD36 neutralization or ASK1 inhibition protected against cell death. The blocking of CD36 increased senescent HAEC autophagy. In monocytes, oxLDL also induced CD36 expression and autophagy, the latter of which still occurred following ASK1 inhibition but not after CD36 neutralization. These findings suggest that oxLDL exposure activates ASK1, as a CD36 downstream responder, to accelerate apoptosis, particularly in senescent HAECs. ASK1's involvement in monocytic autophagy was due to endoplasmic reticulum stress resulting from the oxLDL load, suggesting that oxLDL loading on aged vessels causes atherosclerotic endothelial dysfunction mediated by active ASK1.
Project description:Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cellular senescence is an important etiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Aging interventions based on the application of stem cells to delay cellular senescence have shown good prospects in the treatment of age-related diseases. This study aimed to investigate the potential of the embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to reverse the senescence of RPE cells and to elucidate its regulatory mechanism. The hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>)-mediated premature and natural passage-mediated replicative senescent RPE cells were directly cocultured with ESCs. The results showed that the proliferative capacity of premature and replicative senescent RPE cells was increased, while the positive rate of senescence-associated galactosidase (SA-?-GAL) staining and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were decreased. The positive regulatory factors of cellular senescence (p53, p21<sup>WAF1/CIP1</sup>, p16<sup>INK4a</sup>) were downregulated, while the negative regulatory factors of cellular senescence (Cyclin A2, Cyclin B1, Cyclin D1) were upregulated. Furthermore, replicative senescent RPE cells entered the S and G<sub>2</sub>/M phases from the G<sub>0</sub>/G<sub>1</sub> phase. TGF? (TGFB1, SMAD3, ID1, ID3) and PI3K (PIK3CG, PDK1, PLK1) pathway-related genes were upregulated in premature and replicative senescent RPE cells after ESCs application, respectively. We further treated ESCs-cocultured premature and replicative senescent RPE cells with SB531542 and LY294002 to inhibit the TGF? and PI3K pathways, respectively, and found that p53, p21<sup>WAF1/CIP1</sup> and p16<sup>INK4a</sup> were upregulated, while Cyclin A2, Cyclin B1, Cyclin D1, TGF?, and PI3K pathway-related genes were downregulated, accompanied by decreased proliferation and cell cycle transition and increased positive rates of SA-?-GAL staining and levels of ROS and MMP. In conclusion, we demonstrated that ESCs can effectively reverse the senescence of premature and replicative senescent RPE cells by a direct coculture way, which may be achieved by upregulating the TGF? and PI3K pathways, respectively, providing a basis for establishing a new therapeutic option for AMD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Depending on cellular context, p53-inducing agents (such as nutlin-3a) cause different outcomes including reversible quiescence and irreversible senescence. Inhibition of mTOR shifts the balance from senescence to quiescence. In cell lines with incomplete responses to p53, this shift may be difficult to document because of a high proportion of proliferating cells contaminating arrested (quiescent and senescent) cells. This problem also complicates the study of senescence caused by minimal levels of p21 that are capable to arrest a few cells.<h4>Methodology</h4>During induction of senescence by low levels of endogenous p53 and ectopic p21, cells were co-treated with nocodazole, which eliminated proliferating cells. As a result, only senescent and quiescent cells remained.<h4>Results and discussion</h4>This approach revealed that rapamycin efficiently converted nutlin-induced-senescence into quiescence. In the presence of rapamycin, nutlin-arrested MCF-7 cells retained the proliferative potential and small/lean morphology. Using this approach, we also unmasked senescence in cells arrested by low levels of ectopic p21, capable to arrest only a small proportion of HT1080-p21-9 cells. When p21 did cause arrest, mTOR caused senescent phenotype. Rapamycin and high concentrations of nutlin-3a, which inhibit the mTOR pathway in these particular cells, suppressed senescence, ensuring quiescence instead. Thus, p21 causes senescence passively, just by causing arrest, while still active mTOR drives senescent phenotype.
Project description:Oxidative stress regulates dysfunction and senescence of vascular endothelial cells. The DNA damage response and its main signaling pathway involving ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) have been implicated in playing a central role in mediating the actions of oxidative stress; however, the role of the ATM signaling pathway in vascular pathogenesis has largely remained unclear. Here, we identify ATM to regulate oxidative stress-induced endothelial cell dysfunction and premature senescence. Oxidative stress induced senescence in endothelial cells through activation/phosphorylation of ATM by way of an Akt/p53/p21-mediated pathway. These actions were abrogated in cells in which ATM was knocked down by RNA interference or inhibited by specific inhibitory compounds. Furthermore, the in vivo significance of this regulatory pathway was confirmed using ATM knock-out mice in which induction of senescent endothelial cells in the aorta in a diabetic mouse model of endothelial dysfunction and senescence was attenuated in contrast to pathological changes seen in wild-type mice. Collectively, our results show that ATM through an ATM/Akt/p53/p21-dependent signaling pathway mediates an instructive role in oxidative stress-induced endothelial dysfunction and premature senescence.
Project description:Stress of the endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress play critical roles in the pathogenesis of Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD). In the normal aging cornea, cellular stress has been associated with a loss in proliferative capacity (premature senescence) of corneal endothelial cells (CECs). The present study used a transgenic Col8a2(Q455K/Q455K) knock-in mouse model of early-onset FECD to identify the endothelial expression profile of specific cellular stress response-related targets, which may be relevant to late-onset FECD.The differential endothelial mRNA levels of cellular stress response-related genes were determined in 12-month-old homozygous Col8a2(Q455K/Q455K) mutant and wild-type mice using customized PCR arrays. Result validation and analysis of additional senescence-related transcripts was performed by real-time PCR. Expression of p53 and p21 was assessed by immunofluorescence. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) activity was investigated by histochemical labeling. Human FECD samples and normal controls were examined for p21 expression by immunohistochemistry.PCR-array analysis showed greater than 2-fold and/or significantly altered endothelial regulation of 19 cellular stress response-related transcripts in Col8a2(Q455K/Q455K) mutant mice; real-time PCR documented statistically significant upregulation of senescence-associated targets Cdkn1a (p21), Serpine1 (PAI-1), Tagln (Sm22), Fn1 and Clu (ApoJ). Immunofluorescence revealed increased expression of nuclear p53 and p21 in mutant animals. SA-β-Gal staining detected increased proportions of senescent CECs in mutant mice. Human FECD endothelium exhibited increased levels of nuclear p21 protein.Our results identify endothelial Cdkn1a (p21) upregulation in a mouse model of early-onset FECD, confirm overexpression of p21 in late-onset human FECD endothelium, and suggest a role for premature senescence in FECD.
Project description:Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a major cause of death worldwide. Due to the prevalence of many side effects and incomplete recovery from pharmacotherapies, stem cell therapy is being targeted for the treatment of CVDs. Among the different types of stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have great potential. However, cellular replicative senescence decreases the proliferation, migration, and overall function of EPCs. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) has been mainly studied in the mammalian aging process. MHY2233 is a potent synthetic SIRT1 activator and a novel antiaging compound. We found that MHY2233 increased the expression of SIRT1, and its deacetylase activity thereby decreased expression of the cellular senescence biomarkers, p53, p16, and p21. In addition, MHY2233 decreased senescence-associated beta-galactosidase- (SA-?-gal-) positive cells and senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs), such as the secretion of interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-8, IL-1?, and IL-1?. MHY2233 treatment protected senescent EPCs from oxidative stress by decreasing cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, thus enhancing cell survival and function. The angiogenesis, proliferation, and migration of senescent EPCs were enhanced by MHY2233 treatment. Thus, MHY2233 reduces replicative and oxidative stress-induced senescence in EPCs. Therefore, this novel antiaging compound MHY2233 might be considered a potent therapeutic agent for the treatment of age-associated CVDs.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear to play a role in limiting both cellular and organismic lifespan. However, because of their pleiotropic effects, it has been difficult to ascribe a specific role to ROS in initiating the process of cellular senescence. We have studied the effects of oxidative DNA damage on cell proliferation, believing that such damage is of central importance to triggering senescence. To do so, we devised a strategy to decouple levels of 8-oxoguanine, a major oxidative DNA lesion, from ROS levels. Suppression of MTH1 expression, which hydrolyzes 8-oxo-dGTP, was accompanied by increased total cellular 8-oxoguanine levels and caused early-passage primary and telomerase-immortalized human skin fibroblasts to rapidly undergo senescence, doing so without altering cellular ROS levels. This senescent phenotype recapitulated several salient features of replicative senescence, notably the presence of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA beta-gal) activity, apparently irreparable genomic DNA breaks, and elevation of p21(Cip1), p53, and p16(INK4A) tumor suppressor protein levels. Culturing cells under low oxygen tension (3%) largely prevented the shMTH1-dependent senescent phenotype. These results indicate that the nucleotide pool is a critical target of intracellular ROS and that oxidized nucleotides, unless continuously eliminated, can rapidly induce cell senescence through signaling pathways very similar to those activated during replicative senescence.