Survival and ice nucleation activity of Pseudomonas syringae strains exposed to simulated high-altitude atmospheric conditions.
ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas syringae produces highly efficient biological ice nuclei (IN) that were proposed to influence precipitation by freezing water in clouds. This bacterium may be capable of dispersing through the atmosphere, having been reported in rain, snow, and cloud water samples. This study assesses its survival and maintenance of IN activity under stressing conditions present at high altitudes, such as UV radiation within clouds. Strains of the pathovars syringae and garcae were compared to Escherichia coli. While UV-C effectively inactivated these cells, the Pseudomonas were much more tolerant to UV-B. The P. syringae strains were also more resistant to radiation from a solar simulator, composed of UV-A and UV-B, while only one of them suffered a decline in IN activity at -5?°C after long exposures. Desiccation at different relative humidity values also affected the IN, but some activity at -5?°C was always maintained. The pathovar garcae tended to be more resistant than the pathovar syringae, particularly to desiccation, though its IN were found to be generally more sensitive. Compared to E. coli, the P. syringae strains appear to be better adapted to survival under conditions present at high altitudes and in clouds.
Project description:The rulAB locus confers tolerance to UV radiation and is borne on plasmids of the pPT23A family in Pseudomonas syringae. We sequenced 14 rulA alleles from P. syringae strains representing seven pathovars and found sequence differences of 1 to 12% within pathovar syringae, and up to 15% differences between pathovars. Since the sequence variation within rulA was similar to that of P. syringae chromosomal alleles, we hypothesized that rulAB has evolved over a long time period in P. syringae. A phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of rulA resulted in seven clusters. Strains from the same plant host grouped together in three cases; however, strains from different pathovars grouped together in two cases. In particular, the rulA alleles from P. syringae pv. lachrymans and P. syringae pv. pisi were grouped but were clearly distinct from the other sequenced alleles, suggesting the possibility of a recent interpathovar transfer. We constructed chimeric rulAB expression clones and found that the observed sequence differences resulted in significant differences in UV (wavelength) radiation sensitivity. Our results suggest that specific amino acid changes in RulA could alter UV radiation tolerance and the competitiveness of the P. syringae host in the phyllosphere.
Project description:We describe the genetic organization of a copper-resistant plasmid containing copG and cusCBA genes in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Chromosomal variants of czcCBA and a plasmid variant of cusCBA were present in different P. syringae pathovar strains. Transformation of the copper-sensitive Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae FF5 strain with copG or cusCBA conferred copper resistance, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments confirmed their induction by copper.
Project description:Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph) is a significant bacterial pathogen of agricultural crops, and phage Î¦6 and other members of the dsRNA virus family Cystoviridae undergo lytic (virulent) infection of Pph, using the type IV pilus as the initial site of cellular attachment. Despite the popularity of Pph/phage Î¦6 as a model system in evolutionary biology, Pph resistance to phage Î¦6 remains poorly characterized. To investigate differences between phage Î¦6 resistant Pseudomonas syringae pathovar phaseolicola strains, we performed expression analysis of super and non piliated strains of Pseudomonas syringae to determine the genetic cause of resistance to viral infection.
Project description:Pseudomonas syringae infects diverse crop plants and comprises at least 50 different pathovar strains with different host ranges. More information on the physiological and molecular effects of the host inhibitory environment on the pathogen is needed to develop resistant cultivars. Recently, we reported an in vitro model system that mimics the redox pulse associated with the oxidative burst in plant cells inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Using this system, we demonstrated that oxidation of acetosyringone, a major extracellular phenolic compound induced in some plants in response to bacteria, rendered Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae to a "viable but nonculturable" (VBNC) state. Here we performed a large scale transcriptome profiling of P. s. pv. syringae in the VBNC state induced by acetosyringone treatment and identified bacterial genes and pathways presumably associated with this condition. The findings offer insight into what events occur when bacterial pathogens are first encountered and host defense responses are triggered. The acquired knowledge will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance. We believe that this is the first work on global gene expression profiling of VBNC cells in plant pathogenic bacteria.
Project description:The pPT23A family of plasmids appears to be indigenous to the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and these plasmids are widely distributed and widely transferred among pathovars of P. syringae and related species. pPT23A-family plasmids (PFPs) are sources of accessory genes for their hosts that can include genes important for virulence and epiphytic colonization of plant leaf surfaces. The occurrence of repeated sequences including duplicated insertion sequences on PFPs has made obtaining closed plasmid genome sequences difficult. Therefore, our objective was to obtain complete genome sequences from PFPs from divergent P. syringae pathovars and also from strains of P. syringae pv. syringae isolated from different hosts.The eight plasmids sequenced ranged in length from 61.6 to 73.8 kb and encoded from 65 to 83 annotated orfs. Virulence genes including type III secretion system effectors were encoded on two plasmids, and one of these, pPt0893-29 from P. syringae pv. tabaci, encoded a wide variety of putative virulence determinants. The PFPs from P. syringae pv. syringae mostly encoded genes of importance to ecological fitness including the rulAB determinant conferring tolerance to ultraviolet radiation. Heavy metal resistance genes encoding resistance to copper and arsenic were also present in a few plasmids. The discovery of part of the chromosomal genomic island GI6 from P. syringae pv. syringae B728a in two PFPs from two P. syringae pv. syringae hosts is further evidence of past intergenetic transfers between plasmid and chromosomal DNA. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed new subgroups of the pPT23A plasmid family and confirmed that plasmid phylogeny is incongruent with P. syringae pathovar or host of isolation. In addition, conserved genes among seven sequenced plasmids within the same phylogenetic group were limited to plasmid-specific functions including maintenance and transfer functions.Our sequence analysis further revealed that PFPs from P. syringae encode suites of accessory genes that are selected at species (universal distribution), pathovar (interpathovar distribution), and population levels (intrapathovar distribution). The conservation of type IV secretion systems encoding conjugation functions also presumably contributes to the distribution of these plasmids within P. syringae populations.
Project description:We propose Pseudomonas coronafaciens sp. nov. as a new species in genus Pseudomonas, which is diverse from P. syringae. We also classified strains from onions which are responsible for yellow bud (YB) disease as P. coronafaciens. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoD, gltA and gap1 genes) for the P. syringae pv. coronafaciens strains along with other strains of P. syringae pathovars resulted in a distinct cluster separate from other P. syringae pathovars. Based on DNA-DNA relatedness, pathotype strain of P. syringae pv. coronafaciens (CFBP 2216PT) exhibited ?35.5% similarity with the pathotype strains of P. syringae pv. syringae (CFBP 1392PT, 4702T) but exhibited ?90.6% with the YB strains (YB 12-1, YB 12-4, YB 09-1). Also, the YB strains (YB 12-1, YB 12-4, YB 09-1) were able to infect only onion but not oat, rye and Italian ryegrass (common hosts for P. syrinage pv. coronafaciens). Contrastingly, P. syringae pv. coronafaciens strains (NCPPB 600PT, ATCC 19608, Pcf 83-300) produced typical halo blight symptoms on oat, rye and Italian rye grass but did not produce any symptoms on onion. These results provide evidence that P. syringae pv. coronafaciens should be elevated to a species level and the new YB strains may potentially be a novel pathovar of hereto proposed P. coronafaciens species.
Project description:Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph) is a significant bacterial pathogen of agricultural crops, and phage Φ6 and other members of the dsRNA virus family Cystoviridae undergo lytic (virulent) infection of Pph, using the type IV pilus as the initial site of cellular attachment. Despite the popularity of Pph/phage Φ6 as a model system in evolutionary biology, Pph resistance to phage Φ6 remains poorly characterized. To investigate differences between phage Φ6 resistant Pseudomonas syringae pathovar phaseolicola strains, we performed expression analysis of super and non piliated strains of Pseudomonas syringae to determine the genetic cause of resistance to viral infection.
Project description:A recently emerging bleeding canker disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovar aesculi (Pae), is threatening European horse chestnut in northwest Europe. Very little is known about the origin and biology of this new disease. We used the nucleotide sequences of seven commonly used marker genes to investigate the phylogeny of three strains isolated recently from bleeding stem cankers on European horse chestnut in Britain (E-Pae). On the basis of these sequences alone, the E-Pae strains were identical to the Pae type-strain (I-Pae), isolated from leaf spots on Indian horse chestnut in India in 1969. The phylogenetic analyses also showed that Pae belongs to a distinct clade of P. syringae pathovars adapted to woody hosts. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from the three E-Pae strains and one strain of I-Pae. Comparative genomic analyses revealed pathovar-specific genomic regions in Pae potentially implicated in virulence on a tree host, including genes for the catabolism of plant-derived aromatic compounds and enterobactin synthesis. Several gene clusters displayed intra-pathovar variation, including those encoding type IV secretion, a novel fatty acid biosynthesis pathway and a sucrose uptake pathway. Rates of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the four Pae genomes indicate that the three E-Pae strains diverged from each other much more recently than they diverged from I-Pae. The very low genetic diversity among the three geographically distinct E-Pae strains suggests that they originate from a single, recent introduction into Britain, thus highlighting the serious environmental risks posed by the spread of an exotic plant pathogenic bacterium to a new geographic location. The genomic regions in Pae that are absent from other P. syringae pathovars that infect herbaceous hosts may represent candidate genetic adaptations to infection of the woody parts of the tree.
Project description:The study of host range determinants within the Pseudomonas syringae complex is gaining renewed attention due to its widespread distribution in non-agricultural environments, evidence of large variability in intra-pathovar host range, and the emergence of new epidemic diseases. This requires the establishment of appropriate model pathosystems facilitating integration of phenotypic, genomic and evolutionary data. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi is a model pathogen of the olive tree, and here we report a closed genome of strain NCPPB 3335, plus draft genome sequences of three strains isolated from oleander (pv. nerii), ash (pv. fraxini) and broom plants (pv. retacarpa). We then conducted a comparative genomic analysis of these four new genomes plus 16 publicly available genomes, representing 20 strains of these four P. savastanoi pathovars of woody hosts. Despite overlapping host ranges, cross-pathogenicity tests using four plant hosts clearly separated these pathovars and lead to pathovar reassignment of two strains. Critically, these functional assays were pivotal to reconcile phylogeny with host range and to define pathovar-specific genes repertoires. We report a pan-genome of 7,953 ortholog gene families and a total of 45 type III secretion system effector genes, including 24 core genes, four genes exclusive of pv. retacarpa and several genes encoding pathovar-specific truncations. Noticeably, the four pathovars corresponded with well-defined genetic lineages, with core genome phylogeny and hierarchical clustering of effector genes closely correlating with pathogenic specialization. Knot-inducing pathovars encode genes absent in the canker-inducing pv. fraxini, such as those related to indole acetic acid, cytokinins, rhizobitoxine, and a bacteriophytochrome. Other pathovar-exclusive genes encode type I, type II, type IV, and type VI secretion system proteins, the phytotoxine phevamine A, a siderophore, c-di-GMP-related proteins, methyl chemotaxis proteins, and a broad collection of transcriptional regulators and transporters of eight different superfamilies. Our combination of pathogenicity analyses and genomics tools allowed us to correctly assign strains to pathovars and to propose a repertoire of host range-related genes in the P. syringae complex.
Project description:Pseudomonas syringae pv. lapsa is a pathovar of Pseudomonas syringae that can infect wheat. The complete genome of P. syringae pv. lapsa strain ATCC 10859 contains a 5,918,899-bp circular chromosome with 4,973 coding sequences, 16 rRNAs, 69 tRNAs, and an average GC content of 59.13%. The analysis of this genome revealed several gene clusters that are related to pathogenesis and virulence.