Therapeutic effect of Cnidium officinale Makino extract on ovariectomized hind-limb ischemic mice.
ABSTRACT: Background:Cnidium officinale Makino (COM) has been used traditionally to treat female sexual disorders, such as amenorrhea, hypomenorrhea and oligomenorrhea, by improving blood circulation. Methods:The present study aimed to investigate the alleviating effect of COM extracts on surgical injury-induced ischemia in the hind-limb of mice. In this study, female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized, and the vessels of the hind-limb were excised after ligation by surgical silk (6-0). The mice were orally administered with COM (150 or 300 mg/kg/day) for 3 weeks, and the blood flow rate of hind-limbs was evaluated by using a laser Doppler system after hind-limb ischemic surgery in an in vivo study. Additionally, the migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were evaluated in an in vitro study. Results:The blood flow rate was synchronized to the nonischemic lesion of the hind-limb, and its elevation compared to the vehicle was observed at 14 and 21 days after hind-limb ischemic surgery in COM-treated groups. The number of capillaries increase in a dose-dependent manner in the COM-treated groups (150 and 300 mg/kg). In HUVECs, the activities of cell migration were significantly increased by 50 and 75 ?g/mL for the COM-treated groups. In addition, the number of tubule branches and junctions was also increased by doses of COM (50 and/or 75 ?g/mL). Conclusion:The results of our study suggested that the COM extract may have therapeutic application for the treatment of hind-limb ischemic damage, which is due to the improvement of the peripheral angiogenetic system.
Project description:Though Cnidium officinale Makino (COM) was known to have anti-angiogenic, anti-oxidant, neuroprotective, and anti-cancer effects, the underlying anticancer mechanism of COM using endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and miRNA remained unclear until now. Thus, in the current study, the inhibitory mechanism of COM in lymphoma and multiple myeloma (MM) cells was elucidated. COM exerted cytotoxicity in U937 and U266 but not Raw264.7 cells. COM treatment increased the expression of ER stress-related proteins such as p-protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (p-PERK), p-eukaryotic initiation factor (p-eIF2?), and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). COM also cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in a dose-dependent manner in both cells. Also, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was elevated by COM treatment. Conversely, the apoptotic effect of COM treatment was blocked by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) pretreatment. Also, the pro-survival miRNA, miR-211 was decreased by COM treatment in U937 and U266 cells. miR-211 mimic attenuated COM-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results support the scientific evidence that COM induces apoptosis via ROS generation/CHOP activation and miR-211 suppression in U937 and U266 cells.
Project description:Improvement of endometrial receptivity is necessary for successful embryo implantation, and its impairment is associated with female infertility. In this study, we investigated the effect of the roots of Cnidium officinale Makino (CoM) on endometrial receptivity in both in vitro and in vivo model of embryo implantation. We found that CoM enhanced the adhesion of JAr cells to Ishikawa cells by stimulating expression of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and integrins. In addition, blocking of LIFR using hLA or neutralization of integrins ?V, ?3, and ?5 using antibodies significantly reduced the enhanced adhesion between JAr cell and CoM-treated Ishikawa cells, indicating that LIF and integrin play an important role in trophoblast-endometrium adhesion for embryo implantation. Furthermore, we identified that CoM significantly improved the implantation rate of blastocysts in the mouse model of RU-induced implantation failure. By collecting these results, here, we suggest that CoM has a therapeutic potential against female infertility associated with decreased endometrial receptivity.
Project description:Deficient angiogenesis after ischemia may contribute to worse outcome of peripheral arterial disease in patients with diabetes mellitus. Based on our previous work where we demonstrated that Secretoneurin (SN) is up-regulated under hypoxic conditions and enhances angiogenesis, we analyzed the therapeutic potential of SN gene therapy using a model of severe hind limb ischemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice (STZ-DM). After induction of hind limb ischemia, blood flow was assessed by means of laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) and increased blood perfusion in the SN-treated animal group was observed. These results were complemented by the clinical observation of reduced necrosis and by an increased number of capillaries and arterioles in the SN-treated animal group. In vitro, we found that SN is capable of promoting proliferation and chemotaxis and reduces apoptosis in HUVECs cultured under hyperglycemic conditions. Additionally, SN activated ERK, eNOS and especially AKT as well as EGF-receptor in hyperglycemic HUVECs. In conclusion, we show that SN gene therapy improves post-ischemic neovascularization in diabetic mice through stimulation of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis indicating a possible therapeutic role of this factor in ischemia-related diseases in diabetic patients.
Project description:Cnidium officinale Makino, a perennial herb of the family Umbelliferae, is a well-known medicinal plant in oriental medicine with antidiabetic, tumor metastatic, antiplatelet, antimicrobial and insecticidal properties. Hence, C. officinale does not produce seed the plant tissue culture is the viable alternative for its propagation. Node explant from in vitro grown C. officinale Makino was cultured on MS medium supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) like 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or/and 6-Benzylaminopurine (BA). It was aimed to investigate the optimal concentration and combination of 2,4-D and BA for somatic embryogenesis in node explant of C. officinale Makino. The embryogenic callus was induced on node explant after four weeks in MS medium containing 1.5?mg?L-1 2,4-D and 0.5?mg?L-1 BA. The translucent white, embryogenic callus was subcultured on the respective medium and individual well-structured somatic embryos were observed. Heart and cotyledon stage embryos were pictured under a stereomicroscope. The individual somatic embryos (SE) were transferred to MS medium without PGRs (MS0) and 100% germination was observed. Repeated subculturing of the embryogenic callus for five months resulted in recurrent somatic embryogenesis but with a gradual decline in number.
Project description:Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson is a popular Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with a variety of bioactivities. However, there are some problems that have affected the development of Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson. At present, many methods have been reported for the analysis of coumarins in Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson. However, the quality control of coumarins in Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) has not been reported. In this study, analytical high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully used for fingerprint of Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at 4:6:6.5:3.5 (v/v). The UV wavelength was set at 254 nm. Six coumarin compounds with high biological activity were selected as indicator compounds for the quality control. The HSCCC fingerprint of the Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson was successfully established and there were some differences according to the results of the fingerprint analysis. The present results demonstrate that HSCCC is an established and efficient technique for the fingerprint analysis of Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson and can be used to control the quality of Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson. In brief, HSCCC is a useful technology for the fingerprint analytical method for TCM.
Project description:Peripheral arterial diseases, the major complication of diabetes, can result in lower limb amputation. Since endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in neovascularization, the aim of this study was to examine whether EPCs isolated from Wharton's jelly (WJ-EPCs) of the umbilical cord, a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells, could reduce ischemia-induced hind limb injury in diabetic mice. We evaluated the effects of WJ-EPC transplantation on hind limb injury caused by femoral artery ligation in mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. We found that the ischemic hind limb in mice with STZ-induced diabetes showed decreased blood flow and capillary density and increased cell apoptosis and that these effects were significantly inhibited by an injection of WJ-EPCs. In addition, hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were highly expressed in transplanted WJ-EPCs in the ischemic skeletal tissues and were present at high levels in hypoxia-treated cultured WJ-EPCs. Moreover, incubation of the NOR skeletal muscle cell line under hypoxic conditions in conditioned medium from EPCs cultured for 16?h under hypoxic conditions resulted in decreased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins and increased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. The inhibition of HIF-1? or IL-8 expression by EPCs using HIF-1? siRNA or IL-8 siRNA, respectively, prevented this change in expression of apoptotic-related proteins. Wharton's jelly in the umbilical cord is a valuable source of EPCs, and transplantation of these EPCs represents an innovative therapeutic strategy for treating diabetic ischemic tissues. The HIF-1?/IL-8 signaling pathway plays a critical role in the protective effects of EPCs in the ischemic hind limb of diabetic mice.
Project description:The aim of this paper is to investigate effect and mechanism of Danhong injection (DH) on angiogenesis in the diabetic hind limb ischemia mouse model. Thirty diabetic hind limb ischemic model mice and ten normal mice, established by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) or PBS and ligation/excision of femoral artery, and then twenty diabetic hind limb ischemic model mice of all were evenly randomized to saline (control, n = 10) and DH i.p. injection (2?mL/kg weight for 7 days, n = 10) groups. Limb perfusion recovery and femoral blood hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and vessel regeneration and lower limb vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE) expression were evaluated during intervention and after euthanasia, respectively. DH i.p. increased ischemic limb perfusion and promoted collateral circulation generation without decreasing blood glucose level. Increased local CSE-H2S-VEGF expression contributed to beneficial effects of DH injection. In conclusion, activation of local CSE-H2S-VEGF axis might participate in proangiogenesis effects of DH injection in diabetic hind limb ischemia model mice, suggesting a potential therapy for diabetic patients with critical limb ischemia.
Project description:Critical limb ischemia is a manifestation of peripheral artery disease that carries significant mortality and morbidity risk in humans, although its genetic determinants remain largely unknown. We previously discovered 2 overlapping quantitative trait loci in mice, Lsq-1 and Civq-1, that affected limb muscle survival and stroke volume after femoral artery or middle cerebral artery ligation, respectively. Here, we report that a Bag3 variant (Ile81Met) segregates with tissue protection from hind-limb ischemia.We treated mice with either adeno-associated viruses encoding a control (green fluorescent protein) or 2 BAG3 (Bcl-2-associated athanogene-3) variants, namely Met81 or Ile81, and subjected the mice to hind-limb ischemia.We found that the BAG3 Ile81Met variant in the C57BL/6 (BL6) mouse background segregates with protection from tissue necrosis in a shorter congenic fragment of Lsq-1 (C.B6-Lsq1-3). BALB/c mice treated with adeno-associated virus encoding the BL6 BAG3 variant (Ile81; n=25) displayed reduced limb-tissue necrosis and increased limb tissue perfusion compared with Met81- (n=25) or green fluorescent protein- (n=29) expressing animals. BAG3Ile81, but not BAG3Met81, improved ischemic muscle myopathy and muscle precursor cell differentiation and improved muscle regeneration in a separate, toxin-induced model of injury. Systemic injection of adeno-associated virus-BAG3Ile81 (n=9), but not BAG3Met81 (n=10) or green fluorescent protein (n=5), improved ischemic limb blood flow and limb muscle histology and restored muscle function (force production). Compared with BAG3Met81, BAG3Ile81 displayed improved binding to the small heat shock protein (HspB8) in ischemic skeletal muscle cells and enhanced ischemic muscle autophagic flux.Taken together, our data demonstrate that genetic variation in BAG3 plays an important role in the prevention of ischemic tissue necrosis. These results highlight a pathway that preserves tissue survival and muscle function in the setting of ischemia.
Project description:Heparanase plays important roles in tumor angiogenesis. Our previous study demonstrated that hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) enhanced the angiogenic and therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), effects that were paralleled by enhanced heparanase expression. This study was designed to elucidate the role of heparanase in the improved therapeutic properties of HPC-MSCs and to explore underlying mechanisms using an ischemic rat hind limb model. MSCs transfected with heparanase (MSC(hpa) ) or empty vector (MSC(null) ) were delivered by intramuscular injections to ischemic hind limbs. Hind limbs that received MSC(hpa) recovered blood flow more rapidly at 7 days and acquired higher capillary density at 14 days compared with MSC(null) . Conditioned medium from MSC(hpa) increased endothelial cell migration and promoted greater tube formation relative to that from the MSC(null) groups. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2, Flk-1) and its downstream signaling pathway (p38MAPK/HSP27) were significantly increased in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) after treatment with MSC(hpa) conditioned medium. Each of these responses was decreased by cocultured with MSC(hpa-KD) conditioned medium. MSC(hpa) conditioned medium activated hypoxia-inducible factor-2? (HIF-2?) and increased in parallel the transcript level of Flk-1 as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR and luciferase assays. Analyses of integrin expression revealed an important role for integrin ?1 in the regulation of HIF-2?. All angiogenic effects of MSC(hpa) conditioned medium were abolished by knockdown of integrin ?1, HIF-2?, and Flk-1 in HUVECs with selective shRNAs. These findings identify heparanse as a key regulator of angiogenesis by MSCs. We propose a novel pathway wherein heparanse sequentially activates integrin ?1, HIF-2?, Flk-1, and p38MAPK/HSP27 with corresponding enhancement of angiogenesis.
Project description:Neovascularization is a physiologic repair process that partly depends on nitric oxide. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EcSOD) is the major scavenger of superoxide. It is an important regulator of nitric oxide bioavailability and thus protects against vascular dysfunction. We hypothesized that overexpression of EcSOD in skeletal muscle would improve recovery from hind-limb ischemia.Adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) vectors expressing EcSOD or luciferase (control) from the cytomegalovirus promoter were cross-packaged into AAV9 capsids and injected intramuscularly into the hind-limb muscles (1 × 10(11) viral genomes/limb) of 12-week-old mice. Ischemia was induced after intramuscular injections. Laser Doppler was used to measure limb perfusion on days 0, 7, and 14 after injection. Values were expressed as a ratio relative to the nonischemic limb. EcSOD expression was measured by Western blotting. Capillary density was documented by immunohistochemical staining for platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule. Apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated biotin-deoxy uridine triphosphate nick-end labeling and necrosis was visually evaluated daily.EcSOD expression was twofold upregulated in EcSOD treated vs control ischemic muscles at day 14. Capillary density (capillaries/fiber) was 1.9-fold higher in treated (1.65 ± 0.02) vs control muscle (0.78 ± 0.17, P < .05). Recovery of perfusion ratio at day 14 after ischemia was 1.5-fold greater in EcSOD vs control mice (P < .05). The percentage of apoptotic nuclei was 1.3% ± 0.4% in EcSOD-treated mice compared with 4.2% ± 0.2% in controls (P < .001). Limb necrosis was also significantly lower in EcSOD vs control mice.AAV9-mediated overexpression of EcSOD in skeletal muscle significantly improves recovery from hind-limb ischemia in mice, consistent with improved capillary density and perfusion ratios in treated mice.