MiR-150-5p Inhibits Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Metastasis and Recurrence by Targeting HMGA2 and ?-Catenin Signaling.
ABSTRACT: Dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in the regulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), and CSCs are closely associated with tumor initiation, metastasis, and recurrence. Here we found that miR-150-5p was significantly downregulated in CSCs of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its expression level was negatively correlated with disease progression and poor survival in patients with NSCLC. Inhibition of miR-150-5p increased the CSC population and sphere formation of NSCLC cells in vitro and stimulated NSCLC cell tumorigenicity and metastatic colonization in vivo. In contrast, miR-150-5p overexpression potently inhibited sphere-formed NSCLC cell tumor formation, metastatic colonization, and recurrence in xenograft models. Furthermore, we identified that miR-150-5p significantly inhibited wingless (Wnt)-?-catenin signaling by simultaneously targeting glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta interacting protein (GSKIP) and ?-catenin in NSCLC cells. miR-150-5p also targeted high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2), another regulator of CSCs, and Wnt-?-catenin signaling. The restoration of HMGA2 and ?-catenin blocked miR-150-5p overexpression-induced inhibition of CSC traits in NSCLC cells. These findings suggest that miR-150-5p functions as a CSC suppressor and that overexpression of miR-150-5p may be a novel strategy to inhibit CSC-induced metastasis and recurrence in NSCLC.
Project description:Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are involved in tumorigenesis, tumour recurrence and therapy resistance and Wnt signalling is essential for the development of the biological traits of CSCs. In non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), unlike in colon cancer, mutations in ?-catenin and APC genes are uncommon; thus, the mechanism underlying the constitutive activation of Wnt signalling in NSCLC remains unclear. Here we report that miR-582-3p expression correlates with the overall- and recurrence-free-survival of NSCLC patients, and miR-582-3p has an activating effect on Wnt/?-catenin signalling. miR-582-3p overexpression simultaneously targets multiple negative regulators of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, namely, AXIN2, DKK3 and SFRP1. Consequently, miR-582-3p promotes CSC traits of NSCLC cells in vitro and tumorigenesis and tumour recurrence in vivo. Antagonizing miR-582-3p potently inhibits tumour initiation and progression in xenografted animal models. These findings suggest that miR-582-3p mediates the constitutive activation of Wnt/?-catenin signalling, likely serving as a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC.
Project description:Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an important role in osteosarcoma (OS) metastasis and recurrence, and both Wnt/?-catenin and Notch signaling are essential for the development of the biological traits of CSCs. However, the mechanism that underlies the simultaneous hyperactivation of both Wnt/?-catenin and Notch signaling in OS remains unclear. Here, we report that expression of miR-135b correlates with the overall and recurrence-free survival of OS patients, and that miR-135b has an activating effect on both Wnt/?-catenin and Notch signaling. The overexpression of miR-135b simultaneously targets multiple negative regulators of the Wnt/?-catenin and Notch signaling pathways, including glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3?), casein kinase 1a (CK1?), and ten-eleven translocation 3 (TET3). Therefore, upregulated miR-135b promotes CSC traits, lung metastasis, and tumor recurrence in OS. Notably, antagonizing miR-135b potently inhibits OS lung metastasis, cancer cell stemness, CSC-induced tumor formation, and recurrence in xenograft animal models. These findings suggest that miR-135b mediates the constitutive activation of Wnt/?-catenin and Notch signaling, and that the inhibition of miR-135b is a novel strategy to inhibit tumor metastasis and prevent CSC-induced recurrence in OS.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cancer worldwide and the second cause of cancer deaths. Increasing evidences supports the idea that the poor prognosis of patients is related to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a cell population able to drive cancer recurrence and metastasis. The deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) plays a role in the formation of CSC. We investigated the role of hsa-miR-486-5p (miR-486-5p) in CRC, CSCs, and metastasis, in order to reach a better understanding of the biomolecular and epigenetic mechanisms mir-486-5p-related. The expression of miR-486-5p was investigated in three different matrices from CRC patients and controls and in CSCs obtained from the CRC cell lines HCT-116, HT-29, and T-84. In the human study, miR-486-5p was up-regulated in serum and stool of CRC patients in comparison with healthy controls but down-regulated in tumor tissue when compared with normal mucosa. miR-486-5p was also down-regulated in the sera of metastatic patients. In vitro, miR-486-5p was down-regulated in CSC models and it induced an inhibitory effect on stem factors and oncogenes in the main pathways of CSCs. Our results provide a step forward in understanding the role of mir-486-5p in CRC and CSC, and suggest that further studies are needed to investigate its diagnostic and prognostic power, possibly in combination with other biomarkers.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third highest mortality cancer in the United States and frequently metastasizes to liver and lung. Smad2 is a key element downstream of the TGF-? signaling pathway to regulate cancer metastasis by promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition and maintaining the cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype. In this study, we show that hsa-miR-140-5p directly targets Smad2 and overexpression of hsa-miR-140-5p in CRC cell lines decreases Smad2 expression levels, leading decreased cell invasion and proliferation, and increasing cell cycle arrest. Ectopic expression of hsa-miR-140-5p in colorectal CSCs inhibited CSC growth and sphere formation in vitro by disrupting autophagy. We have systematically identified targets of hsa-miR-140-5p involved in autophagy. Furthermore, overexpression of hsa-miR-140-5p in CSCs abolished tumor formation and metastasis in vivo. In addition, there is a progressive loss of hsa-miR-140-5p expression from normal colorectal mucosa to primary tumor tissues, with further reduction in liver metastatic tissues. Higher hsa-miR-140 expression is significantly correlated with better survival in stage III and IV colorectal cancer patients.The functional and clinical significance of hsa-miR-140-5p suggests that it is a key regulator in CRC progression and metastasis, and may have potential as a novel therapeutic molecule to treat CRC.
Project description:microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the control of many biological processes and their deregulation has been associated with many cancers. In recent years, the cancer stem cell (CSC) concept has been applied to many cancers including pediatric. We hypothesized that a common signature of deregulated miRNAs in the CSCs fraction may explain the disrupted signaling pathways in CSCs.Using a high throughput qPCR approach we identified 26 CSC associated differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRs). Using BCmicrO algorithm 865 potential CSC associated DEmiR targets were obtained. These potential targets were subjected to KEGG, Biocarta and Gene Ontology pathway and biological processes analysis. Four annotated pathways were enriched: cell cycle, cell proliferation, p53 and TGF-beta/BMP. Knocking down hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-181c-5p and hsa-miR-135b-5p using antisense oligonucleotides and small interfering RNA in cell lines led to the depletion of the CSC fraction and impairment of sphere formation (CSC surrogate assays).Our findings indicated that CSC associated DEmiRs and the putative pathways they regulate may have potential therapeutic applications in pediatric cancers.
Project description:Background:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in the regulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the role of miRNAs in liver CSCs has not been fully elucidated. Methods:Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of miR-miR-28-5p in liver cancer stem cells (CSCs). The impact of miR-28-5p on liver CSC expansion was investigated both in vivo and in vitro. The correlation between miR-28-5p expression and sorafenib benefits in HCC was further evaluated in patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). Results:Our data showed that miR-28-5p was downregulated in sorted EpCAM- and CD24-positive liver CSCs. Biofunctional investigations revealed that knockdown miR-28-5p promoted liver CSC self-renewal and tumorigenesis. Consistently, miR-28-5p overexpression inhibited liver CSC's self-renewal and tumorigenesis. Mechanistically, we found that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was a direct target of miR-28-5p in liver CSCs, and the effects of miR-28-5p on liver CSC's self-renewal and tumorigenesis were dependent on IGF-1. The correlation between miR-28-5p and IGF-1 was confirmed in human HCC tissues. Furthermore, the miR-28-5p knockdown HCC cells were more sensitive to sorafenib treatment. Analysis of patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) further demonstrated that the miR-28-5p may predict sorafenib benefits in HCC patients. Conclusion:Our findings revealed the crucial role of the miR-28-5p in liver CSC expansion and sorafenib response, rendering miR-28-5p an optimal therapeutic target for HCC.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignancies, and thus better understanding of its molecular pathology is crucial for us to devise more effective treatment of this deadly disease. As cancer cell line remains a convenient starting point for discovery and proof-of-concept studies, here we report the miRNA expression characteristics of two cell lines, MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1, and discovered three miRNAs (miR-7-5p, let-7d, and miR-135b-5p) that are involved in cancer stem cells (CSCs) suppression. After transfection of each miRNA's mimic into PANC-1 cells which exhibits higher stemness feature than MIA-PaCa-2 cells, partial reduction of CSC surface markers and inhibition of tumor sphere formation were observed. These results enlighten us to consider miRNAs as potential therapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer patients via specific and effective inhibition of CSCs.
Project description:Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are comprised of a rare sub-population of cells in tumors that have been proposed to be responsible for high recurrence rates and resistance to chemotherapy. Galectins are highly expressed in cancers that correlate with the aggressiveness of tumors. Galectins may also promote the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy. However, the role of galectins in CSCs remains unknown. In this study, sphere formation was used to enrich H1299 human lung CSCs that had self-renewal ability, advanced tumorigenic potential, and that highly expressed stem/progenitor cell markers such as Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and CD133. A novel candidate molecule, galectin-3, for stemness was found in lung CSCs. The expression of galectin-3 robustly increased in lung cancer spheres over serial passages, but its suppression in the H1299 monolayer or spheres resulted in reduced expression of stemness-related genes, sphere-forming ability, tumorigenicity, chemoresistance, and tumor initiation in mice. Notably, the overexpression of galectin-3 in A549 lung cancer cells, which have low capability to grow as tumor spheres, promoted CSC formation. ?-catenin activity was increased in H1299 spheres and counteracted by galectin-3 suppression. Thus, galectin-3 may act as a cofactor by interacting with ?-catenin to augment the transcriptional activities of stemness-related genes. Furthermore, galectin-3 expression correlated with tumor progression and expressions of ?-catenin and CSC marker CD133 in lung cancer tissues. Targeting galectin-3 signaling may provide a new strategy for lung cancer treatment by inhibiting stem-like properties.
Project description:Hypoxia, a feature common to most solid tumors, is known to regulate many aspects of tumorigenesis. Recently, it was suggested that hypoxia increased the size of the cancer stem-cell (CSC) subpopulations and promoted the acquisition of a CSC-like phenotype. However, candidate hypoxia-regulated mediators specifically relevant to the stemness-related functions of colorectal CSCs have not been examined in detail. In the present study, we showed that hypoxia specifically promoted the self-renewal potential of CSCs. Through various in vitro studies, we found that hypoxia-induced Wnt/?-catenin signaling increased the occurrence of CSC-like phenotypes and the level of Id2 expression in colorectal-cancer cells. Importantly, the levels of hypoxia-induced CSC-sphere formation and Id2 expression were successfully attenuated by treatment with a Wnt/?-catenin-signaling inhibitor. We further demonstrated, for the first time, that the degree of hypoxia-induced CSC-sphere formation (CD44(+) subpopulation) in vitro and of tumor metastasis/dissemination in vivo were markedly suppressed by knocking down Id2 expression. Taken together, these data suggested that Wnt/?-catenin signaling mediated the hypoxia-induced self-renewal potential of colorectal-cancer CSCs through reactivating Id2 expression.
Project description:BACKGROUNDS:The role of sphere-forming culture in enriching subpopulations with stem-cell properties in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. The present study investigates its value in enriching cancer stem cells (CSCs) subpopulations and the mechanism by which HCC CSCs are maintained. METHODS:HCC cell lines and fresh primary tumor cells were cultured in serum-free and ultra-low attachment conditions to allow formation of HCC spheres. In vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to evaluate CSC characteristics. Expression levels of CSC-related genes were assessed by qRT-PCR and the correlation between sphere formation and clinical characteristics was investigated. Finally, gene expression profiling was performed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying HCC CSC maintenance. RESULTS:We found that both cell lines and primary tumor cells formed spheres. HCC spheres possessed the capacity for self-renewal, proliferation, drug resistance, and contained different subpopulations of CSCs. Of interest, 500 sphere-forming Huh7 cells or 200 primary tumor cells could generate tumors in immunodeficient animals. Sphere formation correlated with size, multiple tumors, satellite lesions, and advanced stage. Further investigation identified that the PPARα-SCD1 axis plays an important role in maintenance of the CSC properties of HCC sphere cells by promoting nuclear accumulation of β-Catenin. Inhibition of SCD1 interfered with sphere formation, down-regulated expression of CSC-related markers, and reduced β-Catenin nuclear accumulation. CONCLUSIONS:Sphere-forming culture can effectively enrich subpopulations with stem-cell properties, which are maintained through activation of the PPARα-SCD1 axis. Therefore, we suggest that targeting the SCD1-related CSC machinery might provide a novel insight into HCC treatment.