Intermittent preventive treatment regimens for malaria in HIV-positive pregnant women.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Intermittent preventive treatment is recommended for pregnant women living in malaria endemic countries due to benefits for both mother and baby. However, the impact may not be the same in HIV-positive pregnant women, as HIV infection impairs a woman's immunity. OBJECTIVES:To compare intermittent preventive treatment regimens for malaria in HIV-positive pregnant women living in malaria-endemic areas. SEARCH STRATEGY:In June 2011, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), reference lists and conference abstracts. We also contacted researchers and organizations for information on relevant trials. SELECTION CRITERIA:Randomized controlled trials comparing different intermittent preventive treatment regimens for preventing malaria in HIV-positive pregnant women in malaria-endemic areas. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Two authors extracted data and assessed risk bias. Dichotomous variables were combined using risk ratios (RR) and mean differences (MD) for continuous outcomes, both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). MAIN RESULTS:Two randomized trials with 722 HIV-positive pregnant women were included, comparing monthly regimens of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to the standard 2-dose regimen in the second and third trimesters. There were no statistically significant differences between monthly SP and 2-dose SP in rates of maternal anaemia, low birth weight, and neonatal mortality. In primigravidae and secondigravidiae, the monthly regimen was associated with less placental parasitaemia (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.70, two trials) and less peripheral parasitaemia (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.43, two trials), but no effect was demonstrated in multigravid women. Babies born to primigravidae and secundigravida women on monthly SP had a higher mean birth weight (weighted mean difference (WMD) 130 g; 95% CI 120 g to 150 g, two trials) than babies born to mothers on 2-dose SP. Multigravidae women treated with monthly SP had significant higher haemoglobin level than those treated with treated 2 dose SP (WMD 0.21 g/dL, 95% CI 0.15 g/dL to 0.27 g/dL, one trial). There were no trials that assessed other treatment regimens for intermittent preventive treatment in HIV-positive pregnant women. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:Three or more doses of SP is superior to the standard two doses in HIV-positive pregnant women. However, since SP cannot be administered concurrently with co-trimoxazole - a drug often recommended for infection prophylaxis in HIV-positive pregnant women, new drugs and research is needed to address needs of HIV-positive pregnant women.
Project description:New regimens for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) against malaria are needed as the effectiveness of the standard two-dose sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) regimen is under threat. Previous trials have shown that IPTp with monthly SP benefits HIV-positive primi- and secundigravidae, but there is no conclusive evidence of the possible benefits of this regimen to HIV-negative women, or to a population comprising of both HIV-positive and -negative women of different gravidities.This study analyzed 484 samples collected at delivery as part of a randomized, partially placebo controlled clinical trial, conducted in rural Malawi between 2003 and 2007. The study included pregnant women regardless of their gravidity or HIV-infection status. The participants received SP twice (controls), monthly SP, or monthly SP and two doses of azithromycin (AZI-SP). The main outcome was the prevalence of peripheral Plasmodium falciparum malaria at delivery diagnosed with a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay.Overall prevalence of PCR-diagnosed peripheral P. falciparum malaria at delivery was 10.5%. Compared with the controls, participants in the monthly SP group had a risk ratio (95% CI) of 0.33 (0.17 to 0.64, P<0.001) and those in the AZI-SP group 0.23 (0.11 to 0.48, P<0.001) for malaria at delivery. When only HIV-negative participants were analyzed, the corresponding figures were 0.26 (0.12 to 0.57, P<0.001) for women in the monthly SP group, and 0.24 (0.11 to 0.53, P<0.001) for those in the AZI-SP group.Our results suggest that increasing the frequency of SP administration during pregnancy improves the efficacy against malaria at delivery among HIV-negative women, as well as a population consisting of both HIV-positive and -negative pregnant women of all gravidities, in a setting of relatively low but holoendemic malaria transmission, frequent use of bed nets and high SP resistance.
Project description:Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for malaria is used in infants, children, adults, and pregnant women. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is an effective, well tolerated artemisinin-based combination therapy. The long half-life of piperaquine makes it attractive for IPT. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to establish the efficacy and safety of repeated treatment with DP.Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched multiple databases on Sept 1, 2016, with the terms: "human" AND "dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine" OR "DHA-PPQ". Studies were eligible if they were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or prospective cohort studies involving repeat exposures to standard 3-day courses of DP for either seasonal malaria chemoprevention, mass drug administration, or treatment of clinical malaria, conducted at any time and in any geographic location. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate pooled incidence rate ratios and relative risks, or risk differences.11 studies were included: two repeat treatment studies (one in children younger than 5 years and one in pregnant women), and nine IPT trials (five in children younger than 5 years, one in schoolchildren, one in adults, two in pregnant women). Comparator interventions included placebo, artemether-lumefantrine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), SP+amodiaquine, SP+piperaquine, SP+chloroquine, and co-trimoxazole. Of 14?628 participants, 3935 received multiple DP courses (2-18). Monthly IPT-DP was associated with an 84% reduction in the incidence of malaria parasitaemia measured by microscopy compared with placebo. Monthly IPT-DP was associated with fewer serious adverse events than placebo, daily co-trimoxazole, or monthly SP. Among 56 IPT-DP recipients (26 children, 30 pregnant women) with cardiac parameters, all QTc intervals were within normal limits, with no significant increase in QTc prolongation with increasing courses of DP.Monthly DP appears well tolerated and effective for IPT. Additional data are needed in pregnancy and to further explore the cardiac safety with monthly dosing.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and NIH.
Project description:Malaria is known to have a negative impact on pregnant women and their foetuses. The efficacy of Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) used for intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is being threatened by increasing levels of resistance. This study assessed malaria risk factors in women on intermittent preventive treatment with SP (IPTp-SP) at delivery and their effects on pregnancy outcome in Sanaga-Maritime Division, Cameroon. Socio-economic and obstetrical data of mothers and neonate birth weights were documented. Peripheral blood from 201 mothers and newborns as well as placental and cord blood were used to prepare thick and thin blood films. Maternal haemoglobin concentration was measured. The overall malaria parasite prevalence was 22.9% and 6.0% in mothers and newborns respectively. Monthly income lower than 28000 FCFA and young age were significantly associated with higher prevalence of placental malaria infection (p = 0.0048 and p = 0.019 respectively). Maternal infection significantly increased the risk of infection in newborns (OR = 48.4; p<0.0001). Haemoglobin concentration and birth weight were lower in infected mothers, although not significant. HIV infection was recorded in 6.0% of mothers and increased by 5-folds the risk of malaria parasite infection (OR = 5.38, p = 0.007). Attendance at antenatal clinic and level of education significantly influenced the utilisation of IPTp-SP (p<0.0001 and p = 0.018 respectively). Use of SP and mosquito net resulted in improved pregnancy outcome especially in primiparous, though the difference was not significant. Malaria infection in pregnancy is common and increases the risk of neonatal malaria infection. Preventive strategies are poorly implemented and their utilization has overall reasonable effect on malaria infection and pregnancy outcome.
Project description:Preterm delivery, which is associated with infections during pregnancy, is common in sub-Saharan Africa. We enrolled 1,320 pregnant women into a randomized, controlled trial in Malawi to study whether preterm delivery and low birth weight (LBW) incidence can be reduced by intermittent preventive treatment of maternal malaria and reproductive tract infections. The participants received either sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) twice (controls), monthly SP, or monthly SP and two doses of azithromycin (AZI-SP). The incidence of preterm delivery was 17.9% in controls, 15.4% in the monthly SP group (P = 0.32), and 11.8% in AZI-SP group (risk ratio = 0.66, P = 0.01). Compared with controls, those in AZI-SP group had a risk ratio of 0.61 (P = 0.02) for LBW. Incidence of serious adverse events was low in all groups. In conclusion, the incidence of preterm delivery and LBW can in some conditions be reduced by treating pregnant women with monthly SP and two azithromycin doses.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa: at least 1 million pregnancies among HIV-infected women are complicated by co-infection with malaria annually, leading to increased risk of premature delivery, severe anaemia, delivery of low birth weight infants, and maternal death. Current guidelines recommend either daily cotrimoxazole (CTX) or intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) for HIV-infected pregnant women to prevent malaria and its complications. The cost-effectiveness of CTX compared to IPTp-SP among HIV-infected pregnant women was assessed. METHODS:A microsimulation model of malaria and HIV among pregnant women in five malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa was constructed. Four strategies were compared: (1) 2-dose IPTp-SP at current IPTp-SP coverage of the country ("2-IPT Low"); (2) 3-dose IPTp-SP at current coverage ("3-IPT Low"); (3) 3-dose IPTp-SP at the same coverage as antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the country ("3-IPT High"); and (4) daily CTX at ART coverage. Outcomes measured include maternal malaria, anaemia, low birth weight (LBW), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Sensitivity analyses assessed the effect of adherence to CTX. RESULTS:Compared with the 2-IPT Low Strategy, women receiving CTX had 22.5% fewer LBW infants (95% CI 22.3-22.7), 13.5% fewer anaemia cases (95% CI 13.4-13.5), and 13.6% fewer maternal malaria cases (95% CI 13.6-13.7). In all simulated countries, CTX was the preferred strategy, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ranging from cost-saving to $3.9 per DALY averted from a societal perspective. CTX was less effective than the 3-IPT High Strategy when more than 18% of women stopped taking CTX during the pregnancy. CONCLUSION:In malarious regions of sub-Saharan Africa, daily CTX for HIV-infected pregnant women regardless of CD4 cell count is cost-effective compared with 3-dose IPTp-SP as long as more than 82% of women adhere to daily dosing.
Project description:Co-infection with malaria parasite and HIV is an emerging public health problem in tropical areas, particularly in pregnant women, and management of the concurrent effects of these two infections is challenging. Co-trimoxazole is a sulfamide preparation used to prevent opportunistic infections in HIV-infected patients, and many studies have reported that it has significant activity against malaria. As the efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) against malaria is decreasing, co-trimoxazole might be an alternative for preventing malaria among HIV-infected populations. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of SP-IPT, which is recommended for the prevention of malaria during pregnancy in the Central African Republic, with that of a daily dose of co-trimoxazole against P. falciparum infections among HIV-infected pregnant women in Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic.The MACOMBA study (MAternity and COntrol of Malaria-HIV co-infection in BAngui) is a multicentre open-label randomized clinical trial conducted at four maternity hospitals in Bangui. All HIV-infected pregnant women presenting for an antenatal clinic visit between the weeks 16 and 28 of amenorrhoea, with a CD4 count of more than 350 cells/mm3, will be eligible. All the women will provide written consent before being enrolled in the study and will then be randomly allocated to either SP-IPT (25 mg of sulfadoxine and 1.25 mg of pyrimethamine) or daily co-trimoxazole doses (960 mg per dose). The primary end-point is the placental malaria parasitaemia rate at delivery. Other main outcome measures include the number of malaria episodes during pregnancy, safety, and treatment compliance. Furthermore, the frequency of molecular resistance markers dhfr and dhps will be measured.In this trial, we seek to confirm whether co-trimoxazole is operationally suitable to replace SP-IPT in order to prevent malaria among pregnant women infected with HIV in the Central African Republic.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01746199.
Project description:Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended in HIV-negative women to avert malaria, while this relies on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (CTXp) in HIV-positive women. Alternative antimalarials are required in areas where parasite resistance to antifolate drugs is high. The cost-effectiveness of IPTp with alternative drugs is needed to inform policy.The cost-effectiveness of 2-dose IPTp-mefloquine (MQ) was compared with IPTp-SP in HIV-negative women (Benin, Gabon, Mozambique and Tanzania). In HIV-positive women the cost-effectiveness of 3-dose IPTp-MQ added to CTXp was compared with CTXp alone (Kenya, Mozambique and Tanzania). The outcomes used were maternal clinical malaria, anaemia at delivery and non-obstetric hospital admissions. The poor tolerability to MQ was included as the value of women's loss of working days. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated and threshold analysis undertaken.For HIV-negative women, the ICER for IPTp-MQ versus IPTp-SP was 136.30 US$ (2012 US$) (95%CI 131.41; 141.18) per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted, or 237.78 US$ (95%CI 230.99; 244.57), depending on whether estimates from Gabon were included or not. For HIV-positive women, the ICER per DALY averted for IPTp-MQ added to CTXp, versus CTXp alone was 6.96 US$ (95%CI 4.22; 9.70). In HIV-negative women, moderate shifts of variables such as malaria incidence, drug cost, and IPTp efficacy increased the ICERs above the cost-effectiveness threshold. In HIV-positive women the intervention remained cost-effective for a substantial (up to 21 times) increase in cost per tablet.Addition of IPTp with an effective antimalarial to CTXp was very cost-effective in HIV-positive women. IPTp with an efficacious antimalarial was more cost-effective than IPTp-SP in HIV-negative women. However, the poor tolerability of MQ does not favour its use as IPTp. Regardless of HIV status, prevention of malaria in pregnancy with a highly efficacious, well tolerated antimalarial would be cost-effective despite its high price.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00811421; Pan African Trials Registry PACTR2010020001429343 and PACTR2010020001813440.
Project description:Antibiotic therapy during pregnancy may be beneficial and impacts positively on the reduction of adverse pregnancy outcomes. No studies have been done so far on the effects of daily Co-trimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis on birth outcomes. A phase 3b randomized trial was conducted to establish that daily CTX in pregnancy is not inferior to SP intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) in reducing placental malaria; preventing peripheral parasitaemia; preventing perinatal mortality and also improving birth weight. To establish its safety on the offspring by measuring the gestational age and birth weight at delivery, and compare the safety and efficacy profile of CTX to that of SP.Pregnant women (HIV infected and uninfected) attending antenatal clinic were randomized to receive either daily CTX or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as per routine IPT. Safety was assessed using standard and pregnancy specific measurements. Women were followed up monthly until delivery and then with their offspring up to six weeks after delivery.Data from 346 pregnant women (CTX = 190; SP = 156) and 311 newborns (CTX = 166 and SP = 145) showed that preterm deliveries (CTX 3.6%; SP 3.0%); still births (CTX 3.0%; SP 2.1%), neonatal deaths (CTX 0%; SP 1.4%), and spontaneous abortions (CTX 0.6%; SP 0%) were similar between study arms. The low birth weight rates were 9% for CTX and 13% for SP. There were no birth defects reported. Both drug exposure groups had full term deliveries with similar birth weights (mean of 3.1 Kg). The incidence and severity of AEs in the two groups were comparable.Exposure to daily CTX in pregnancy may not be associated with particular safety risks in terms of birth outcomes such as preterm deliveries, still births, neonatal deaths and spontaneous abortions compared to SP. However, more data are required on CTX use in pregnant women both among HIV infected and un-infected individuals.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00711906.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) in pregnancy is threatened in parts of Africa by the emergence and spread of resistance to SP. Intermittent screening with a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and treatment of positive women (ISTp) is an alternative approach. METHODS AND FINDINGS:An open, individually randomized, non-inferiority trial of IPTp-SP versus ISTp was conducted in 5,354 primi- or secundigravidae in four West African countries with a low prevalence of resistance to SP (The Gambia, Mali, Burkina Faso and Ghana). Women in the IPTp-SP group received SP on two or three occasions whilst women in the ISTp group were screened two or three times with a RDT and treated if positive for malaria with artemether-lumefantrine (AL). ISTp-AL was non-inferior to IPTp-SP in preventing low birth weight (LBW), anemia and placental malaria, the primary trial endpoints. The prevalence of LBW was 15.1% and 15.6% in the IPTp-SP and ISTp-AL groups respectively (OR = 1.03 [95% CI: 0.88, 1.22]). The mean hemoglobin concentration at the last clinic attendance before delivery was 10.97g/dL and 10.94g/dL in the IPTp-SP and ISTp-AL groups respectively (mean difference: -0.03 g/dL [95% CI: -0.13, +0.06]). Active malaria infection of the placenta was found in 24.5% and in 24.2% of women in the IPTp-SP and ISTp-AL groups respectively (OR = 0.95 [95% CI 0.81, 1.12]). More women in the ISTp-AL than in the IPTp-SP group presented with malaria parasitemia between routine antenatal clinics (310 vs 182 episodes, rate difference: 49.4 per 1,000 pregnancies [95% CI 30.5, 68.3], but the number of hospital admissions for malaria was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS:Despite low levels of resistance to SP in the study areas, ISTp-AL performed as well as IPTp-SP. In the absence of an effective alternative medication to SP for IPTp, ISTp-AL is a potential alternative to IPTp in areas where SP resistance is high. It may also have a role in areas where malaria transmission is low and for the prevention of malaria in HIV positive women receiving cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in whom SP is contraindicated. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01084213 Pan African Clinical trials Registry PACT201202000272122.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) significantly reduces the burden of malaria during pregnancy compared to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), the current standard of care, but its impact on the incidence of malaria during infancy is unknown. METHODS:We conducted a double-blind randomized trial to compare the incidence of malaria during infancy among infants born to HIV-uninfected pregnant women who were randomized to monthly IPTp with either DP or SP. Infants were followed for all their medical care in a dedicated study clinic, and routine assessments were conducted every 4?weeks. At all visits, infants with fever and a positive thick blood smear were diagnosed and treated for malaria. The primary outcome was malaria incidence during the first 12?months of life. All analyses were done by modified intention to treat. RESULTS:Of the 782 women enrolled, 687 were followed through delivery from December 9, 2016, to December 5, 2017, resulting in 678 live births: 339 born to mothers randomized to SP and 339 born to those randomized to DP. Of these, 581 infants (85.7%) were followed up to 12?months of age. Overall, the incidence of malaria was lower among infants born to mothers randomized to DP compared to SP, but the difference was not statistically significant (1.71 vs 1.98 episodes per person-year, incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73-1.03, p?=?0.11). Stratifying by infant sex, IPTp with DP was associated with a lower incidence of malaria among male infants (IRR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58-0.98, p?=?0.03) but not female infants (IRR 0.99, 95% CI 0.79-1.24, p?=?0.93). CONCLUSION:Despite the superiority of DP for IPTp, there was no evidence of a difference in malaria incidence during infancy in infants born to mothers who received DP compared to those born to mothers who received SP. Only male infants appeared to benefit from IPTp-DP suggesting that IPTp-DP may provide additional benefits beyond birth. Further research is needed to further explore the benefits of DP versus SP for IPTp on the health outcomes of infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02793622 . Registered on June 8, 2016.