EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON MIR-29 AND IGF-1 EXPRESSION AND LIPID PROFILE IN THE HEART OF OVARIECTOMIZED RAT.
ABSTRACT: Introduction:Menopause increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in women. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of swimming training on cardiac histology and expression of miR-29 and IGF-1 in the ovariectomized rats. Materials and methods:Thirty female Wistar rats were divided into sham and ovariectomized groups: sedentary control (OVX) and trained with 8 weeks exercise (OVX.E). On 57th day, blood was collected and used for lipid profile measurement. In addition, heart tissue was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for IGF-1 mRNA and miR-29, and studied for histopathological changes. Results:Ovariectomy significantly decreased miR-29 and IGF-1 expression in the heart compared to sham animals group (p<0.05). Exercise training increased miR-29 and IGF-1 expression in the trained rats and improved histology and lipid profile compared with OVX group (p<0.05). Conclusion:Estrogen deficiency could lead to cardiac fibrosis through deregulation miR-29 and IGF-1 expression. The findings of the current study suggests a protective effect of exercise on heart against fibrotic changes in ovariectomized rats and support a potential preventive value of exercise in improving cardiac function after menopause.
Project description:Increased incidence of arrhythmias in women after menopause has been widely documented, which is considered to be related to estrogen (E2) deficiency induced cardiac electrophysiological abnormalities. However, its molecular mechanism remains incompletely clear. In the present study, we found cardiac conduction blockage in post-menopausal rats. Thereafter, the results showed that cardiac gap junctions were impaired and Connexin43 (Cx43) expression was reduced in the myocardium of post-menopausal rats. The phenomenon was also observed in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, which was attenuated by E2 supplement. Further study displayed that microRNA-23a (miR-23a) level was significantly increased in both post-menopausal and OVX rats, which was reversed by daily E2 treatment after OVX. Importantly, forced overexpression of miR-23a led to gap junction impairment and Cx43 downregulation in cultured cardiomyocytes, which was rescued by suppressing miR-23a by transfection of miR-23a specific inhibitory oligonucleotide (AMO-23a). GJA1 was identified as the target gene of miR-23a by luciferase assay and miRNA-masking antisense ODN (miR-Mask) assay. We also found that E2 supplement could reverse cardiac conduction blockage, Cx43 downregulation, gap junction remodeling and miR-23a upregulation in post-menopausal rats. These findings provide the evidence that miR-23a mediated repression of Cx43 participates in estrogen deficiency induced damages of cardiac gap junction, and highlights a new insight into molecular mechanism of post-menopause related arrhythmia at the microRNA level.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The beneficial and more potent role of exercise to prevent heart apoptosis in ovariectomized rats has been known. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of swimming training on cardiac expression of Bcl-2, and Mir-133 levels and glycogen changes in the myocyte. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Forty animals were separated into four groups as control, sham, ovariectomy (OVX) and ovariectomized group with 8 weeks swimming training (OVX.E). Training effects were evaluated by measuring lipid profiles, Bcl-2 and Mir-133 expression levels in the cardiac tissue. Grafts were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for Bcl-2 mRNA and Mir-133 and by Western blot for Bcl-2 protein. RESULTS:Ovariectomy down-regulated Bcl-2 and Mir-133 expression levels in the cardiac tissue, and swimming training up-regulated their expression significantly (P<0.05). CONCLUSION:Our results showed that regular exercise as a physical replacement therapy could prevent and improve the effects of estrogen deficiency in the cardia.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of genistein and exercise on the spatial memory and expression of microRNA-132, BDNF, and IGF-1 in the hippocampus of ovariectomized rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Sixty animals were divided into six groups of control, sham, ovariectomy (OVX), ovariectomized with 8 weeks of genistein administration (OVX.G), with 8 weeks of swimming training (OVX.E), and with 8 weeks of both of them (OVX.G.E). The effect of genistein and/or exercise was evaluated by measuring microRNA-132, BDNF, and IGF-1 expression levels in the hippocampus tissue. Grafts were analyzed using Real-time polymerase chain reaction for microRNA-132, BDNF, IGF-1, and spatial memory via a Morris water maze (MWM). RESULTS:Our findings showed that ovariectomy decreased the expression of microRNA-132, BDNF, and IGF-1 in the hippocampus (P<0.05) in comparison with the sham group as well as performance in the water maze (P<0.05). Also according to results ovariectomized groups that were treated with genistein/exercise or both of them showed significant difference in expression of microRNA-132, BDNF, and IGF-1 in the hippocampus (P<0.05) and decreased latency in MWM (P<0.05) compared with the OVX group but combination treatment was more effective in the OVX.G.E group in comparison with OVX.E and OVX.G groups. CONCLUSION:Overall our results emphasized that combination treatment with genistein and exercise could improve microRNA-132, BDNF, and IGF-1 expression in the hippocampus as well as the spatial memory of ovariectomized rats. These effects may have beneficial impacts on the menopausal period.
Project description:Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of premenopausal women are significantly lower compared to men of similar age. However, this protective effect evidently decreases after the onset of menopause. We hypothesized that physical exercise could be a potential therapeutic strategy to improve inflammatory processes and cardiovascular antioxidant homeostasis, which can be affected by the loss of estrogen and the adverse environmental factors, such as overnutrition. Ovariectomized (OVX, n= 40) and sham-operated (SO, n= 40) female Wistar rats were randomized to exercising (R) and non-exercising (NR) groups. Feeding parameters were chosen to make a standard chow (CTRL) or a high triglyceride diet (HT) for 12 weeks. Aortic and cardiac heme oxygenase (HO) activity and HO-1 concentrations significantly decreased in all of the NR OVX and SO HT groups. However, the 12-week physical exercise was found to improve HO-1 values. Plasma IL-6 concentrations were higher in the NR OVX animals and rats fed HT diet compared to SO CTRL rats. TNF-? concentrations were significantly higher in the NR OVX groups. 12 weeks of exercise significantly reduced the concentrations of both TNF-? and IL-6 compared to the NR counterparts. The activity of myeloperoxidase enzyme (MPO) was significantly increased as a result of OVX and HT diet, however voluntary wheel-running exercise restored the elevated values. Our results show that estrogen deficiency and HT diet caused a significant decrease in the activity and concentration of HO enzyme, as well as the concentrations of TNF-?, IL-6, and the activity of MPO. However, 12 weeks of voluntary wheel-running exercise is a potential non-pharmacological therapy to ameliorate these disturbances, which determine the life expectancy of postmenopausal women.
Project description:Estrogen is involved in lipid metabolism. Menopausal women with low estrogen secretion usually gain weight and develop steatosis associated with abnormal lipid metabolism. A previous study showed that blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) extract (BCE) had phytoestrogen activity. In this study, we examined whether BCE improved lipid metabolism abnormalities and reduced liver steatosis in ovariectomized rats, as a menopausal animal model. Twelve-week-old ovariectomized (OVX) rats were fed a regular diet (Ctrl) or a 3% BCE supplemented diet while sham rats were fed a regular diet for three months. Body weight, visceral fat weight, levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol decreased in the BCE-treated OVX and sham rats, but not in OVX Ctrl rats. The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that BCE decreased the diameters of adipocytes and the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score. Furthermore, quantitative RTPCR indicated a decreased expression of hepatitis-related genes, such as tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-6, and IL-1? in OVX rats after BCE treatment. This is the first study that reported improvement of lipid metabolism abnormalities in OVX rats by BCE administration. These results suggest that the intake of BCE alleviated dyslipidemia and prevented nonalcoholic steatohepatitis during menopause in this animal model.
Project description:The relatively low efficacy of ACE-inhibitors in the treatment of heart failure in women after estrogen loss may be due to their inability to reach the intracellular sites at which angiotensin (Ang) II is generated and/or the existence of cell-specific mechanisms in which ACE is not the essential processing pathway for Ang II formation. We compared the metabolic pathway for Ang II formation in freshly isolated myocytes (CMs) and non-myocytes (NCMs) in cardiac membranes extracted from hearts of gonadal-intact and ovariectomized (OVX) adult WKY and SHR rats. Plasma Ang II levels were higher in WKY vs. SHR (strain effect: WKY: 62?±?6?pg/ml vs. SHR: 42?±?9?pg/ml; p?<?0.01), independent of OVX. The enzymatic activities of chymase, ACE, and ACE2 were higher in NCMs versus CMs, irrespective of whether assays were performed in cardiac membranes from WKY or SHR or in the presence or absence of OVX. E2 depletion increased chymase activity, but not ACE activity, in both CMs and NCMs. Moreover, cardiac myocyte chymase activity associated with diastolic function in WKYs and cardiac structure in SHRs while no relevant functional and structural relationships between the classic enzymatic pathway of Ang II formation by ACE or the counter-regulatory Ang-(1-7) forming path from Ang II via ACE2 were apparent. The significance of these novel findings is that targeted cell-specific chymase rather than ACE inhibition may have a greater benefit in the management of HF in women after menopause.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Women are at greater risk than men of developing depression and comorbid disorders such as cardiovascular disease. This enhanced risk begins at puberty and ends following menopause, suggesting a role for ovarian hormones in this sensitivity. Here we used a model of psychosocial witness stress in female rats to determine the stress-induced neurobiological adaptations that underlie stress susceptibility in an ovarian hormone-dependent manner. METHODS:Intact or ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were exposed to five daily 15-minute witness-stress exposures. Witness-stress-evoked burying, behavioral despair, and anhedonia were measured. Cardiovascular telemetry was combined with plasma measurements of inflammation, epinephrine, and corticosterone as indices of cardiovascular dysfunction. Finally, levels of interleukin-1? and corticotropin-releasing factor were assessed in the central amygdala. RESULTS:Witness stress produced anxiety-like burying, depressive-like anhedonia, and behavioral despair selectively in intact female rats, which was associated with enhanced sympathetic responses during stress, including increased blood pressure, heart rate, and arrhythmias. Moreover, intact female rats exhibited increases in 12-hour resting systolic pressure and heart rate and reductions in heart rate variability. Notably, OVX female rats remained resilient. Moreover, intact, but not OVX, female rats exposed to witness stress exhibited a sensitized cytokine and epinephrine response to stress and distinct increases in levels of corticotropin-releasing factor and interleukin-1? in the central amygdala. CONCLUSIONS:Together these data suggest that ovarian hormones play a critical role in the behavioral, inflammatory, and cardiovascular susceptibility to social stress in female rats and reveal putative systems that are sensitized to stress in an ovarian hormone-dependent manner.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Postmenopausal women experience adverse physiological changes caused by estrogen deprivation. Here, we hypothesized that the administration of isoflavone, a phytoestrogn, and/or physical exercise could reverse changes in the levels of hepatic enzymes disturbed by loss of estrogen to ameliorate postmenopause-related health problems. METHODS: Thirty-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: a sham-operated (SHAM) group, ovariectomized groups on a regular diet with exercise (EXE) and without exercise (OVX), and ovariectomized groups on an isoflavone supplemented diet with (ISO?+?EXE) and without exercise (ISO). Proteomic tools were employed to identify candidate hepatic proteins that were differentially expressed among the five animal groups. RESULTS: INMT was detected in the SHAM but not in all of the ovariectomized rats. Seven proteins (PPIA, AKR1C3, ALDH2, PSME2, BUCS1, OTC, and GAMT) were identified to have differential expression among the groups. When compared to the SHAM group, the ovariectomy elevated the levels of PPIA, BUCS1, PSME2, AKR1C3, and GAMT while decreasing ALDH2 and OTC. Among these OVX-induced changes, OVX-increased BUCS1 and GAMT levels were noticeably decreased by ISO or EXE and further greatly down-regulated by ISO?+?EXE. In the case of PSME2, ISO and EXE further increased OVX-upregulated expression levels but ISO?+?EXE greatly reduced OVX-increased levels. On the other hand OVX-lowered OTC levels were elevated by ISO, EXE, or ISO?+?EXE. The protein levels of ALDH2, PPIA, and AKR1C3 were not significantly reverted by ISO, EXE or ISO?+?EXE. CONCLUSION: The combination of an isoflavone diet and exercise partly reversed ovariectomy-induced changes in hepatic protein expression levels. Our data suggest that the combinatory regimen of isoflavone supplementation and exercise may be beneficial to menopausal women through modulating hepatic protein expression profiles.
Project description:Osteoporotic patients often suffer from bone fracture but its healing is compromised due to impaired osteogenesis potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Here we aimed to exploit adipose-derived stem cells from ovariectomized rats (OVX-ASCs) for bone healing. We unraveled that OVX-ASCs highly expressed miR-214 and identified 2 miR-214 targets: CTNNB1 (?-catenin) and TAB2. We demonstrated that miR-214 targeting of these two genes blocked the Wnt pathway, led to preferable adipogenesis and hindered osteogenesis. As a result, OVX-ASCs implantation into OVX rats failed to heal critical-size metaphyseal bone defects. We further engineered the OVX-ASCs with a novel Cre/loxP-based hybrid baculovirus vector that conferred prolonged expression of miR-214 sponge. Gene delivery for miR-214 sponge expression successfully downregulated miR-214 levels, activated the Wnt pathway, upregulated osteogenic factors ?-catenin/Runx2, downregulated adipogenic factors PPAR-? and C/EBP-?, shifted the differentiation propensity towards osteogenic lineage, enhanced the osteogenesis of co-cultured OVX-BMSCs, elevated BMP7/osteoprotegerin secretion and hindered exosomal miR-214/osteopontin release. Consequently, implanting the miR-214 sponge-expressing OVX-ASCs tremendously improved bone healing in OVX rats. Co-expression of miR-214 sponge and BMP2 further synergized the OVX-ASCs-mediated bone regeneration in OVX rats. This study implicates the potential of suppressing miR-214 by baculovirus-mediated gene delivery in osteoporotic ASCs for regenerative medicine.
Project description:Estrogens have many beneficial effects in the brain. Previously, we evaluated the effects of two models of menopause (surgical vs. transitional) on multiple monoaminergic endpoints in different regions of the adult rat brain in comparison with levels in gonadally intact rats. Here we evaluated the effects of estrogen receptor (ER) agonist treatments in these same two models of menopause. Neurochemical endpoints were evaluated in the hippocampus (HPC), frontal cortex (FCX), and striatum (STR) of adult ovariectomized (OVX) rats and in rats that underwent selective and gradual ovarian follicle depletion by daily injection of 4-vinylcyclohexene-diepoxide (VCD), after 1- and 6-weeks treatment with 17?-estradiol (E2), or with selective ER? (PPT), ER? (DPN), or GPR30 (G-1) agonists. Endpoints included serotonin (5-HT) and 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid, dopamine (DA), 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine, as well as the amino acids tryptophan (TRP) and tyrosine (TYR). Significant differences between the models were detected. OVX rats were much more sensitive to ER agonist treatments than VCD-treated rats. Significant differences between brain regions also were detected. Within OVX rats, more agonist effects were detected in the HPC than in any other region. One interesting finding was the substantial decrease in TRP and TYR detected in the HPC and FCX in response to agonist treatments, particularly in OVX rats. This is on top of the substantial decreases in TRP and TYR previously reported one week after OVX or VCD-treatments in comparison with gonadally intact controls. Other interesting findings included increases in the levels of 5-HT, DA, and NE in the HPC of OVX rats treated with DPN, increases in DA detected in the FCX of OVX rats treated with any of the ER agonists, and increases in 5-HT and DA detected in the STR of OVX rats treated with E2. Many effects that were observed after 1-week of treatment were no longer observed after 6-weeks of treatment, demonstrating that effects were temporary despite continued agonist treatment. Collectively, the results demonstrate significant differences in the effects of ER agonists on monoaminergic endpoints in OVX vs. VCD-treated rats that also were brain region-specific and time dependent. The fact that agonist treatments had lesser effects in VCD treated rats than in OVX rats may help to explain reports of lesser effects of estrogen replacement on cognitive performance in women that have undergone transitional vs. surgical menopause.