Impact of postoperative radiation therapy for deeply invasive oral cavity cancer upstaged to stage III.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:This article is about the eighth edition staging guidelines for upstaged patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) with >10?mm depth to pT3. This upstages some patients from stage I-II to stage III, a point at which patients are traditionally considered for postoperative radiation therapy (PORT). The role of PORT in patients upstaged for >10?mm depth is unknown. METHODS:We identified patients with surgically resected stage I-II OCSCC with >10?mm depth who were upstaged to stage III. We used Cox proportional hazard modeling to compare patients who received PORT to those who did not (median follow-up 38.6?months). RESULTS:We observed that 3.6% of patients with OCSCC were upstaged to stage III for depth?>10?mm including 823 eligible patients. On adjusted analyses, PORT was associated with improved overall survival in patients upstaged to stage III (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30-0.73). CONCLUSION:PORT is associated with improved survival for patients with OCSCC upstaged to stage III for >10?mm depth.
Project description:Because locally advanced oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) is often treated with surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy (S+PORT), the effectiveness of organ preservation with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) remains unclear.To compare the differences in survival between patients with locally advanced OCSCC treated with S+PORT or CRT.Using the National Cancer Database, this study compared 6900 patients with stage III to IVA OCSCC treated with S+PORT and CRT from 2004 through 2012 at academic and community-based cancer clinics. Comparisons were made using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression models using the entire cohort and a propensity score-matched cohort of 2286 patients.Overall survival (OS).Of the 6900 study patients, 4809 received S+PORT (3080 male [64.0%] and 1792 [36.0%] female) and 2091 received CRT (1453 male [69.5%] and 638 [30.5%] female). Median follow-up for the entire group was 23.0 months overall but was shorter for patients receiving CRT (17.3-month) vs S+PORT (25.6 months). Patients receiving CRT were more likely to be older than 60 years, treated before 2007, live within 10 miles of the treating facility, treated at nonacademic centers, have more comorbidities, have T3 to T4a tumors, and have N2a to N2c nodal disease. Propensity score matching identified cohorts of patients with similar clinical variables. S+PORT was associated with improved survival among all patients (3-year OS: 53.9% for S+PORT vs 37.8% for CRT; difference?=?16.1%; 95% CI, 13.6%-18.6%) and in the propensity score-matched cohort (3-year OS: 51.8% for S+PORT vs 39.3% for CRT; difference?=?11.9%; 95% CI, 7.8%-16.0%). S+PORT was associated with improved survival among patients with T3 to T4a tumors (3-year OS: 49.7% for S+PORT vs 36.0% for CRT; difference?=?16.1%; 95% CI, 13.6%-18.6%) but was not associated with improved survival among patients with T1 to T2 tumors (3-year OS: 59.1% for S+PORT vs 53.5% for CRT; difference?=?5.6%; 95% CI, -3.1% to 14.3%).Compared with CRT, S+PORT was associated with improved survival for locally advanced OCSCCs, especially in T3 to T4a disease. These data support the use of surgery as the initial treatment modality for operable OCSCCs.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine whether postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) is associated with an overall survival (OS) benefit in patients with completely resected Masaoka or Masaoka-Koga stage II and III thymoma.All patients with completely resected (R0) stage II or III thymoma were identified in a large database of the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group. Clinical, pathologic, treatment, and follow-up information were extracted. OS was the primary end point. A univariate analysis using the log-rank test was performed, and a multivariate Cox model was created to identify factors associated with OS.Of 1263 patients meeting the selection criteria, 870 (69%) had stage II thymoma. The WHO histologic subtype was A/AB in 360 patients (30%) and B1/B2/B3 in 827 (70%). PORT was given to 55% of patients (n = 689), 15% (n = 180) received chemotherapy, and 10% (n = 122) received both. The 5- and 10-year OS rates for patients having undergone an operation plus PORT were 95% and 86%, respectively, compared with 90% and 79% for patients receiving an operation alone (p = 0.002). This OS benefit remained significant when patients with stage II (p = 0.02) and stage III thymoma (p = 0.0005) were analyzed separately. On multivariate analysis, earlier stage, younger age, absence of paraneoplastic syndrome, and PORT were significantly associated with improved OS.We observed an OS benefit with the use of PORT in completely resected stage II and III thymoma. In the absence of a randomized trial, this represents the most comprehensive analysis of individual patient data and strong evidence in favor of PORT in this patient population.
Project description:To explore the value of radiotherapy in C-SCLC patients, especially in those receiving a radical resection.The differences of survivals between the postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) and non-PORT groups were not statistically significant. But analyzing the benefits in subgroups, PORT significantly improved OS (p = 0.015), DFS (p = 0.026), LRFS (p = 0.008) and DMFS (p = 0.030) in stage III patients. For the patients with N2 stage, all survivals of the PORT group were also statistically significantly higher than non-PORT group (p = 0.018, 0.032, 0.008, 0.042). Patients with more than 10% of metastatic lymph nodes could get a significant benefit survivals by receiving PORT (p = 0.033, 0.030, 0.025, 0.031). Having a systematic dissection of more than 17 lymph nodes was a subset which could get better OS and LRFS by receiving PORT (p = 0.045, 0.048).Between Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2012, fifty-five patients diagnosed as C-SCLC after complete surgical resection in our center were retrospectively analyzed. The overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS), loco-regional recurrence free survival (LRFS), and distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method.PORT can significantly improve the survival of C-SCLC patients with resected pathological pN2 stage. For the patients with a large percent of metastatic lymph nodes, PORT can also improve survivals.
Project description:We investigated the relationship of different primary subsites together with their pathological features on the survival of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) patients. We retrospectively reviewed OCSCC patients and documented their demographic data, pathological features and clinical outcome. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to examine the influence of various pathological features on the prognosis in different subsites of oral cavity. There were totally 1,383 OCSCC patients enrolled for final analysis. Perineural invasion had a poor prognosis at the early stage of OCSCC patients especially those with primary at the tongue. In addition, lymphovascular invasion was associated with poor survival at the late stage especially those with primary at the buccal mucosa and the tongue. The impact of pathological features on the survival of OCSCC patients varied in different subsites. Further investigation is warranted to validate our finding in a multicenter study. Grouping the different markers to establish a prognostic scoring system may provide more accurate evaluation of the prognosis in OCSCC patients.
Project description:PURPOSE:For patients with stage III (N2) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with surgical resection, postoperative chemotherapy improves overall survival (OS), but the role of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) is controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors for local-regional recurrence and to evaluate the impact of PORT on local-regional control (LRC) and OS in a modern series of patients with surgically resected stage III (N2) NSCLC. METHODS AND MATERIALS:A retrospective review was performed of patients with Stage III (N2) NSCLC who underwent curative intent resection at our institution between February 1999 and January 2012. OS, LRC, and metastasis-free survival were estimated from the date of surgery using the Kaplan Meier method. RESULTS:A total of 71 patients were included in the study. Patient median age was 63 years. Histology was adenocarcinoma in 69% of patients. Pretreatment positron emission tomography/computed tomography staging was performed for 90% of patients, and preoperative chemotherapy was administered in 23%. The rate of R0 resection was 96%. Forty-one patients (58%) received PORT and the median PORT dose was 50 Gy (range, 41.4-60 Gy). The median follow-up time for living patients was 5.0 years. Five-year OS for all patients was 66%. OS at 5 years for patients who received PORT compared with patients who did not receive PORT was 71% versus 60%, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; 95% CI, 0.30-1.44; P = .28). LRC at 5 years for patients who received PORT compared with patients who did not receive PORT was 89% versus 76%, respectively (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.13-1.45; P = .17). Factors associated with decreased LRC were male sex (P = .011) and primary tumor (pT) stage (pT3/4 vs. pT1/2, P = .006). Metastasis-free survival at 5 years for patients who received PORT compared with those who did not receive PORT was 62% versus 63%, respectively (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.51-2.40; P = .86). CONCLUSIONS:In this modern series of patients with resected stage III (N2) NSCLC, patients who received PORT had higher rates of OS and LRC, but these differences were not statistically significant.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We aim to determine clinical and pathological stage discordance rates and to evaluate factors associated with discordance. METHODS:Adults with clinical stages I-III breast cancer were identified from the National Cancer Data Base. Concordance was defined as cTN?=?pTN (discordance: cTN?pTN). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with discordance. RESULTS:Comparing clinical and pathological stage, 23.1% were downstaged and 8.7% were upstaged. After adjustment, factors associated with downstaging (vs concordance) included grade 3 (OR 10.56, vs grade 1) and HER2-negative (OR 3.79). Factors associated with upstaging (vs concordance) were grade 3 (OR 10.56, vs grade 1), HER2-negative (OR 1.25), and lobular histology (OR 2.47, vs ductal). ER-negative status was associated with stage concordance (vs downstaged or upstaged, OR 0.52 and 0.87). CONCLUSIONS:Among breast cancer patients, nearly one-third exhibit clinical-pathological stage discordance. This high likelihood of discordance is important to consider for counseling and treatment planning.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery is the most common approach for patients with resectable esophageal cancer. Nevertheless, considerable numbers of esophageal-cancer patients undergo surgery as the first treatment. The benefit of neoadjuvant therapy might only be for patients with a pathologic complete response, so stratified research is necessary. Postoperative treatments have important roles because of the poor survival rates of patients with stage-IIB/III disease treated with resection alone. Five-year survival of patients with stage-IIB/III thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (TESCC) after surgery is 20.0-28.4%, and locoregional lymph-node metastases are the main cause of failure. Several retrospective studies have shown that postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) and postoperative chemoradiotherapy (POCRT) after radical esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma with positive lymph-node metastases and stage-III disease can decrease locoregional recurrence and increase overall survival (OS). Using intensity-modulated RT, PORT reduces locoregional recurrence further. However, the rate of distant metastases increases to 30.7%. Hence, chemotherapy may be vital for these patients. Therefore, a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) is needed to evaluate the value of PORT and concurrent POCRT in comparison with surgery alone (SA) for esophageal cancer. METHOD:This will be a phase-II/III RCT. The patients with pathologic stage-IIB/III esophageal squamous cell carcinoma will receive concurrent POCRT or PORT after radical esophagectomy compared with those who have SA. A total of 120 patients in each group will be recruited. POCRT patients will be 50.4?Gy concurrent with paclitaxel (135-150?mg/m2) plus cisplatin or nedaplatin (50-75?mg/m2) treatment every 28?days. Two cycles will be required for concurrent chemotherapy. The prescription dose will be 54?Gy for PORT. The primary endpoint will be disease-free survival (DFS). The secondary endpoint will be OS. Other pre-specified outcome measures will be the proportion of patients who complete treatment, toxicity, and out-of-field regional recurrence rate between PORT and POCRT. DISCUSSION:This prospective RCT will provide high-level evidence for postoperative adjuvant treatment of pathologic stage-IIB/III esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. TRIAL REGISTRATION:clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02279134). Registered on October 26, 2014.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Surgery alone is standard-of-care for stage I gastric adenocarcinoma; however, clinicians can offer preoperative therapy for clinical stage I disease with signet ring cell histology, given its presumed aggressive biology. We aimed to assess the validity of this practice.<h4>Methods</h4>The National Cancer Database (2004-2015) was reviewed for patients with clinical stage I signet ring cell gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent treatment with surgery alone, perioperative chemotherapy, neoadjuvant therapy, or adjuvant therapy. Analysis was stratified by preoperative clinical/pathologic stage. Primary outcome was overall survival (OS).<h4>Results</h4>Of 1018 patients, median age was 60 years (±14); 53% received surgery alone (n = 542), 5% received perioperative chemotherapy (n = 47), 12% received neoadjuvant therapy (n = 125), and 30% received adjuvant therapy (n = 304). For clinical stage I disease, surgery alone was associated with an improved 5-year OS rate (71%) versus perioperative chemotherapy (58%), neoadjuvant therapy (38%), or adjuvant therapy (52%) [overall p < 0.01]. For pathologic stage I, surgery alone had equivalent or improved survival compared with perioperative, neoadjuvant, and adjuvant therapy (5-year OS: 78% vs. 89% [p = 0.77] vs. 64% [p = 0.04] vs. 84% [p = 0.99]). Adjuvant therapy was associated with improved 5-year OS compared with pretreatment for those patients upstaged (37%) to pathologic stage II/III (55% vs. 36% and 34% vs. 7%; all p < 0.01).<h4>Conclusions</h4>This stage-specific study demonstrates improved survival with surgery alone for clinical stage I signet ring cell gastric adenocarcinoma. Despite 37% of clinical stage I patients being upstaged to pathologic stage II/III, adjuvant therapy offers a favorable rescue strategy, with improved outcomes compared with those treated preoperatively. Surgery alone also affords similar or improved survival for pathologic stage I disease versus multimodality therapy. This study challenges the bias to overtreat stage I signet ring cell gastric adenocarcinoma.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To investigate the prognostic factors and treatment outcomes of primary parotid carcinoma treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (PORT). METHODS:We reviewed retrospectively 57 patients with primary parotid carcinoma who were treated with surgery and PORT between 2005 and 2014. Superficial parotidectomy was performed in 19 patients, total parotidectomy in 10 patients, and total parotidectomy with lymph node dissection in 28 patients PORT on the tumor bed was performed in 41 patients, while PORT on tumor bed and ipsilateral cervical lymph nodes was performed in 16 patients. RESULTS:With a median follow-up of 66 months, the 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, locoregional control, and distant control rates were 77.0%, 60.2%, 77.6%, and 72.8%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival by stage was 100%, 100%, 80.0%, and 46.4% in stage I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Recurrences at primary lesions were found in seven patients, while at cervical nodes in six patients. Distant recurrences were developed in 12 patients. No patient with the low and intermediate histologic grade developed distant failure. As prognostic factors, the histologic grade for overall survival (P=0.005), pathological T-stage (P=0.009) and differentiation grade (P=0.009) for disease-free survival, pathological T-stage for locoregional control (P=0.007), and lympho-vascular invasion (P=0.023) for distant recurrence were significant on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION:This study revealed that differentiation grade, histologic grade, pathological T-stage, and lympho-vascular invasion were significant independent prognostic factors on clinical outcomes.