Orthogonal Halogen-Bonding-Driven 3D Supramolecular Assembly of Right-Handed Synthetic Helical Peptides.
ABSTRACT: Peptide-mediated self-assembly is a prevalent method for creating highly ordered supramolecular architectures. Herein, we report the first example of orthogonal C-X???X-C/C-X???? halogen bonding and hydrogen bonding driven crystalline architectures based on synthetic helical peptides bearing hybrids of l-sulfono-?-AApeptides and natural amino acids. The combination of halogen bonding, intra-/intermolecular hydrogen bonding, and intermolecular hydrophobic interactions enabled novel 3D supramolecular assembly. The orthogonal halogen bonding in the supramolecular architecture exerts a novel mechanism for the self-assembly of synthetic peptide foldamers and gives new insights into molecular recognition, supramolecular design, and rational design of biomimetic structures.
Project description:New types of foldamer scaffolds are formidably challenging to design and synthesize, yet highly desirable as structural mimics of peptides/proteins with a wide repertoire of functions. In particular, the development of peptidomimetic helical foldamers holds promise for new biomaterials, catalysts, and drug molecules. Unnatural l-sulfono-?-AApeptides were recently developed and shown to have potential applications in both biomedical and material sciences. However, d-sulfono-?-AApeptides, the enantiomers of l-sulfono-?-AApeptides, have never been studied due to the lack of high-resolution three-dimensional structures to guide structure-based design. Herein, we report the first synthesis and X-ray crystal structures of a series of 2:1 l-amino acid/d-sulfono-?-AApeptide hybrid foldamers, and elucidate their folded conformation at the atomic level. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography indicates that this class of oligomers folds into well-defined right-handed helices with unique helical parameters. The helical structures were consistent with data obtained from solution 2D NMR, CD studies, and molecular dynamics simulations. Our findings are expected to inspire the structure-based design of this type of unique folding biopolymers for biomaterials and biomedical applications.
Project description:The development of peptidomimetic helical foldamers with a wide repertoire of functions is of significant interest. Herein, we report the X-ray crystal structures of a series of homogeneous l-sulfono-?-AA foldamers and elucidate their folding conformation at the atomic level. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography revealed that this class of oligomers fold into unprecedented dragon-boat-shaped and unexpected left-handed helices, which are stabilized by the 14-hydrogen-bonding pattern present in all sequences. These l-sulfono-?-AApeptides have a helical pitch of 5.1?Å and exactly four side chains per turn, and the side chains lie perfectly on top of each other along the helical axis. 2D NMR spectroscopy, computational simulations, and CD studies support the folding conformation in solution. Our results provide a structural basis at the atomic level for the design of novel biomimetics with a precise arrangement of functional groups in three dimensions.
Project description:Scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) is commonly used to identify on-surface molecular self-assembled structures. However, its limited ability to reveal only the overall shape of molecules and their relative positions is not always enough to fully solve a supramolecular structure. Here, we analyse the assembly of a brominated polycyclic aromatic molecule on Au(111) and demonstrate that standard STM measurements cannot conclusively establish the nature of the intermolecular interactions. By performing high-resolution STM with a CO-functionalised tip, we clearly identify the location of rings and halogen atoms, determining that halogen bonding governs the assemblies. This is supported by density functional theory calculations that predict a stronger interaction energy for halogen rather than hydrogen bonding and by an electron density topology analysis that identifies characteristic features of halogen bonding. A similar approach should be able to solve many complex 2D supramolecular structures, and we predict its increasing use in molecular nanoscience at surfaces.
Project description:The use of peptidomimetic scaffolds is a promising strategy for the inhibition of protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Herein, we demonstrate that sulfono-?-AApeptides can be rationally designed to mimic the p53 ?-helix and inhibit p53-MDM2 PPIs. The best inhibitor, with Kd and IC50 values of 26 nM and 0.891 ?M toward MDM2, respectively, is among the most potent unnatural peptidomimetic inhibitors disrupting the p53-MDM2/MDMX interaction. Using fluorescence polarization assays, circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and computational simulations, we demonstrate that sulfono-?-AApeptides adopt helical structures resembling p53 and competitively inhibit the p53-MDM2 interaction by binding to the hydrophobic cleft of MDM2. Intriguingly, the stapled sulfono-?-AApeptides showed promising cellular activity by enhancing p53 transcriptional activity and inducing expression of MDM2 and p21. Moreover, sulfono-?-AApeptides exhibited remarkable resistance to proteolysis, augmenting their biological potential. Our results suggest that sulfono-?-AApeptides are a new class of unnatural helical foldamers that disrupt PPIs.
Project description:The rational design of ?-helix-mimicking peptidomimetics provides a streamlined approach to discover potent inhibitors for protein-protein interactions (PPIs). However, designing cell-penetrating long peptidomimetic scaffolds equipped with various functional groups necessary for interacting with large protein-binding interfaces remains challenging. This is particularly true for targeting ?-catenin/BCL9 PPIs. Here we designed a series of unprecedented helical sulfono-?-AApeptides that mimic the binding mode of the ?-helical HD2 domain of B Cell Lymphoma 9 (BCL9). Our studies show that sulfono-?-AApeptides can structurally and functionally mimic the ?-helical domain of BCL9 and selectively disrupt ?-catenin/BCL9 PPIs with even higher potency. More intriguingly, these sulfono-?-AApeptides can enter cancer cells, bind with ?-catenin and disrupt ?-catenin/BCL9 PPIs, and exhibit excellent cellular activity, which is much more potent than the BCL9 peptide. Furthermore, our enzymatic stability studies demonstrate the remarkable stability of the helical sulfono-?-AApeptides, with no degradation in the presence of pronase for 24 h, augmenting their biological potential. This work represents not only an example of helical sulfono-?-AApeptides that mimic ?-helix and disrupt protein-protein interactions, but also an excellent example of potent, selective, and cell-permeable unnatural foldameric peptidomimetics that disrupt the ?-catenin/BCL9 PPI. The design of helical sulfono-?-AApeptides may lead to a new strategy to modulate a myriad of protein-protein interactions.
Project description:The construction of chiral supramolecular systems with desirable handedness is of great importance in materials science, chemistry, and biology since chiral nanostructures exhibit fascinating photophysical properties and unique biological effects. Herein, we report that achiral bipyridines can co-assemble with l-phenylalanine derivatives into unexpected right-handed helical nanostructures rather than a left-handed helix <i>via</i> intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions formed between the pyridyl and carboxylic groups. This study opens up a route to develop chiral nanostructures with desirable handedness <i>via</i> the co-assembly of simple molecular building blocks and provides a straightforward insight into the chirality control of nanostructures in supramolecular systems.
Project description:Exploring the surface self-assembly of small molecules that act as building blocks (tectons) for complex supramolecular structures is crucial for realizing surface-supported functional molecular devices. Here, we report on the synthesis and surface self-assembly of a new pyrazine-derived molecule with pyridine pendants. Ambient scanning tunneling microscopy investigation at the solution-solid interface reveals polymorphic self-assembly of these molecules on a HOPG substrate. Two different molecular packing structures with equal distribution are observed. Detailed analysis of the STM images emphasizes the crucial role of weak intermolecular hydrogen bonding, and molecule-substrate interactions in the formation of the observed polymorphs. Such weak hydrogen bonding interactions are highly desirable for the formation of modular supramolecular architectures since they can provide sufficiently robust molecular structures and also facilitate error correction.
Project description:Halogen bonding, due to its directionality and tunable strength, is being increasingly utilized in self-assembling materials and crystal engineering. Using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular mechanics (OPLS/CM1Ax) calculations, multiply halogen bonded complexes of brominated imidazole and pyridine are investigated along with their potential in construction of self-assembling architectures. Dimers with 1-10 halogen bonds are considered and reveal maximal binding energies of 3-36 kcal/mol. Cooperative (nonadditive) effects are found in complexes that extend both along and perpendicular to the halogen bonding axes, with interaction energies depending on polarization, secondary interactions, and ring spacers. Four structural motifs were identified to yield optimal halogen bonding. For the largest systems, the excellent agreement found between the DFT and OPLS/CM1Ax results supports the utility of the latter approach for analysis and design of self-assembling supramolecular structures.
Project description:The orthogonal self-assembly of multiple components is a powerful strategy towards the formation of complex biomimetic architectures, but so far the rules for designing such systems are unclear. Here we show how to identify orthogonal self-assembly at the supramolecular level and describe guidelines to achieve self-sorting in self-assembled mixed systems. By investigating multicomponent self-assembled systems consisting of low molecular weight gelators and phospholipids, both at a molecular and a supramolecular level, we found that orthogonal self-assembly can only take place if the entities assemble <i>via</i> a strong and distinct set of interactions. The resulting supramolecular architectures consist of fibrillar networks that coexist with liposomes and thereby provide additional levels of compartmentalization and enhanced stability as compared to self-assembled systems of gelators or phospholipids alone.
Project description:Self-assembly of block copolymers into well-defined, ordered arrangements of chemically distinct domains is a reliable strategy for preparing tailored nanostructures. Microphase separation results from the system, minimizing repulsive interactions between dissimilar blocks and maximizing attractive interactions between similar blocks. Supramolecular methods have also achieved this separation by introducing small-molecule additives binding specifically to one block by noncovalent interactions. Here, we use halogen bonding as a supramolecular tool that directs the hierarchical self-assembly of low-molecular-weight perfluorinated molecules and diblock copolymers. Microphase separation results in a lamellar-within-cylindrical arrangement and promotes upright cylindrical alignment in films upon rapid casting and without further annealing. Such cylindrical domains with internal lamellar self-assemblies can be cleaved by solvent treatment of bulk films, resulting in separated and segmented cylindrical micelles stabilized by halogen-bond-based supramolecular crosslinks. These features, alongside the reversible nature of halogen bonding, provide a robust modular approach for nanofabrication.