Predicting future major depression and persistent depressive symptoms: Development of a prognostic screener and PHQ-4 cutoffs in breast cancer patients.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Create a brief, self-report screener for recently diagnosed breast cancer patients to identify patients at risk of future depression. METHODS:Breast cancer patients (N = 410) within 2 ± 1 months after diagnosis provided data on depression vulnerability. Depression outcomes were defined as a high depressive symptom trajectory or a major depressive episode during 16 months after diagnosis. Stochastic gradient boosting of regression trees identified 7 items highly predictive for the depression outcomes from a pool of 219 candidate depression vulnerability items. Three of the 7 items were from the Patient Health Questionnaire 4 (PHQ-4), a validated screener for current anxiety/depressive disorder that has not been tested to identify risk for future depression. Thresholds classifying patients as high or low risk on the new Depression Risk Questionnaire 7 (DRQ-7) and the PHQ-4 were obtained. Predictive performance of the DRQ-7 and PHQ-4 was assessed on a holdout validation subsample. FINDINGS:DRQ-7 items assess loneliness, irritability, persistent sadness, and low acceptance of emotion as well as 3 items from the PHQ-4 (anhedonia, depressed mood, and worry). A DRQ-7 score of ?6/23 identified depression outcomes with 0.73 specificity, 0.83 sensitivity, 0.68 positive predictive value, and 0.86 negative predictive value. A PHQ-4 score of ?3/12 performed moderately well but less accurately than the DRQ-7 (net reclassification improvement = 10%; 95% CI [0.5-16]). INTERPRETATION:The DRQ-7 and the PHQ-4 with a new cutoff score are clinically accessible screeners for risk of depression in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Use of the screener to select patients for preventive interventions awaits validation of the screener in other samples.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To predict depressive symptom severity and presence of major depression along the full alcohol use continuum. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:Ambulatory practices and general hospitals from three sites in Germany. PARTICIPANTS:Consecutive patients aged 18-64 years were proactively approached for an anonymous health screening (participation rate=87%, N=12?828). Four continuous alcohol use measures were derived from an expanded Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT): alcohol consumption in grams per day and occasion, excessive consumption in days per months and the AUDIT sum score. Depressive symptoms were assessed for the worst 2-week period in the last 12 months using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8). Negative binomial and logistic regression analyses were used to predict depressive symptom severity (PHQ-8 sum score) and presence of major depression (PHQ-8 sum score?10) by the alcohol use measures. RESULTS:Analyses revealed that depressive symptom severity and presence of major depression were significantly predicted by all alcohol use measures after controlling for sociodemographics and health behaviours (p<0.05). The relationships were curvilinear: lowest depressive symptom severity and odds of major depression were found for alcohol consumptions of 1.1?g/day, 10.5?g/occasion, 1 excessive consumption day/month, and those with an AUDIT score of 2. Higher depressive symptom severity and odds of major depression were found for both abstinence from and higher levels of alcohol consumption. Interaction analyses revealed steeper risk increases in women and younger individuals for most alcohol use measures. CONCLUSION:Findings indicate that alcohol use and depression in medical care patients are associated in a curvilinear manner and that moderation by gender and age is present.
Project description:Despite improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of depression, primary care provider (PCP) discussion regarding suicidal thoughts among patients with depressive symptoms remains low.To determine whether a targeted depression public service announcement (PSA) video or an individually tailored interactive multimedia computer program (IMCP) leads to increased primary care provider (PCP) discussion of suicidal thoughts in patients with elevated risk for clinical depression when compared to an attention control.Randomized control trial at five different healthcare systems in Northern California; two academic, two Veterans Affairs (VA), and one group-model health maintenance organization (HMO).Eight-hundred sixty-seven participants, with mean age 51.7; 43.9% women, 43.4% from a racial/ethnic minority group.The PSA was targeted to gender and socio-economic status, and designed to encourage patients to seek depression care or request information regarding depression. The IMCP was an individually tailored interactive health message designed to activate patients to discuss possible depressive symptoms. The attention control was a sleep hygiene video.Clinician reported discussion of suicidal thoughts. Analyses were stratified by depressive symptom level (Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9] score?<?9 [mild or lower] versus ? 10 [at least moderate]).Among patients with a PHQ-9 score ? 10, PCP discussion of suicidal thoughts was significantly higher in the IMCP group than in the control group (adjusted odds ratio?=?2.33, 95% confidence interval?=?1.5, 5.10, p?=?0.03). There were no significant effects of either intervention on PCP discussion of suicidal thoughts among patients with a PHQ-9 score?<?9.Exposure of patients with at least moderate depressive symptoms to an individually tailored intervention designed to increase patient engagement in depression care led to increased PCP discussion of suicidal thoughts.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Depression is associated with adverse prognosis in cardiac patients, warranting the availability of brief and valid instruments to identify depressed patients in clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether the two-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2) was associated with adverse events in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients treated with paclitaxel-eluting stenting (using the continuous score and various cutoffs), overall and by gender. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive PCI patients (n = 796) seen at a university medical centre. MEASUREMENTS: PHQ-2 at baseline. The study endpoint was an adverse event, defined as a combination of death or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) at follow-up (mean of 1.4 years). RESULTS: At follow-up, 47 patients had experienced an adverse event. Using the continuous score of the PHQ-2 and the recommended cutoff > or =3, depressive symptoms were not associated with adverse events (ps > 0.05). Using a cutoff > or =2, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with adverse events (HR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.06-3.35) and remained significant in adjusted analysis (HR: 1.90; 95% CI: 1.05-3.44). Depressive symptoms were associated with an increased risk of adverse events in men (HR: 2.69; 95% CI: 1.36-5.32) but not in women (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.24-2.43); these results remained in adjusted analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Depression screening with a two-item scale and a cutoff score of > or =2 was independently associated with adverse events at follow-up. The PHQ-2 is a brief and valid measure that can easily be used post PCI to identify patients at risk for adverse health outcomes.
Project description:Previous research using latent class analysis (LCA) identified classes of people with type 2 diabetes and specific profiles of depression and anxiety. Since LCA-derived anxious depression strongly predicts cardiovascular outcomes and mortality but cannot be applied to individuals, we developed a validated combined depression-anxiety metric, the Diabetes Anxiety Depression Scale (DADS), for potential clinical application in people with type 2 diabetes.1,337 participants with type 2 diabetes from the observational community-based Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II completed the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item version (PHQ-9) to assess symptoms of depression, and the Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GADS) to assess symptoms of anxiety. A single score was calculated by adding all the PHQ-9 items and the four GADS items used for the LCA. Cut-off scores were calculated with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC).The optimum cut-off scores in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were 18 points for major anxious depression and 8 points for minor anxious depression. A score of 8-17 was associated with a significantly increased incidence of coronary heart disease, whereas a score 18-39 was associated with an increase in both coronary heart disease and cardiovascular mortality.The DADS has strong psychometric validity in the identification of mixed depression-anxiety in type 2 diabetes, and may contribute to cardiovascular risk prediction.
Project description:Depression is common in primary care but often under-treated. Personal experiences with depression can affect adherence to therapy, but the effect of vicarious experience is unstudied. We sought to evaluate the association between a patient's vicarious experiences with depression (those of friends or family) and treatment preferences for depressive symptoms.We sampled 1054 English and/or Spanish speaking adult subjects from July through December 2008, randomly selected from the 2008 California Behavioral Risk Factor Survey System, regarding depressive symptoms and treatment preferences. We then constructed a unidimensional scale using item analysis that reflects attitudes about antidepressant pharmacotherapy. This became the dependent variable in linear regression analyses to examine the association between vicarious experiences and treatment preferences for depressive symptoms.Our sample was 68% female, 91% white, and 13% Hispanic. Age ranged from 18-94 years. Mean PHQ-9 score was 4.3; 14.5% of respondents had a PHQ-9 score >9.0, consistent with active depressive symptoms. Analyses controlling for current depression symptoms and socio-demographic factors found that in patients both with (coefficient 1.08, p?=?0.03) and without (coefficient 0.77, p?=?0.03) a personal history of depression, having a vicarious experience (family and friend, respectively) with depression is associated with a more favorable attitude towards antidepressant medications.Patients with vicarious experiences of depression express more acceptance of pharmacotherapy. Conversely, patients lacking vicarious experiences of depression have more negative attitudes towards antidepressants. When discussing treatment with patients, clinicians should inquire about vicarious experiences of depression. This information may identify patients at greater risk for non-adherence and lead to more tailored patient-specific education about treatment.
Project description:Background:Depression is one of the most prevalent, yet unrecognized but treatable mental disorders in low and middle income countries (LMICs). In such locations, screening tools that are easy-to-administer, valid, and reliable are needed to assist in detecting symptoms of depression. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) is one of the most widely used depression screeners. However, its applicability to community-based settings of Pakistan is limited by the lack of studies examining its validity and reliability in such settings. The current study aimed to demonstrate the criterion-related validity and internal reliability of the Urdu version of the PHQ-9 in a sample of community-based pregnant women in Pakistan compared to a diagnostic clinical interview, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorders (SCID), using data from a depression treatment cluster randomized trial in rural Pakistan. Methods:Pregnant women in a rural, low income sub-district in Pakistan were approached between October 2014 and February 2016 and, after providing informed consent, screened for depression using the Urdu version of the PHQ-9, with a cutoff of ?10 used to indicate significant depressive symptoms. Following the PHQ-9, the diagnostic module for current major depressive episode of the SCID was administered. We examined the psychometric properties of PHQ-9 compared to SCID as a gold standard, using sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive value to measure the criterion-related validity of the PHQ-9 as an indicator of symptoms of depression. We computed area under the receiver operating characteristic curve to determine diagnostic accuracy, and used Cronbach's alpha to assess internal reliability. Results:A total of 1,731 women in their third trimester of pregnancy were assessed for major depressive disorder. Of these women, 572 (33%) met the cutoff for significant depressive symptoms on PHQ-9, and 454 (26%) were assessed positive for depression using the SCID. The sensitivity and specificity of PHQ-9 at a cutoff of ?10 was 94.7% and 88.9%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 75.2% and 97.9%, respectively; and the area under the curve was 0.959. Internal reliability, as measured by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.844. Discussion:Valid and reliable screening tools to assist in detecting symptoms of depressive disorder are needed in low income settings where depressive disorders are highly prevalent. The Urdu version of the PHQ-9 has not been previously validated against a well-known assessment of depression in a community setting among pregnant women in Pakistan. This study demonstrates that the Urdu version of the PHQ-9 has acceptable criterion-related validity and reliability for screening for depressive symptoms in Pakistan among community-based pregnant women; and when the recommended cut-off score of ?10 is used it can also serve as an accurate screening tool for major depressive disorder.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Depression greatly burdens sub-Saharan Africa, especially populations living with HIV/AIDS, for whom few validated depression scales exist. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), a brief dual-purpose instrument yielding DSM-IV diagnoses and severity, and PHQ-2, an ultra-brief screening tool, offer advantages in resource-constrained settings. OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity/reliability of PHQ-9 and PHQ-2. DESIGN: Observational, two occasions 7 days apart. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 347 patients attending psychosocial support groups. MEASUREMENTS: Demographics, PHQ-9, PHQ-2, general health perception rating and CD4 count. RESULTS: Rates for PHQ-9 DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), other depressive disorder (ODD) and any depressive disorder were 13%, 21% and 34%. Depression was associated with female gender, but not CD4. Construct validity was supported by: (1) a strong association between PHQ-9 and general health rating, (2) a single major factor with loadings exceeding 0.50, (3) item-total correlations exceeding 0.37 and (4) a pattern of item means similar to US validation studies. Four focus groups indicated culturally relevant content validity and minor modifications to the PHQ-9 instructions. Coefficient alpha was 0.78. Test-retest reliability was acceptable: (1) intraclass correlation 0.59 for PHQ-9 total score, (2) kappas 0.24, 0.25 and 0.38 for PHQ-9 MDD, ODD and any depressive disorder and (3) weighted kappa 0.53 for PHQ-9 depression severity categories. PHQ-2 > or =3 demonstrated high sensitivity (85%) and specificity (95%) for diagnosing any PHQ-9 depressive disorder (AUC, 0.97), and 91% and 77%, respectively, for diagnosing PHQ-9 MDD (AUC, 0.91). Psychometrics were also good within four gender/age (18-35, 36-61) subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: PHQ-9 and PHQ-2 appear valid/reliable for assessing DSM-IV depressive disorders and depression severity among adults living with HIV/AIDS in western Kenya.
Project description:Subclinical inflammation has been implicated in the development of depression, a common comorbidity of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aimed to characterise the relationships between biomarkers of inflammation and depressive symptoms in T1D and T2D. Biomarkers of inflammation were measured in serum of participants with elevated depressive symptoms and T1D (n?=?389, mean age 38 years, diabetes duration 15?±?11 years) or T2D (n?=?204, mean age 56 years, diabetes duration 13?±?8 years). Subclinical depression was examined using three questionnaires (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CES-D], Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9], 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index [WHO-5]). In T1D, levels of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) were positively associated with two depression scores (CES-D, PHQ-9), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was positively associated with depression for one score (WHO-5) after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, diabetes duration, metabolic variables, medication and comorbidities (P?=?0.008-0.042). In T2D, IL-18 and IL-1RA were positively associated with depression for two scores (IL-18: PHQ-9, WHO-5; IL-1RA: CES-D, WHO-5), hsCRP was associated with one depression score (PHQ-9), and adiponectin showed an inverse association with one depression score (PHQ-9) after adjustment (P?=?0.006-0.048). No associations were found for IL-6 and CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). In conclusion, we observed associations between hsCRP, IL-1RA and depressive symptoms in patients with diabetes. In T2D, there was additional evidence for associations of IL-18 and (inversely) adiponectin with depressive symptoms. The strength of the associations appeared to depend on diabetes type and the method used to asssess depressive symptoms.
Project description:The diagnosis of depression, a frequent comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is often supported by questionnaires, such as the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9). It is unknown to which extent its single questions are affected by the clinical characteristics of COPD patients.We addressed this question in 2255 GOLD grade 1-4 patients from the COSYCONET (COPD and Systemic Consequences - Comorbidities Network) COPD cohort. The dependence on COPD severity was assessed using symptoms, exacerbation risk (GOLD A-D; modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale (mMRC)), and frequent comorbidities as predictors of PHQ-9 results, while including age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and smoking habits as covariates.Symptoms and exacerbation risk were associated with depression in an additive manner, with mean elevations in the PHQ-9 sum score by 2.75 and 1.44 points, respectively. Asthma, sleep apnoea, gastrointestinal disorders, osteoporosis and arthritis were linked to increases by 0.8 to 1.3 points. Overall, the COPD characteristics contributed to the mean PHQ-9 score by increases from 4.5 or 5.2 to 6.3 points, respectively, when either taking GOLD A as reference or the absence of comorbidities. This finding was independent of the diagnosis of mental disorder or the intake of antidepressants. The presence of COPD led to an increase in the proportion of scores indicating depression from 12 to 22%. Single item analysis revealed homogenous effects regarding GOLD groups, but heterogeneous effects regarding GOLD grades.These findings indicate specific effects of COPD severity on the PHQ-9 depression score, especially symptoms and exacerbation risk, explaining the high prevalence of depression in COPD. Alternative explanations like an overlap of COPD severity and PHQ-9 items are discussed. Of note, we also found COPD treatment effects on depression scores.
Project description:An American Heart Association (AHA) Science Advisory recommends patients with coronary heart disease undergo routine screening for depressive symptoms with the two-stage Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). However, little is known on the prognostic impact of a positive PHQ screen on heart failure (HF) mortality.We screened hospitalized patients with systolic HF (left ventricle ejection fraction?40%) for depression with the two-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2) and administered the follow-up nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) both immediately following the PHQ-2 and by telephone 1 month after discharge. Later, we ascertained vital status at 4-year follow-up on all patients who completed the inpatient PHQ-9 and calculated mortality incidence and risk by baseline PHQ.Of the 520 HF patients we enrolled, 371 screened positive for depressive symptoms on the PHQ-2. Of these, 63% scored PHQ-9?10 versus 24% of those who completed the PHQ-9 1 month later (P<.001). PHQ-2 positive status was an independent predictor of 4-year all-cause mortality (HR: 1.50; P=.04), and mortality incidence was similar by baseline PHQ-9 score.Among hospitalized patients with systolic HF, a positive PHQ-2 screen for depressive symptoms is an independent risk factor for increased 4-year all-cause mortality. Our findings extend the AHA's Science Advisory for depression to hospitalized patients with systolic HF.