Abnormal Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Resistance Are Induced via the IRE1?/XBP-1 Pathway in Subclinical Hypothyroidism.
ABSTRACT: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and diabetes mellitus are closely related and often occur together in individuals. However, the underlying mechanism of this association is still uncertain. In this study we re-analyzed the data of a mature database (NHANES, 1999 ~ 2002) and found that both fasting plasma glucose levels and the proportion of hyperglycemic subjects among SCH patients were higher than that found in euthyroid controls. SCH was also associated with a 2.29-fold increased risk for diabetes. Subsequently, we established an SCH mouse model and subjected it to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and an insulin tolerance test (ITT). SCH mice exhibited impaired glucose and insulin tolerance. Increased HOMA-IR and decreased ISI indexes, indicating insulin resistance (IR), were also observed in the SCH state. Hepatic ERp29 and Bip, as well as IRE1? and XBP-1s, were induced significantly in SCH mice, suggesting the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, particularly involving the IRE1?/XBP-1s pathway. Interestingly, when we relieved ER stress using 4-phenyl butyric acid, abnormal glucose metabolism, and IR status in SCH mice were improved. Our findings suggest that ER stress, predominantly involving the IRE1?/XBP-1s pathway, may play a pivotal role in abnormal glucose metabolism and IR in SCH that may help develop potential strategies for the prevention and treatment of diabetes.
Project description:To date, the only known role of the spliced form of X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP-1s) in metabolic processes has been its ability to act as a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes that increase the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) folding capacity, thereby improving insulin sensitivity. Here we show that XBP-1s interacts with the Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) transcription factor and directs it toward proteasome-mediated degradation. Given this new insight, we tested modest hepatic overexpression of XBP-1s in vivo in mouse models of insulin deficiency or insulin resistance and found it improved serum glucose concentrations, even without improving insulin signaling or ER folding capacity. The notion that XBP-1s can act independently of its role in the ER stress response is further supported by our finding that in the severely insulin resistant ob/ob mouse strain a DNA-binding-defective mutant of XBP-1s, which does not have the ability to increase ER folding capacity, is still capable of reducing serum glucose concentrations and increasing glucose tolerance. Our results thus provide the first evidence to our knowledge that XBP-1s, through its interaction with FoxO1, can bypass hepatic insulin resistance independent of its effects on ER folding capacity, suggesting a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Evidence implicating dysregulation of the IRE1/XBP-1s arm of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cancer pathogenesis (e.g., multiple myeloma) has prompted the development of IRE1 RNase inhibitors. Here, effects of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor SCH727965 (dinaciclib) on the IRE1 arm of the UPR were examined in human leukemia and myeloma cells. Exposure of cells to extremely low (e.g., nmol/L) concentrations of SCH727965, a potent inhibitor of CDKs 1/2/5/9, diminished XBP-1s and Grp78 induction by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducers thapsigargin and tunicamycin, while sharply inducing cell death. SCH727965, in contrast to IRE1 RNase inhibitors, inhibited the UPR in association with attenuation of XBP-1s nuclear localization and accumulation rather than transcription, translation, or XBP-1 splicing. Notably, in human leukemia cells, CDK1 and 5 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown diminished Grp78 and XBP-1s upregulation while increasing thapsigargin lethality, arguing for a functional role for CDK1/5 in activation of the cytoprotective IRE1/XBP-1s arm of the UPR. In contrast, CDK9 or 2 inhibitors or shRNA knockdown failed to downregulate XBP-1s or Grp78. Furthermore, IRE1, XBP-1, or Grp78 knockdown significantly increased thapsigargin lethality, as observed with CDK1/5 inhibition/knockdown. Finally, SCH727965 diminished myeloma cell growth in vivo in association with XBP-1s downregulation. Together, these findings demonstrate that SCH727965 acts at extremely low concentrations to attenuate XBP-1s nuclear accumulation and Grp78 upregulation in response to ER stress inducers. They also highlight a link between specific components of the cell-cycle regulatory apparatus (e.g., CDK1/5) and the cytoprotective IRE1/XBP-1s/Grp78 arm of the UPR that may be exploited therapeutically in UPR-driven malignancies.
Project description:Acute graft- vs. -host disease (GVHD) is an important cause of morbidity and death after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We identify a new approach to prevent GVHD that impairs monocyte-derived dendritic cell (moDC) alloactivation of T cells, yet preserves graft- vs.-leukemia (GVL). Exceeding endoplasmic reticulum (ER) capacity results in a spliced form of X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1s). XBP-1s mediates ER stress and inflammatory responses. We demonstrate that siRNA targeting XBP-1 in moDCs abrogates their stimulation of allogeneic T cells. B-I09, an inositol-requiring enzyme-1? (IRE1?) inhibitor that prevents XBP-1 splicing, reduces human moDC migration, allo-stimulatory potency, and curtails moDC IL-1?, TGF?, and p40 cytokines, suppressing Th1 and Th17 cell priming. B-I09-treated moDCs reduce responder T cell activation via calcium flux without interfering with regulatory T cell (Treg) function or GVL effects by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and NK cells. In a human T cell mediated xenogeneic GVHD model, B-I09 inhibition of XBP-1s reduced target-organ damage and pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells without impacting donor Tregs or anti-tumor CTL. DC XBP-1s inhibition provides an innovative strategy to prevent GVHD and retain GVL.
Project description:Dynamic metabolic changes occur in the liver during the transition between fasting and feeding. Here we show that transient ER stress responses in the liver following feeding terminated by Sdf2l1 are essential for normal glucose and lipid homeostasis. Sdf2l1 regulates ERAD through interaction with a trafficking protein, TMED10. Suppression of Sdf2l1 expression in the liver results in insulin resistance and increases triglyceride content with sustained ER stress. In obese and diabetic mice, Sdf2l1 is downregulated due to decreased levels of nuclear XBP-1s, whereas restoration of Sdf2l1 expression ameliorates glucose intolerance and fatty liver with decreased ER stress. In diabetic patients, insufficient induction of Sdf2l1 correlates with progression of insulin resistance and steatohepatitis. Therefore, failure to build an ER stress response in the liver may be a causal factor in obesity-related diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, for which Sdf2l1 could serve as a therapeutic target and sensitive biomarker.
Project description:Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are one of the genetic causes of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Although the primary symptom of ALS is muscle weakness, the link between SOD1 mutations, cellular dysfunction and muscle atrophy and weakness is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize cellular markers of ER stress in skeletal muscle across the lifespan of G93A*SOD1 (ALS-Tg) mice. Muscles were obtained from ALS-Tg and age-matched wild type (WT) mice at 70d (pre-symptomatic), 90d and 120-140d (symptomatic) and analyzed for ER stress markers. In white gastrocnemius (WG) muscle, ER stress sensors PERK and IRE1? were upregulated ~2-fold at 70d and remained (PERK) or increased further (IRE1?) at 120-140d. Phospho-eIF2?, a downstream target of PERK and an inhibitor of protein translation, was increased by 70d and increased further to 12.9-fold at 120-140d. IRE1? upregulation leads to increased splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) to the XBP-1s isoform. XBP-1s transcript was increased at 90d and 120-140d indicating activation of IRE1? signaling. The ER chaperone/heat shock protein Grp78/BiP was upregulated 2-fold at 70d and 90d and increased to 6.1-fold by 120-140d. The ER-stress-specific apoptotic signaling protein CHOP was upregulated 2-fold at 70d and 90d and increased to 13.3-fold at 120-140d indicating progressive activation of an apoptotic signal in muscle. There was a greater increase in Grp78/BiP and CHOP in WG vs. the more oxidative red gastrocnemius (RG) ALS-Tg at 120-140d indicating greater ER stress and apoptosis in fast glycolytic muscle. These data show that the ER stress response is activated in skeletal muscle of ALS-Tg mice by an early pre-symptomatic age and increases with disease progression. These data suggest a mechanism by which myocellular ER stress leads to reduced protein translation and contributes to muscle atrophy and weakness in ALS.
Project description:Despite the fact that X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1) is one of the main regulators of the unfolded protein response (UPR), the modulators of XBP-1 are poorly understood. Here, we show that the regulatory subunits of phosphotidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), p85alpha (encoded by Pik3r1) and p85beta (encoded by Pik3r2) form heterodimers that are disrupted by insulin treatment. This disruption of heterodimerization allows the resulting monomers of p85 to interact with, and increase the nuclear translocation of, the spliced form of XBP-1 (XBP-1s). The interaction between p85 and XBP-1s is lost in ob/ob mice, resulting in a severe defect in XBP-1s translocation to the nucleus and thus in the resolution of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. These defects are ameliorated when p85alpha and p85beta are overexpressed in the liver of ob/ob mice. Our results define a previously unknown insulin receptor signaling pathway and provide new mechanistic insight into the development of ER stress during obesity.
Project description:The endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response (UPR<sup>ER</sup>) is a cellular stress response that maintains homeostasis within the secretory pathway, regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, and influences longevity. To ask whether this role in lifespan determination depends upon metabolic intermediaries, we metabotyped C. elegans expressing the active form of the UPR<sup>ER</sup> transcription factor XBP-1, XBP-1s, and found many metabolic changes. These included reduced levels of triglycerides and increased levels of oleic acid (OA), a monounsaturated fatty acid associated with lifespan extension in C. elegans. Here, we show that constitutive XBP-1s expression increases the activity of lysosomal lipases and upregulates transcription of the ?9 desaturase FAT-6, which is required for the full lifespan extension induced by XBP-1s. Dietary OA supplementation increases the lifespan of wild-type, but not xbp-1s-expressing animals and enhances proteostasis. These results suggest that modulation of lipid metabolism by XBP-1s contributes to its downstream effects on protein homeostasis and longevity.
Project description:Bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7) is a tumour suppressor that is known to regulate many pathological processes including cell growth, apoptosis and cell cycle. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis plays a key role in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, the molecular mechanism of hyperglycaemia-induced myocardial apoptosis is still unclear. We intended to determine the role of BRD7 in high glucose (HG)-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. In vivo, we established a type 1 diabetic rat model by injecting a high-dose streptozotocin (STZ), and lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was used to inhibit BRD7 expression. Rats with DCM exhibited severe myocardial remodelling, fibrosis, left ventricular dysfunction and myocardial apoptosis. The expression of BRD7 was up-regulated in the heart of diabetic rats, and inhibition of BRD7 had beneficial effects against diabetes-induced heart damage. In vitro, H9c2 cardiomyoblasts was used to investigate the mechanism of BRD7 in HG-induced apoptosis. Treating H9c2 cardiomyoblasts with HG elevated the level of BRD7 via activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and increased ER stress-induced apoptosis by detecting spliced/active X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1s) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Furthermore, down-regulation of BRD7 attenuated HG-induced expression of CHOP via inhibiting nuclear translocation of XBP-1s without affecting the total expression of XBP-1s. In conclusion, inhibition of BRD7 appeared to protect against hyperglycaemia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by inhibiting ER stress signalling pathway.
Project description:Whether neuronal inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (<i>Ire1</i>) is required for the proper regulation of energy balance and glucose homeostasis is unclear. We found that pro-opiomelanocortin (<i>Pomc</i>)-specific deficiency of <i>Ire1?</i> accelerated diet-induced obesity concomitant with a decrease in energy expenditure. This hypometabolic phenotype included deficits in thermogenic responses to diet and cold exposure as well as "beiging" of white adipose tissue. We also demonstrate that loss of <i>Ire1?</i> in <i>Pomc</i> neurons impaired whole-body glucose and insulin tolerance as well as hepatic insulin sensitivity. At the cellular level, deletion of <i>Ire1?</i> in <i>Pomc</i> neurons elevated hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and predisposed <i>Pomc</i> neurons to leptin and insulin resistance. Together, the current studies extend and confirm conclusions that <i>Ire1?-Xbp1s</i> and associated molecular targets link ER stress in arcuate <i>Pomc</i> neurons to aspects of normal energy and glucose homeostasis.
Project description:In C. elegans, expression of the UPR<sup>ER</sup> transcription factor xbp-1s in neurons cell non-autonomously activates the UPR<sup>ER</sup> in the intestine, leading to enhanced proteostasis and lifespan. To better understand this signaling pathway, we isolated neurons from animals expressing neuronal xbp-1s for transcriptomic analysis, revealing a striking remodeling of transcripts involved in neuronal signaling. We then identified signaling molecules required for cell non-autonomous intestinal UPR<sup>ER</sup> activation, including the biogenic amine tyramine. Expression of xbp-1s in just two pairs of neurons that synthesize tyramine, the RIM and RIC interneurons, induced intestinal UPR<sup>ER</sup> activation and extended longevity, and exposure to stress led to splicing and activation of xbp-1 in these neurons. In addition, we found that neuronal xbp-1s modulates feeding behavior and reproduction, dependent upon tyramine synthesis. XBP-1s therefore remodels neuronal signaling to coordinately modulate intestinal physiology and stress-responsive behavior, functioning as a global regulator of organismal responses to stress.