Associations of presence or absence of exercise and/or physical activity with non-restorative sleep by gender and age: a cross-sectional study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Non-restorative sleep (NRS) is related to qualitative aspects of sleep. The associations of NRS with exercise (EX; a planned and purposeful activity) and physical activity (PA; daily bodily movement) by gender and age have not yet been clarified. We investigated the associations of EX and/or PA with NRS by gender and age. DESIGN:A cross-sectional study. SETTING:The data on gender, age, presence of NRS and engagement in EX and/or PA were obtained from database and questionnaire of specified medical check-ups in FY 2013 in Japan. The analysis was conducted in 2017. PARTICIPANTS:The subjects comprised 90?122 residents (38?603 males and 51?519 females), aged 40-74 years, who had completed the specified medical check-ups. OUTCOME MEASURE:The presence of NRS was assessed using a question asking whether or not the subjects usually got enough sleep. NRS was considered to be present when the subjects answered 'No'. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the associations of presence or absence of EX and/or PA with NRS. The OR and 95%?CI of NRS prevalence were calculated and compared between those engaged in both EX and PA and the others. RESULTS:Except for 40s and 70s among males and 40s and 50s among females, the absence of EX or PA was associated with higher ORs of NRS than referent. ORs were more than twice compared with the referents in males in their 50s (OR 2.030(95% CI 1.675 to 2.459)) and 60s (OR 2.148(95% CI 1.970 to 2.343)) and females in their 60s (OR 2.142(95% CI 1.994 to 2.302)) when they engaged in neither EX nor PA. CONCLUSIONS:Healthcare providers must take into account the similarities and differences in the associations of EX and/or PA with NRS by gender and age when they support people with NRS.
Project description:Recent epidemiological data suggest the relation between hearing difficulty and depression is more evident in younger and middle-aged populations than in older adults. There are also suggestions that the relation may be more evident in specific subgroups; that is, other factors may influence a relationship between hearing and depression in different subgroups. Using cross-sectional data from the UK Biobank on 134,357 community-dwelling people and structural equation modelling, this study examined the potential mediating influence of social isolation and unemployment and the confounding influence of physical illness and cardiovascular conditions on the relation between a latent hearing variable and both a latent depressive episodes variable and a latent depressive symptoms variable. The models were stratified by age (40s, 50s, and 60s) and gender and further controlled for physical illness and professional support in associations involving social isolation and unemployment. The latent hearing variable was primarily defined by reported hearing difficulty in noise. For all subgroups, poor hearing was significantly related to both more depressive episodes and more depressive symptoms. In all models, the direct and generally small association exceeded the indirect associations via physical health and social interaction. Significant (depressive episodes) and near significant (depressive symptoms) higher direct associations were estimated for males in their 40s and 50s than for males in their 60s. There was at each age-group no significant difference in estimated associations across gender. Irrespective of the temporal order of variables, findings suggest that audiological services should facilitate psychosocial counselling.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Anterior mediastinal lesions account for approximately half of all mediastinal masses and computed tomography (CT) is known to exhibit limited differentiating performance. Our aim was to evaluate the age- and gender-specific distribution of anterior mediastinal lesions and the diagnostic accuracy of multi-detector CT (MDCT).<h4>Methods</h4>This retrospective study included 549 consecutive patients with proven anterior mediastinal lesions and diagnostic MDCT scans. The age- and gender-specific distribution of proven diagnoses and diagnostic accuracy were reviewed. The CT features of malignant and benign diseases having the lowest accuracy were compared with those of the most commonly misdiagnosed diseases.<h4>Results</h4>The proportion of malignancy showed a V-shape relationship with age (lowest, 52.7% [50s]). The most prevalent malignancies were lymphoma (20s), lymphoma/thymoma (30s), thymoma (40s-50s), and thymoma/thymic carcinoma (?60s). The most prevalent benign diseases were thymic remnant/hyperplasia (20s-30s), and thymic bed cyst (?40s). The first-choice diagnostic accuracy of MDCT decreased with age regardless of gender: 75.4% (20s), 75.0% (30s), 67.8% (40s), 58.5% (50s), and 53.4% (?60s), primarily due to incorrect diagnoses of thymic bed cyst and thymic carcinoma (accuracy, 42.3% and 30.5%), which were prevalent in older patients and mostly misdiagnosed as thymoma. The most powerful differentiating MDCT features were water attenuation (?20 HU) (OR, 42.7 [95%CI, 8.8--208.3], P?<?0.001) for thymic bed cyst and mediastinal lymphadenopathy (6.8 [1.7-27.2], P?=?0.006) for thymic carcinoma, but both showed low sensitivity (34.5% and 18.6%, respectively).<h4>Conclusions</h4>MDCT accuracy depended on age, owing to the age-specific distribution of thymic carcinoma and thymic bed cyst, which frequently lacks distinguishable CT features from thymoma.
Project description:In the present study, the correlation between the antibody response against human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) envelope and human age was investigated. Antibody levels were compared in groups in their 20s (n = 25), 30s (n = 39), 40s (n = 68), 50s (n = 32), and 60s and over (n = 25), which included healthy individuals and breast cancer and/or cervical cancer patients. It appeared that both IgM and IgG responses against the HERV-K envelope fell with increasing age. There were no differences in anti-HERV-K envelope antibody levels between healthy individuals and cancer patients. Therefore, our results indicated that the anti-HERV-K antibody levels cannot be considered as cancer-specific marker. Also, IgG1 appeared to be the predominant subtype in the reduction of the IgG response by age. Receiver operating characteristic curves of anti-HERV-K envelope IgM levels indicated that the groups of people in their 20s or 30s could be distinguished from those in their 40s, 50s or 60s and over with satisfactory sensitivity and specificity. These findings indicate that the serum antibody level of HERV-K envelope is a critical parameter reflecting person's age.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>An increasing amount of research is now highlighting the importance of approaching issues of happiness through eudaimonic well-being. However, the literature does not conclusively show a full understanding of the construct of eudaimonic well-being, as previous studies primarily focused on younger samples from Western countries and only a few studies have attempted to explore its psychological construct through exploratory approaches. Therefore, we conducted a survey among a wide range of age groups in Japan to capture the psychological construct of eudaimonic well-being, through an exploratory analytic approach using Questionnaire for Eudaimonic Wellbeing (QEWB).<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 1126 Japanese participants (580 females, 546 males) were included for analysis. Participants were divided into three age groups according to their age, including 10s to 20s (18-29 years), 30s to 40s (30-49 years) and 50s to 60s (50-69 years). After narrowing down the total number of factors by exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), we conducted an ESEM and bifactor ESEM with oblique goemin and oblique bi-geomin rotations for choosing and assessing the final model based on the rotated results and its interpretability.<h4>Results</h4>The results of a parallel analysis and goodness-of-fit indices obtained by ESEM indicated that the QEWB consisted of three or more factors. Both a three-to-six factor and bifactor ESEM with oblique goemin rotation showed that three-factor structure for the 30s to 40s and 50s to 60s and four-factor structure for the 10s to 20s should be chosen, respectively. "Deep and Meaningful Engagement," a factor only relevant to the 10s to 20s may be an expanded version of what original paper called the Intense Involvement in Activities, with more emphasis on the enthusiastic attitude one has towards activities.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The structure of eudaimonic well-being may differ across cultures and ages, thus requiring further investigation in the field.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Frailty is a highly recognized geriatric syndrome resulting in decline in reserve across multiple physiological systems. Impaired physical function is one of the major indicators of frailty. The goal of this study was to evaluate an algorithm that discriminates between frailty groups (non-frail and pre-frail/frail) based on gait performance parameters derived from unsupervised daily physical activity (DPA).<h4>Methods</h4>DPA was acquired for 48?h from older adults (?65?years) using a tri-axial accelerometer motion-sensor. Continuous bouts of walking for 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s and 60s without pauses were identified from acceleration data. These were then used to extract qualitative measures (gait variability, gait asymmetry, and gait irregularity) and quantitative measures (total continuous walking duration and maximum number of continuous steps) to characterize gait performance. Association between frailty and gait performance parameters was assessed using multinomial logistic models with frailty as the dependent variable, and gait performance parameters along with demographic parameters as independent variables.<h4>Results</h4>One hundred twenty-six older adults (44 non-frail, 60 pre-frail, and 22 frail, based on the Fried index) were recruited. Step- and stride-times, frequency domain gait variability, and continuous walking quantitative measures were significantly different between non-frail and pre-frail/frail groups (p?<?0.05). Among the five different durations (20s, 30s, 40s, 50s and 60s), gait performance parameters extracted from 60s continuous walks provided the best frailty assessment results. Using the 60s gait performance parameters in the logistic model, pre-frail/frail group (vs. non-frail) was identified with 76.8% sensitivity and 80% specificity.<h4>Discussion</h4>Everyday walking characteristics were found to be associated with frailty. Along with quantitative measures of physical activity, qualitative measures are critical elements representing the early stages of frailty. In-home gait assessment offers an opportunity to screen for and monitor frailty.<h4>Trial registration</h4>The clinical trial was retrospectively registered on June 18th, 2013 with ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT01880229.
Project description:In eukaryotic translation the 60S ribosome subunit has not been proposed to interact with mRNA or closed-loop factors eIF4E, eIF4G, and PAB1. Using analytical ultracentrifugation with fluorescent detection system, we have identified a 57S translation complex that contains the 60S ribosome, mRNA, and the closed-loop factors. Previously published data by others also indicate the presence of a 50S-60S translation complex containing these same components. We have found that the abundance of this complex increased upon translational cessation, implying formation after ribosomal dissociation. Stoichiometric analyses of the abundances of the closed-loop components in the 57S complex indicate this complex is most similar to polysomal and monosomal translation complexes at the end of translation rather than at the beginning or middle of translation. In contrast, a 39S complex containing the 40S ribosome bound to mRNA and closed-loop factors was also identified with stoichiometries most similar to polysomal complexes engaged in translation, suggesting that the 39S complex is the previously studied 48S translation initiation complex. These results indicate that the 60S ribosome can associate with the closed-loop mRNA structure and plays a previously undetected role in the translation process.
Project description:To test the independent and interactive associations of physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) with self-reported mental health and sleep quality among Chinese college students.Data were collected in October, 2013. The gender, age, residential background, body mass index (BMI), perceived family economy and perceived study burden were obtained from a total of 4747 college students (41.6% males and 58.4% females). The outcomes were self-reported PA status, ST, anxiety, depression, psychopathological symptoms and sleep quality. Analyses were conducted with logistic regression models.Overall, 16.3%, 15.9% and 17.3% of the students had psychological problems, such as anxiety, depression and psychopathological symptoms, respectively. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 9.8%. High ST was significantly positively associated with anxiety (OR=1.38, 95%CI: 1.15-1.65), depression (OR=1.76, 95%CI: 1.47-2.09), psychopathological symptoms (OR=1.69, 95%CI: 1.43-2.01) and poor sleep quality (OR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.06-1.65). High PA was insignificantly negatively associated with anxiety, depression, psychopathological symptoms and poor sleep. Low PA and high ST were independently and interactively associated with increased risks of mental health problems and poor sleep quality (p<0.05 for all).Interventions are needed to reduce ST and increase PA in the lifestyles of young people. Future research should develop and measure the impacts of interventions and their potential consequences on sleep, health, and well being.
Project description:Conventional preparation methods of plant ribosomes fail to resolve non-translating chloroplast or cytoplasmic ribosome subunits from translating fractions. We established preparation of these ribosome complexes from Arabidopsis thaliana leaf, root, and seed tissues by optimized sucrose density gradient centrifugation of protease protected plant extracts. The method co-purified non-translating 30S and 40S ribosome subunits separated non-translating 50S from 60S subunits, and resolved assembled monosomes from low oligomeric polysomes. Combining ribosome fractionation with microfluidic rRNA analysis and proteomics, we characterized the rRNA and ribosomal protein (RP) composition. The identity of cytoplasmic and chloroplast ribosome complexes and the presence of ribosome biogenesis factors in the 60S-80S sedimentation interval were verified. In vivo cross-linking of leaf tissue stabilized ribosome biogenesis complexes, but induced polysome run-off. Omitting cross-linking, the established paired fractionation and proteome analysis monitored relative abundances of plant chloroplast and cytoplasmic ribosome fractions and enabled analysis of RP composition and ribosome associated proteins including transiently associated biogenesis factors.
Project description:This paper uses recent data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 5,220) to explore gender differences in the extent to which adults in their 50s and 60s provide informal help to their adult children, elderly parents and friends We find that both men and women report very high levels of helping kin and nonkin alike, though women do more to assist elderly parents and women provide much more emotional support to others than do men. Men provide more assistance than do women with "housework, yard work and repairs." As they retire from the workforce, married men become significantly more involved in the care of their grandchildren, virtually eliminating any gender difference by the time they are in their 60s.
Project description:Despite the health benefits associated with physical activity (PA), screen time reduction, and sleep quantity and quality, the relationships between PA, screen time, and sleep quantity and quality remain unclear in adolescents. The present study is a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents aged 16-19 years who participated in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (<i>n</i> = 542). Multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for confounders, examined the relationship between objectively measured PA, self-reported screen time, and sleep quantity and quality. Respondents who met the current PA recommendation had 50% lower odds of having sufficient sleep (?8 h) than those not meeting the recommendation (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.26, 0.94). Respondents who met the screen time recommendation (?2 h/day) had 55% lower odds of reporting poor sleep quality than those whose screen time exceeded the recommendation (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.91), with similar patterns observed for females and males. However, males who met both PA and screen time recommendations had 73% lower odds of reporting poor sleep quality than males who met neither recommendation (OR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.99). In conclusion, PA and screen time are associated with sleep quantity or sleep quality in adolescents, and there are differences in these associations by sex.