Teachers' involvement and students' self-efficacy: Keys to achievement in higher education.
ABSTRACT: We study the relative importance of the three dimensions of need-supportive teaching (NST) and students' self-efficacy to gain new knowledge about students' achievement in higher education. NST assumes that teachers are key to the motivation of students, providing autonomy support, structure (support of competence), and involvement (support of relatedness). In turn, self-efficacy raises students' confidence in their ability to succeed in academic tasks. Drawing on 86,000 records of teaching evaluations by students at the University of Girona (Spain), we present evidence that teachers' involvement and students' self-efficacy are the two elements most strongly and positively related to achievement. Students obtain higher marks when they believe that their teachers are dependable and available to offer resources, and when they feel capable of organizing and implementing the courses of action necessary to acquire knowledge. We also find that students' experience of autonomy support and structure are negatively (or not) correlated with achievement. Subgroup analyses also indicate that students have different needs in different knowledge areas.
Project description:A growing body of research-based knowledge has been generated for the purpose of better understanding the reciprocal and dynamic relationship between teachers' instructional characteristics and students' psychosocial and learning outcomes. This study specifically examined the relationship between teachers' interpersonal styles and fear of failure outcomes in physical education students. Five hundred sixty-two middle school and high school students in Physical Education classes (PE) participated in the study. Students completed questionnaires that assessed instructors' autonomy-supportive and controlling teaching styles and students' own fear of failure. A person-centered analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The results revealed that higher teacher autonomy support was associated with lower student fear of failure. To the contrary, a controlling teaching style was associated with fear of failure in these students. Two profiles emerged in which moderate fear of failure was associated with a stronger perception of a controlling teacher style and lower levels of fear of failure were associated with greater perceived instructor support for autonomy.
Project description:PURPOSE: Internalization of students' motivation towards an intrinsic form is associated with increased interest, commitment, learning, and satisfaction with education. Self-Determination theory postulates that intrinsic motivation and autonomous forms of self-regulation are the desired type of motivation; as they have been associated with deep learning, better performance and well-being. It claims three basic psychological needs have to be satisfied in order to achieve intrinsic motivation. These are the needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. This study aims to provide a review on how these basic psychological needs are encouraged in undergraduate students so they can be transferred to the clinical teaching environment. METHODS: Electronic searches were performed across four databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and ERIC), relevant journals, and retrieved bibliography of selected articles. In total, searches produced 4,869 references, from which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Main themes were coded in three categories: The support of autonomy, competence and relatedness. The research-based evidence appears to be of reasonable quality, and indicates that teachers should work to satisfy students' basic psychological needs to foster internalization of self-regulation. Our findings suggest that teachers should interact with students in a more 'human centred' teaching style, as these actions predict motivational internalization. Several themes emerged from different contexts and further investigation should expand them. CONCLUSION: This review identified actions that clinical teachers could implement in their daily work to support students' self-determination. Autonomy supportive teaching in health professions educations would benefit students and may actually result in more effective health care delivery.
Project description:Research has focused predominantly on how teachers affect students' achievement on tests despite evidence that a broad range of attitudes and behaviors are equally important to their long-term success. We find that upper-elementary teachers have large effects on self-reported measures of students' self-efficacy in math, and happiness and behavior in class. Students' attitudes and behaviors are predicted by teaching practices most proximal to these measures, including teachers' emotional support and classroom organization. However, teachers who are effective at improving test scores often are not equally effective at improving students' attitudes and behaviors. These findings lend empirical evidence to well-established theory on the multidimensional nature of teaching and the need to identify strategies for improving the full range of teachers' skills.
Project description:Teachers' autonomy support (AS) in physical education (PE) has positive effects on students' affective and behavioral outcomes in PE. Even though the existence of three different dimensions of AS, namely cognitive, organizational and procedural AS has been suggested in educational settings, there is a lack of multidimensional instruments for the assessment of autonomy-supportive teaching in PE. The aim of this study was to validate the German Multi-Dimensional Perceived Autonomy Support Scale for Physical Education (MD-PASS-PE). The sample comprised 1030 students of grades 6 through 10. Internal consistency was used to test the reliability of the assumed subscales. Factorial validity and measurement invariance across gender and age were examined by confirmatory factor analyses. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate criterion validity. The subscales exhibited acceptable to good internal consistency. The assumed three-factor structure was confirmed within a bi-factor model including a general factor and three specific group factors. Results strongly supported measurement invariance across gender while tentatively suggesting measurement invariance across age. Criterion validity was supported as the MD-PASS-PE explained 15% and 14% of the variance in the constructs of self-efficacy and intrinsic value, respectively. The German MD-PASS-PE provides PE teachers with deeper insights into their autonomy-supportive teaching behavior, helping them to support their students' autonomy in a holistic way.
Project description:This study applied self-determination theory (SDT) to investigate the relationship between students' autonomous motivation and tutors' autonomy support in medical students' academic achievement.This was a cross-sectional study. Out of 204 students in a fundamental medical science course, 199 participated in the study. Data was collected using two questionnaires: the Learning Self-Regulation and Learning Climate Questionnaires. The score of the course assessment was the measure of academic achievement. Data was analyzed and reported with descriptive and inferential statistics (mean, standard deviation and multiple regression analysis).Mean score (±standard deviation) of the autonomous motivation, tutors' autonomy support, and academic achievement were 5.48±0.89, 5.22±0.92, and 5.22±0.92. Multiple regression results reported students' autonomous motivation was associated with improvement of students' academic achievement (?=15.2, p=0.004). However, augmentation of tutors' autonomy support was not reflected in the improvement of students' academic achievement (? = -12.6, p = 0.019). Both students' autonomous motivation and tutors' autonomy support had a contribution of about 4.2% students' academic achievement (F = 4.343, p = 0.014, R2 = 0.042).Due to the unique characteristic of our medical students' educational background, our study shows that tutors' autonomy support is inconsistent with students' academic achievement. However, both autonomous motivation and support are essential to students' academic achievement. Further study is needed to explore students' educational background and self-regulated learning competence to improve students' academic achievement.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Peer-teaching is an educational format in which one student teaches one, or more, fellow students. Self-determination theory suggests that intrinsic motivation increases with the enhancement of autonomy, competence and relatedness. AIMS:This qualitative study sought to explore and better understand the lived experiences, attitudes and perceptions of medical students as peer-teachers at the University of Rwanda when participating in a peer-learning intervention in the pediatric department. METHODS:Students participated in a 3-h peer-taught symposium, supervised by a pediatric specialist or resident. Students worked in small groups to deliver a short didactic presentation related to acute illness in children. The symposium prepared the students for simulation-based teaching activities. In-depth, semi-structured, interviews were then employed to explore the students' experiences of the peer-teaching symposium. We specifically aimed to scaffold the analysis of these experiences on the themes of autonomy, competence and relatedness. RESULTS:Saturation was achieved after interviews with ten students. Students described developing their own autonomous learning strategies, but despite developing this autonomy had a desire for support in the delivery of the sessions. Competence was developed through enhanced learning of the material, developing teaching skills and confidence in public speaking. Students valued the different aspects of relatedness that developed through preparing and delivering the peer-teaching. Several other themes were identified during the interviews, which are not described here, namely; i. Satisfaction with peer-teaching; ii. Peer-teaching as a concept; iii. Practical issues related to the peer-teaching session, and iv. Teaching style from faculty. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first study to assess peer-learning activities in Rwanda. It has used qualitative methods to deeply explore the lived experiences, attitudes and perceptions of medical students. The peer-teaching strategy used here demonstrates the potential to enhance intrinsic motivation while increasing knowledge acquisition and teaching skills. We postulate that students in resource-limited settings, similar to Rwanda, would benefit from peer-teaching activities, and in doing so could enhance their intrinsic motivation.
Project description:Elementary school teachers' math anxiety has been found to play a role in their students' math achievement. The current study addresses the role of teacher math anxiety on ninth-grade students' math achievement and the mediating factors underlying this relationship. Using data from the National Mindset Study, we find that higher teacher math anxiety is associated with lower math achievement. This relationship is partially mediated by the students' perception that their teacher believes not everyone can be good at math and is not explainable by teachers' usable knowledge to teach mathematics. In subsequent analyses, we find that higher teacher math anxiety relates to a reduction in process-oriented (as opposed to ability-oriented) teaching practices, which in turn predict students' perception of teacher mindset. We argue that math anxious teachers and their use of particular teaching strategies have the potential to shape students' math achievement and their perceptions of what their teacher believes about math.
Project description:This intervention study investigates the effects of teacher autonomy support on basic psychological needs, self-determined motivation for giving physical education classes and satisfaction from engaging in physical activity. The sample consisted of 61 students (32 in the experimental group and 29 in the control group), aged 12 to 14 years. Two physical education teachers were part of the group, one who was trained to give autonomy-support classes and the other used the usual class model. The experimental group teacher gave classes based on the autonomy support style, while his control group counterpart did not follow any model. The students, assessed before and after the 8-month intervention, were measured for perception of interpersonal teaching style, basic psychological needs, self-determined motivation and satisfaction from engaging in physical activity. The results showed that the experimental group exhibited higher indices for autonomy, competence and relatedness, self-determined motivation and satisfaction from engaging in physical activity, when compared to the control group. The study provides evidence of the effectiveness of programs that support autonomy in physical education classes, emphasizing the importance of pedagogical strategies and educational programs that promote the development of basic psychological needs, self-determined motivation and its positive consequences in relation to physical education classes.
Project description:There is a strong belief that physical education can affect an individual's physical activity, healthy habits, and behaviors through pleasant, positive, and significant exercise experiences, a practical knowledge base, and comprehensive teaching strategies. However, a crucial cognitive aspect for the effective and significant learning of the activities offered in the educational environment is the concentration of students. This study aims to test a hypothetical model based on self-determination theory to assess the degree of support prediction provided by the teacher for student autonomy in the various types of motivation and on student concentration in physical education classes in high schools within the Mexican context and test invariance across gender groups. This study included 859 students between 11 and 16 years from different high schools in the city of San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León (México). The Learning Climate Questionnaire, the Perceived Locus of Causality, and the Concentration scale adapted to physical education and translated into Mexican Spanish were used. Results showed good internal consistency for all instruments. Both the measurement model and the structural equation modeling showed satisfactory adjustment indexes. The results revealed that the autonomy support positively predicted autonomous motivation, controlled motivation to a lesser extent, and amotivation negatively. Furthermore, the students' concentration was highly and positively predicted by autonomous motivation, by controlled motivation to a lesser extent, and by amotivation negatively. The model predicted 39% of variance of autonomous motivation with large effect size (ƒ2 = 0.64), 2% of controlled motivation with small effect size (ƒ2 = 0.02), 8% of amotivation with small effect size (ƒ2 = 0.09), and 49% of concentration with large effect size (ƒ2 = 0.96). Finally, the invariance analysis revealed that the model fit was invariant across gender groups. The results of this study emphasize how important it is for teachers to adopt an interpersonal style of autonomy support to generate a motivational climate that influences the concentration of students. This could contribute to the achievement of the purposes and educational objectives of the physical education class, which, in turn, might be conducive to students adopting healthy lifestyles in adolescence and beyond.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Being exposed to good teachers has been shown to enhance students' knowledge and their clinical performance, but little is known about the underlying psychological mechanisms that provide the basis for being an excellent medical teacher. Self-Determination Theory (SDT) postulates that more self-regulated types of motivation are associated with higher performance. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) focuses on self-efficacy that has been shown to be positively associated with performance. To investigate the influences of different types of teaching motivation, teaching self-efficacy, and teachers' perceptions of students' skills, competencies and motivation on teaching quality.<h4>Methods</h4>Before the winter semester 2014, physicians involved in bedside teaching in internal medicine at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf completed a questionnaire with sociodemographic items and instruments measuring different dimensions of teaching motivation as well as teaching self-efficacy. During the semester, physicians rated their perceptions of the participating students who rated the teaching quality after each lesson. We performed a random intercept mixed-effects linear regression with students' ratings of teaching quality as the dependent variable and students' general interest in a subject as covariate. We explored potential associations between teachers' dispositions and their perceptions of students' competencies in a mixed-effects random intercept logistic regression.<h4>Results</h4>94 lessons given by 55 teachers with 500 student ratings were analyzed. Neither teaching motivation nor teaching self-efficacy were directly associated with students' rating of teaching quality. Teachers' perceptions of students' competencies and students' general interest in the lesson's subject were positively associated with students' rating of teaching quality. Physicians' perceptions of their students' competencies were significantly positively predicted by their teaching self-efficacy.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Teaching quality might profit from teachers who are self-efficacious and able to detect their students' competencies. Students' general interest in a lesson's subject needs to be taken into account when they are asked to evaluate teaching quality.