GABA (?-aminobutyric acid), as a thermo-protectant, to improve the reproductive function of heat-stressed mungbean plants.
ABSTRACT: Rising global temperatures are proving to be detrimental for the agriculture. Hence, strategies are needed to induce thermotolerance in food crops to sustain the food production. GABA (?-aminobutyric acid), a non-protein amino acid, can partially protect plants from high-temperature stress. This study hypothesises that declining GABA concentrations in the cells of heat-stressed mungbean plants increases the heat-sensitivity of reproductive function. Mungbean plants were grown in a natural, outdoor environment (29.3/16.1?±?1?°C as mean day/night temperature, 1350-1550 µmol m-2 s-1 light intensity, 60-65% as mean relative humidity) until the start of the reproductive stage. Subsequently, two temperature treatments were imposed in a controlled environment-control (35/23?°C) and heat stress (45/28?°C)-at about 800 µmol m-2 s-1 light intensity and 65-70% as mean relative humidity, until pod maturity. In heat-stressed (HS) plants, endogenous GABA concentrations in leaf and anther samples had declined by 49 and 60%, respectively, and to a much lesser degree in the plants, exogenously supplemented with 1?mM GABA. The reproductive function of GABA-treated heat-stressed plants improved significantly in terms of pollen germination, pollen viability, stigma receptivity and ovule viability, compared to untreated HS controls. In addition, GABA-treated heat-stressed plants had less damage to membranes, photosynthetic machinery (chlorophyll concentration, chlorophyll fluorescence, RuBisCO activity were functionally normal) and carbon assimilation (sucrose synthesis and its utilisation) than the untreated HS controls. Leaf water status improved significantly with GABA application, including enhanced accumulation of osmolytes such as proline and trehalose due to increase in the activities of their biosynthetic enzymes. GABA-treated heat-stressed plants produced more pods (28%) and seed weight (27%) plant-1 than the untreated controls. This study is the first to report the involvement of GABA in protecting reproductive function in mungbean under heat stress, as a result of improved leaf turgor, carbon fixation and assimilation processes, through the augmentation of several enzymes related to these physiological processes.
Project description:We investigated the role of ethylene in the response of cotton to high temperature using cotton genotypes with genetically interrupted ethylene metabolism. In the first experiment, Sicot 71BRF and 5B (a lintless variant with compromised ethylene metabolism) were exposed to 45°C, either by instantaneous heat shock or by ramping temperatures by 3°C daily for 1 week. One day prior to the start of heat treatment, half the plants were sprayed with 0.8 mM of the ethylene synthesis inhibitor, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). In a subsequent experiment, Sicot 71BRF and a putatively heat-tolerant line, CIM 448, were exposed to 36 or 45°C for 1 week, and half the plants were sprayed with 20 ?M of the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, (ACC). High temperature exposure of plants in both experiments was performed at the peak reproductive phase (65-68 days after sowing). Elevated temperature (heat shock or ramping to 45°C) significantly reduced production and retention of fruits in all cotton lines used in this study. At the termination of heat treatment, cotton plants exposed to 45°C had at least 50% fewer fruits than plants under optimum temperature in all three genotypes, while plants at 36°C remained unaffected. Heat-stressed plants continued producing new squares (fruiting buds) after termination of heat stress but these squares did not turn into cotton bolls due to pollen infertility. In vitro inhibition of pollen germination by high temperatures supported this observation. Leaf photosynthesis (Pn) of heat-stressed plants (45°C) measured at the end of heat treatments remained significantly inhibited, despite an increased leaf stomatal conductance (gs), suggesting that high temperature impairs Pn independently of stomatal behavior. Metabolic injury was supported by high relative cellular injury and low photosystem II yield of the heat-stressed plants, indicating that high temperature impaired photosynthetic electron transport. Both heat shock and ramping of heat significantly reduced ethylene release from cotton leaf tissues measured at the end of heat treatment but modulating ethylene production via AVG or ACC application had no significant effect on fruit production or retention in heat-stressed cotton plants. Instead, high temperature accelerated fruit abortion by impairing pollen development and/or restricting leaf photosynthesis.
Project description:Elevated CO2 can protect plants from heat stress (HS); however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we used a set of Arabidopsis mutants such as salicylic acid (SA) signaling mutants nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (npr1-1 and npr1-5) and heat-shock proteins (HSPs) mutants (hsp21 and hsp70-1) to understand the requirement of SA signaling and HSPs in elevated CO2-induced HS tolerance. Under ambient CO2 (380 µmol mol(-1)) conditions, HS (42°C, 24 h) drastically decreased maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in all studied plant groups. Enrichment of CO2 (800 µmol mol(-1)) with HS remarkably increased the Fv/Fm value in all plant groups except hsp70-1, indicating that NPR1-dependent SA signaling is not involved in the elevated CO2-induced HS tolerance. These results also suggest an essentiality of HSP70-1, but not HSP21 in elevated CO2-induced HS mitigation.
Project description:There is increasing interest in the use of natural antioxidant supplements in poultry diets as protection against the adverse effects of heat stress. The potential protective effect of boldo (Peumus boldus molina) leaf extract, which have antioxidant activity, were investigated against the harmful effects of heat stress in two broiler strains. Arbor Acres (AA) and Avian-48 (AV) chicks were divided into thermoneutral (TN) and heat stress (HS) groups and treated with 1 g boldo leaf extract/4 L drinking water during the heat stress period. HS reduced growth performance in both strains. The phagocytic index, phagocytic activity, and eosinophil and lymphocytes counts were significantly elevated in TN and HS AV birds but not altered in AA birds. Boldo extract treatment partially eliminated the previous negative impacts of heat stress. AA chicks were better able to withstand HS than AV chicks. Serum concentrations of total lipids and cholesterol were reduced in HS birds of both strains. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase levels were elevated but restored with the administration of boldo leaf extract in HS birds of both strains. Economic parameters were negatively affected by HS but restored to values close to those of the control group in boldo-treated HS birds. In conclusion, the administration of boldo leaf extract in drinking water was effective in neutralizing the harmful effects of heat stress on growth performance, blood indices, and economic parameters and improved the antioxidant defense system in heat-stressed birds.
Project description:Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) may play a positive role in regulating plant tolerance to drought or heat stress. The objectives of this study were to investigate the physiological effects of GABA on tolerance of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) to heat and drought stress and to determine whether enhanced heat and drought tolerance due to GABA treatment was associated with the up-regulation of selected genes and transcriptional factors involved in stress protection. Creeping bentgrass (cultivar "Penncross") plants were treated with 0.5 mM GABA or water (untreated control) as a foliar spray and were subsequently exposed to heat stress (35/30 °C, day/night), drought stress by withholding irrigation, or non-stress conditions in controlled-environment growth chambers. Exogenous application of GABA significantly improved plant tolerance to heat and drought stress, as reflected by increased leaf water content, cell membrane stability, and chlorophyll content. The analysis of gene transcript level revealed that exogenous GABA up-regulated the expression of ABF3, POD, APX, HSP90, DHN3, and MT1 during heat stress and the expression of CDPK26, MAPK1, ABF3, WRKY75, MYB13, HSP70, MT1, 14-3-3, and genes (SOD, CAT, POD, APX, MDHAR, DHAR, and GR) encoding antioxidant enzymes during drought stress. The up-regulation of the aforementioned stress-protective genes and transcriptional factors could contribute to improved heat and drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass.
Project description:The beneficial microbial-plant interaction plays important role in the soil health, crop growth and productivity. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are such beneficial microorganisms, which in association with plant roots not only promote their growth but also help in counteracting the detrimental effects of soil stresses. Salt stress is one such stress, frequently confronted by the plants. The present study aimed at isolation and identification of PGPR inhabiting the mungbean rhizosphere, testing them for salt (NaCl) tolerance and subsequently in salt-supplemented mungbean crop. For this purpose, two salt-tolerant bacterial strains belonging to genus Pantoea and Enterococcus, characterized for their P-solubilization ability, indole acetic acid and siderophore production were selected. These two PGPR were further evaluated for their effect on the salt-stressed mungbean plants, grown at two salt concentrations (5 and 10 dS/m). The plants treated with the combination of PGPR showed better performance in growth (16-37 %) and yield (22-32 %), under salt stress, as compared with control. The increasing salt concentration was found to increase the membrane damage, Na+ concentration in the plants. PGPR treatments effectively reduced the Na+ concentration (17-41 %), membrane damage (1.1-1.5 folds) and enhanced the antioxidants i.e. ascorbic acid (8-26 %) and glutathione (10-30 %) in salt-stressed plants, in comparison to uninoculated stressed plants. Overall, the results indicated that both PGPR were effective as stress mitigators however, in combination they showed relatively better improvement in growth, yield as well as oxidative parameters of the salt-affected plants. These findings about the effects of native salt-tolerant PGPR Pantoea and Enterococcus sp. in mungbean crop are novel.
Project description:Many studies suggest that there are distinct regulatory processes controlling compound leaf development in different clades of legumes. Loss of function of the LEAFY (LFY) orthologs results in a reduction of leaf complexity to different degrees in inverted repeat-lacking clade (IRLC) and non-IRLC species. To further understand the role of LFY orthologs and the molecular mechanism in compound leaf development in non-IRLC plants, we studied leaf development in unifoliate leaf (un) mutant, a classical mutant of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.), which showed a complete conversion of compound leaves into simple leaves. Our analysis revealed that UN encoded the mungbean LFY ortholog (VrLFY) and played a significant role in leaf development. In situ RNA hybridization results showed that STM-like KNOXI genes were expressed in compound leaf primordia in mungbean. Furthermore, increased leaflet number in heptafoliate leaflets1 (hel1) mutants was demonstrated to depend on the function of VrLFY and KNOXI genes in mungbean. Our results suggested that HEL1 is a key factor coordinating distinct processes in the control of compound leaf development in mungbean and its related non-IRLC legumes.
Project description:Plants are able to maintain the memory of stress exposure throughout their ontogenesis and faithfully propagate it into the next generation. Recent evidence argues for the epigenetic nature of this phenomenon. Small RNAs (smRNAs) are one of the vital epigenetic factors because they can both affect gene expression at the place of their generation and maintain non-cell-autonomous gene regulation. Here, we have made an attempt to decipher the contribution of smRNAs to the heat-shock-induced transgenerational inheritance in Brassica rapa plants using sequencing technology. To do this, we have generated comprehensive profiles of a transcriptome and a small RNAome (smRNAome) from somatic and reproductive tissues of stressed plants and their untreated progeny. We have demonstrated that the highest tissue-specific alterations in the transcriptome and smRNAome profile are detected in tissues that were not directly exposed to stress, namely, in the endosperm and pollen. Importantly, we have revealed that the progeny of stressed plants exhibit the highest fluctuations at the smRNAome level but not at the transcriptome level. Additionally, we have uncovered the existence of heat-inducible and transgenerationally transmitted tRNA-derived small RNA fragments in plants. Finally, we suggest that miR168 and braAGO1 are involved in the stress-induced transgenerational inheritance in plants.
Project description:Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata] is an important food and cash legume crop in Asia. Development of short duration varieties has paved the way for the expansion of mungbean into other regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa and South America. Mungbean productivity is constrained by biotic and abiotic factors. Bruchids, whitefly, thrips, stem fly, aphids, and pod borers are the major insect-pests. The major diseases of mungbean are yellow mosaic, anthracnose, powdery mildew, Cercospora leaf spot, halo blight, bacterial leaf spot, and tan spot. Key abiotic stresses affecting mungbean production are drought, waterlogging, salinity, and heat stress. Mungbean breeding has been critical in developing varieties with resistance to biotic and abiotic factors, but there are many constraints still to address that include the precise and accurate identification of resistance source(s) for some of the traits and the traits conferred by multi genes. Latest technologies in phenotyping, genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics could be of great help to understand insect/pathogen-plant, plant-environment interactions and the key components responsible for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. This review discusses current biotic and abiotic constraints in mungbean production and the challenges in genetic improvement.
Project description:?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) participates in the regulation of adaptability to abiotic stress in plants. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of GABA priming on improving thermotolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) based on analyses of physiology and proteome using iTRAQ technology. GABA-treated plants maintained significantly higher endogenous GABA content, photochemical efficiency, performance index on absorption basis, membrane stability, and osmotic adjustment (OA) than untreated plants during a prolonged period of heat stress (18 days), which indicated beneficial effects of GABA on alleviating heat damage. Protein profiles showed that plants were able to regulate some common metabolic processes including porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, glutathione metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, carbon fixation, and amino acid metabolism for heat acclimation. It is noteworthy that the GABA application particularly regulated arachidonic acid metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis related to better thermotolerance. In response to heat stress, the GABA priming significantly increased the abundances of Cu/ZnSOD and APX4 that were consistent with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities. The GABA-upregulated proteins in relation to antioxidant defense (Cu/ZnSOD and APX4) for the reactive oxygen species scavenging, heat shock response (HSP90, HSP70, and HSP16.9) for preventing denatured proteins aggregation, stabilizing abnormal proteins, promoting protein maturation and assembly, sugars, and amino acids metabolism (PFK5, ATP-dependent 6-phosphofructokinase 5; FK2, fructokinase 2; BFRUCT, ?-fructofuranosidase; RFS2, galactinol-sucrose galactosyltransferase 2; ASN2, asparagine synthetase 2) for OA and energy metabolism, and transcription factor (C2H2 ZNF, C2H2 zinc-finger protein) for the activation of stress-defensive genes could play vital roles in establishing thermotolerance. Current findings provide an illuminating insight into the new function of GABA on enhancing adaptability to heat stress in plants.
Project description:The identification of heat stress (HS)-resilient germplasm is important to ensure food security under less favorable environmental conditions. For that, germplasm with an altered activity of factors regulating the HS response is an important genetic tool for crop improvement. Heat shock binding protein (HSBP) is one of the main negative regulators of HS response, acting as a repressor of the activity of HS transcription factors. We identified a TILLING allele of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) HSBP1. We examined the effects of the mutation on the functionality of the protein in tomato protoplasts, and compared the thermotolerance capacity of lines carrying the wild-type and mutant alleles of HSBP1. The methionine-to-isoleucine mutation in the central heptad repeats of HSBP1 leads to a partial loss of protein function, thereby reducing the inhibitory effect on Hsf activity. Mutant seedlings show enhanced basal thermotolerance, while mature plants exhibit increased resilience in repeated HS treatments, as shown by several physiological parameters. Importantly, plants that are homozygous for the wild-type or mutant HSBP1 alleles showed no significant differences under non-stressed conditions. Altogether, these results indicate that the identified mutant HSBP1 allele can be used as a genetic tool in breeding, aiming to improve the thermotolerance of tomato varieties.