The TNF-derived TIP peptide activates the epithelial sodium channel and ameliorates experimental nephrotoxic serum nephritis.
ABSTRACT: In mice, the initial stage of nephrotoxic serum-induced nephritis (NTN) mimics antibody-mediated human glomerulonephritis. Local immune deposits generate tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which activates pro-inflammatory pathways in glomerular endothelial cells (GECs) and podocytes. Because TNF receptors mediate antibacterial defense, existing anti-TNF therapies can promote infection; however, we have previously demonstrated that different functional domains of TNF may have opposing effects. The TIP peptide mimics the lectin-like domain of TNF, and has been shown to blunt inflammation in acute lung injury without impairing TNF receptor-mediated antibacterial activity. We evaluated the impact of TIP peptide in NTN. Intraperitoneal administration of TIP peptide reduced inflammation, proteinuria, and blood urea nitrogen. The protective effect was blocked by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, indicating involvement of prostaglandins. Targeted glomerular delivery of TIP peptide improved pathology in moderate NTN and reduced mortality in severe NTN, indicating a local protective effect. We show that TIP peptide activates the epithelial sodium channel(ENaC), which is expressed by GEC, upon binding to the channel's ? subunit. In vitro, TNF treatment of GEC activated pro-inflammatory pathways and decreased the generation of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide, which promote recovery from NTN. TIP peptide counteracted these effects. Despite the capacity of TIP peptide to activate ENaC, it did not increase mean arterial blood pressure in mice. In the later autologous phase of NTN, TIP peptide blunted the infiltration of Th17 cells. By countering the deleterious effects of TNF through direct actions in GEC, TIP peptide could provide a novel strategy to treat glomerular inflammation.
Project description:Regulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), which regulates fluid homeostasis and blood pressure, is complex and remains incompletely understood. The TIP peptide, a mimic of the lectin-like domain of TNF, activates ENaC by binding to glycosylated residues in the extracellular loop of ENaC-?, as well as to a hitherto uncharacterized internal site. Molecular docking studies suggested three residues, Val567, Glu568, and Glu571, located at the interface between the second transmembrane and C-terminal domains of ENaC-?, as a critical site for binding of the TIP peptide. We generated Ala replacement mutants in this region of ENaC-? and examined its interaction with TIP peptide (3M, V567A/E568A/E571A; 2M, V567A/E568A; and 1M, E571A). 3M and 2M ENaC-?, but not 1M ENaC-?, displayed significantly reduced binding capacity to TIP peptide and to TNF. When overexpressed in H441 cells, 3M mutant ENaC-? formed functional channels with similar gating and density characteristics as the WT subunit and efficiently associated with the ? and ? subunits in the plasma membrane. We subsequently assayed for increased open probability time and membrane expression, both of which define ENaC activity, following addition of TIP peptide. TIP peptide increased open probability time in H441 cells overexpressing wild type and 1M ENaC-? channels, but not 3M or 2M ENaC-? channels. On the other hand, TIP peptide-mediated reduction in ENaC ubiquitination was similar in cells overexpressing either WT or 3M ENaC-? subunits. In summary, this study has identified a novel site in ENaC-? that is crucial for activation of the open probability of the channel, but not membrane expression, by the lectin-like domain of TNF.
Project description:RATIONALE:Alveolar liquid clearance is regulated by Na(+) uptake through the apically expressed epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and basolaterally localized Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in type II alveolar epithelial cells. Dysfunction of these Na(+) transporters during pulmonary inflammation can contribute to pulmonary edema. OBJECTIVES:In this study, we sought to determine the precise mechanism by which the TIP peptide, mimicking the lectin-like domain of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), stimulates Na(+) uptake in a homologous cell system in the presence or absence of the bacterial toxin pneumolysin (PLY). METHODS:We used a combined biochemical, electrophysiological, and molecular biological in vitro approach and assessed the physiological relevance of the lectin-like domain of TNF in alveolar liquid clearance in vivo by generating triple-mutant TNF knock-in mice that express a mutant TNF with deficient Na(+) uptake stimulatory activity. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:TIP peptide directly activates ENaC, but not the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, upon binding to the carboxy-terminal domain of the ? subunit of the channel. In the presence of PLY, a mediator of pneumococcal-induced pulmonary edema, this binding stabilizes the ENaC-PIP2-MARCKS complex, which is necessary for the open probability conformation of the channel and preserves ENaC-? protein expression, by means of blunting the protein kinase C-? pathway. Triple-mutant TNF knock-in mice are more prone than wild-type mice to develop edema with low-dose intratracheal PLY, correlating with reduced pulmonary ENaC-? subunit expression. CONCLUSIONS:These results demonstrate a novel TNF-mediated mechanism of direct ENaC activation and indicate a physiological role for the lectin-like domain of TNF in the resolution of alveolar edema during inflammation.
Project description:The amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) plays a prominent role in sodium uptake from alveolar fluid and is the major component in alveolar fluid clearance in normal and diseased lungs. The lectin-like domain of TNF-? has been shown to activate amiloride-sensitive sodium uptake in type II alveolar epithelial cells. Therefore, several synthetic peptides that mimic the lectin-like domain of TNF-? (TIP) were synthesized and their ability to enhance sodium current through ENaC was studied in A549 cells with the patch clamp technique. Our data suggest that a free positively charged N-terminal amino group on residue 1 and/or a free negatively charged carboxyl group on residue 17 of the TIP peptide is essential for the ENaC-activating effect. Ventilation strategies apart, no standard treatment exists for pulmonary permeability edema. Therefore, novel therapies activating sodium uptake from the alveolar fluid via ENaC could improve clinical outcome.
Project description:Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major etiologic agent of bacterial pneumonia. Autolysis and antibiotic-mediated lysis of pneumococci induce release of the pore-forming toxin, pneumolysin (PLY), their major virulence factor, which is a prominent cause of acute lung injury. PLY inhibits alveolar liquid clearance and severely compromises alveolar-capillary barrier function, leading to permeability edema associated with pneumonia. As a consequence, alveolar flooding occurs, which can precipitate lethal hypoxemia by impairing gas exchange. The ? subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is crucial for promoting Na+ reabsorption across Na+-transporting epithelia. However, it is not known if human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HL-MVEC) also express ENaC-? and whether this subunit is involved in the regulation of their barrier function.The presence of ?, ?, and ? subunits of ENaC and protein phosphorylation status in HL-MVEC were assessed in western blotting. The role of ENaC-? in monolayer resistance of HL-MVEC was examined by depletion of this subunit by specific siRNA and by employing the TNF-derived TIP peptide, a specific activator that directly binds to ENaC-?.HL-MVEC express all three subunits of ENaC, as well as acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a), which has the capacity to form hybrid non-selective cation channels with ENaC-?. Both TIP peptide, which specifically binds to ENaC-?, and the specific ASIC1a activator MitTx significantly strengthened barrier function in PLY-treated HL-MVEC. ENaC-? depletion significantly increased sensitivity to PLY-induced hyperpermeability and in addition, blunted the protective effect of both the TIP peptide and MitTx, indicating an important role for ENaC-? and for hybrid NSC channels in barrier function of HL-MVEC. TIP peptide blunted PLY-induced phosphorylation of both calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and of its substrate, the actin-binding protein filamin A (FLN-A), requiring the expression of both ENaC-? and ASIC1a. Since non-phosphorylated FLN-A promotes ENaC channel open probability and blunts stress fiber formation, modulation of this activity represents an attractive target for the protective actions of ENaC-? in both barrier function and liquid clearance.Our results in cultured endothelial cells demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for ENaC-? in strengthening capillary barrier function that may apply to the human lung. Strategies aiming to activate endothelial NSC channels that contain ENaC-? should be further investigated as a novel approach to improve barrier function in the capillary endothelium during pneumonia.
Project description:Neutrophil proteases, proteinase-3 (PR3) and elastase play key roles in glomerular endothelial cell (GEC) injury during glomerulonephritis. Endothelial protease-activated receptors (PARs) are potential serine protease targets in glomerulonephritis. We investigated whether PAR1/2 are required for alterations in GEC phenotype that are mediated by PR3 or elastase during active glomerulonephritis. Endothelial PARs were assessed by flow cytometry. Thrombin, trypsin and agonist peptides for PAR1 and PAR2, TFLLR-NH(2) and SLIGKV-NH(2,) respectively, were used to assess alterations in PAR activation induced by PR3 or elastase. Endothelial von Willebrand Factor (vWF)release and calcium signaling were used as PAR activation markers. Both PR3 and elastase induced endothelial vWF release, with elastase inducing the highest response. PAR1 peptide induced GEC vWF release to the same extent as PR3. However, knockdown of PARs by small interfering RNA showed that neither PAR1 nor PAR2 activation caused PR3 or elastase-mediated vWF release. Both proteases interacted with and disarmed surface GEC PAR1, but there was no detectable interaction with cellular PAR2. Neither protease induced a calcium response in GEC. Therefore, PAR signaling and serine protease-induced alterations in endothelial function modulate glomerular inflammation via parallel but independent pathways.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Immune complexes within glomerular capillary walls cause crescentic GN (CrGN). Monocytes and macrophages are important in mediating CrGN, but little work has been done to phenotype the subpopulations involved and determine their respective contributions to glomerular inflammation.<h4>Methods</h4>Live glomerular imaging using confocal microscopy monitored intravascular monocyte subset behavior during nephrotoxic nephritis (NTN) in a novel WKY-hCD68-GFP monocyte/macrophage reporter rat strain. Flow cytometry and qPCR further analyzed <i>ex vivo</i> the glomerular leukocyte infiltrate during NTN.<h4>Results</h4>Non-classical monocytes surveyed the glomerular endothelium <i>via</i> lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) in the steady state. During NTN, non-classical monocytes were recruited first, but subsequent recruitment and retention of classical monocytes was associated with glomerular damage. Monocytes recruited to the glomerular vasculature did not undergo transendothelial migration. This finding suggests that inflammation in immune complex-mediated CrGN is predominantly intravascular, driven by dynamic interactions between intravascular blood monocytes and the endothelium. Glomerular endothelium and non-classical monocytes overexpressed a distinct chemokine axis, which may orchestrate inflammatory myeloid cell recruitment and expression of damage mediators. Reduced classical monocyte recruitment in Lewis rats during NTN confirmed a role for CD16 in mediating glomerular damage.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Monocyte subsets with distinct phenotypes and effector functions may be important in driving inflammation in experimental CrGN resulting from immune complexes formed within the glomerular capillary wall. LFA-1-dependent endothelial surveillance by non-classical monocytes may detect immune complexes through CD16, orchestrating the inflammatory response through intravascular retention of classical monocytes, which results in glomerular damage and proteinuria.
Project description:Immune-mediated glomerular diseases like crescentic glomerulonephritis (cGN) are driven by inappropriately regulated cellular and humoral immune responses subsequently leading to renal tissue injury. Recent studies demonstrated the crucial role for regulatory T cells (Tregs) in suppressing pathogenic T-cell responses during nephrotoxic nephritis (NTN), a murine model of cGN. However, mechanisms of immune regulation in cGN are less clear. Here, we aim at investigating the role of the co-inhibitory PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in Treg-mediated suppression of renal inflammation. We demonstrated that Foxp3<sup>+</sup> Tregs expressing PD-L1 infiltrate the kidney during NTN. Inhibition of PD-L1 signalling by using PD-L1<sup>-/-</sup> mice or by blockage of PD-L1 in wildtype mice resulted in an increased Treg frequency in the inflamed kidney. However, mice lacking PD-L1 developed more severe NTN associated with an elevated pathogenic renal Th1 immune response, which was reversed by blockage of IFNγ in these mice. Interestingly, lack of PD-L1 altered the gene expression profile of Tregs in homeostasis and kidney inflammation. Functionally, Tregs from nephritic PD-L1<sup>-/-</sup> mice had impaired suppressive capacity in vitro and failed to protect from NTN in vivo. Thus, PD-L1 displays a protective role in NTN, which is related to Treg-mediated suppression of the Th1 immune response.
Project description:Previously it was shown that the TNF superfamily member TWEAK (TNFSF12) acts through its receptor, Fn14, to promote proinflammatory responses in kidney cells, including the production of MCP-1, RANTES, IP-10 and KC. In addition, the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway promotes mesangial cell proliferation, vascular cell activation, and renal cell death. To study the relevance of the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway in the pathogenesis of antibody-induced nephritis using the mouse model of nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NTN), we induced NTN by passive transfer of rabbit anti-glomerular antibodies into Fn14 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice. Severe proteinuria as well as renal histopathology were induced in WT but not in Fn14 KO mice. Similarly, a pharmacologic approach of anti-TWEAK mAb administration into WT mice in the NTN model significantly ameliorated proteinuria and improved kidney histology. Anti-TWEAK treatment did not affect the generation of mouse anti-rabbit antibodies; however, within the kidney there was a significant decrease in glomerular immunoglobulin deposition, as well as macrophage infiltrates and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The mechanism of action is most likely due to reductions in downstream targets of TWEAK/Fn14 signaling, including reduced renal expression of MCP-1, VCAM-1, IP-10, RANTES as well as Fn14 itself, and other molecular pathways associated with fibrosis in anti-TWEAK treated mice. Thus, TWEAK/Fn14 interactions are instrumental in the pathogenesis of nephritis in the NTN model, apparently mediating a cascade of pathologic events locally in the kidney rather than by impacting the systemic immune response. Disrupting TWEAK/Fn14 interactions may be an innovative kidney-protective approach for the treatment of lupus nephritis and other antibody-induced renal diseases.
Project description:Enhanced intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is implicated in the development and progression of renal injury. To investigate whether angiotensinogen (AGT) expression is involved in glomerular RAS activity and glomerular injury, we examined glomerular AGT expression and its correlation with expression of other RAS components, and levels of glomerular injury in samples from patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) (23) and minor glomerular abnormalities (MGA) (8). Immunohistochemistry showed that AGT protein was highly expressed by glomerular endothelial cells (GEC) and mesangial cells in nephritic glomeruli of IgAN compared with glomeruli of MGA. Levels of glomerular AGT protein were well correlated with levels of glomerular angiotensin II (ang II), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), alpha-smooth-muscle actin, glomerular cell number, and glomerulosclerosis score but not with those of glomerular angiotensin-converting enzyme and ang II type 1 receptor. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analyses using cultured human GEC indicated that ang II upregulated AGT messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These data suggest that activated glomerular AGT expression is likely involved in elevated local ang II production and, thereby, may contribute to increased TGF-beta production and development of glomerular injury in IgAN. Augmentation of GEC-AGT production with ang II stimulation might drive further glomerular injury in a positive-feedback loop.
Project description:Neuroinflammation is an essential mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced brain injury. Recently, Netrin-1 (NTN-1) is well established to exert anti-inflammatory property in non-nervous system diseases through inhibiting infiltration of neutrophil. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of NTN-1 on neuroinflammation, and the potential mechanism in a rat model of SAH. Two hundred and ninety-four male Sprague Dawley rats (weight 280-330?g) were subjected to the endovascular perforation model of SAH. Recombinant human NTN-1 (rh-NTN-1) was administered intravenously. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) of NTN-1 and UNC5B, and a selective PPAR? antagonist bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) were applied. Post-SAH evaluations included neurobehavioral function, brain water content, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that endogenous NTN-1 and its receptor UNC5B level were increased after SAH. Administration of rh-NTN-1 reduced brain edema, ameliorated neurological impairments, and suppressed microglia activation after SAH, which were concomitant with PPAR? activation, inhibition of NF?B, and decrease in TNF-?, IL-6, and ICAM-1, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO). Knockdown of endogenous NTN-1 increased expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and MPO, and aggravated neuroinflammation and brain edema. Moreover, knockdown of UNC5B using specific siRNA and inhibition of PPAR? with BADGE blocked the protective effects of rh-NTN-1. In conclusion, our findings indicated that exogenous rh-NTN-1 treatment attenuated neuroinflammation and neurological impairments through inhibiting microglia activation after SAH in rats, which is possibly mediated by UNC5B/PPAR?/NF?B signaling pathway. Exogenous NTN-1 may be a novel therapeutic agent to ameliorating early brain injury via its anti-inflammation effect.