Genotyping of Pneumocystis jirovecii by Use of a New Simplified Nomenclature System Based on the Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions and 5.8S rRNA Gene of the rRNA Operon.
ABSTRACT: Genotyping based on internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 of the rRNA operon has played an important role in understanding the transmission and epidemiology of Pneumocystis jirovecii, one of the major opportunistic pathogens in individuals with AIDS and other immunocompromised individuals. The widespread use of this typing system has resulted in several problems, including inconsistent genotype nomenclatures, difficult data transferability, and complicated interpretation of the length variation in multiple homopolymeric tracts. The aim of this study was to establish a new, simplified genotype nomenclature system for P. jirovecii based on the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences. We first analyzed the complete ITS1, 5.8S rRNA gene, and ITS2 sequences (termed ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) in 27 recent P. jirovecii isolates from China and identified 18 unique genotypes. Subsequently, we performed a comprehensive classification of more than 400 ITS1- and ITS2-related sequences from GenBank and an in-depth evaluation of the length variation of multiple homopolymeric tracts within ITS1-5.8S-ITS2. Integration of the results from these analyses led to a new, simplified genotype nomenclature system including 62 unique ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 genotypes, simply designated types 1 through 62. This new system offers several advantages over traditional ITS1- and ITS2-based typing systems, including a simpler analysis and interpretation process, a higher discriminative power, and no limitation in assigning potential new genotypes. This new system is expected to facilitate the standardization of P. jirovecii genotyping and easy data exchanges across different laboratories.
Project description:The 5'-exonuclease Rat1 degrades pre-rRNA spacer fragments and processes the 5'-ends of the 5.8S and 25S rRNAs. UV crosslinking revealed multiple Rat1-binding sites across the pre-rRNA, consistent with its known functions. The major 5.8S 5'-end is generated by Rat1 digestion of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) spacer from cleavage site A(3). Processing from A(3) requires the 'A(3)-cluster' proteins, including Cic1, Erb1, Nop7, Nop12 and Nop15, which show interdependent pre-rRNA binding. Surprisingly, A(3)-cluster factors were not crosslinked close to site A(3), but bound sites around the 5.8S 3'- and 25S 5'-regions, which are base paired in mature ribosomes, and in the ITS2 spacer that separates these rRNAs. In contrast, Nop4, a protein required for endonucleolytic cleavage in ITS1, binds the pre-rRNA near the 5'-end of 5.8S. ITS2 was reported to undergo structural remodelling. In vivo chemical probing indicates that A(3)-cluster binding is required for this reorganization, potentially regulating the timing of processing. We predict that Nop4 and the A(3) cluster establish long-range interactions between the 5.8S and 25S rRNAs, which are subsequently maintained by ribosomal protein binding.
Project description:Small portions of the 18S and the 26S rRNA genes, the entire 5.8S rRNA gene, and internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2 (located between the 18S and 5.8S rRNA genes and between the 5.8S and 26S rRNA genes, respectively) of Pneumocystis carinii that infect humans were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences of the 18S, 5.8S, and 26S rRNA genes determined in the study were approximately 90% homologous to those of P. carinii that infect rats, while the sequences of ITS1 and ITS2 of P. carinii from the two different hosts were only 60% homologous. The 18S, 5.8S, and 26S rRNA gene sequences of P. carinii from 15 patient specimens were determined and were found to be identical to each other, whereas the ITS sequences were found to be variable. With the observed sequence variation, it was possible to classify the ITS1 sequences into two types and the ITS2 sequences into three types. P. carinii strains that had the same type of ITS1 sequence could have a different type of ITS2 sequence. On the basis of the sequence types of the two ITS regions, P. carinii from the 15 patients were classified into four groups. P. carinii from three patient specimens were found to contain two different ITS sequence patterns. More surprisingly, one additional specimen was found to have one ITS sequence typical of P. carinii isolates that infect humans and another typical of P. carinii isolates that infect rats. The studies indicate that it is possible to type P. carinii strains on the basis from one patient, suggesting that coinfection with more than one strain of P. carinii may occur in the same patient.
Project description:The worldwide-distributed aquatic fungus Articulospora tetracladia Ingold is a dominant sporulating species in streams of the Northwest Iberian Peninsula. To elucidate the genetic diversity of A. tetracladia, we analyzed isolates collected from various types of plant litter or foam in streams from North and Central Portugal and North Spain, between 2000 and 2010. Genetic diversity of these fungal populations was assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints and by using ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 barcodes. Moreover, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 barcodes of A. tetracladia reported in other parts of the world (Central Europe, United Kingdom, Canada, Japan and Malaysia) were retrieved from the National Center for Biotechnology (NCBI) and the National Institute of Technology and Evaluation Biological Resource Center (NBRC) to probe into genetic diversity of A. tetracladia. PCR-DGGE of ITS2 region of 50 Iberian fungal isolates distinguished eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which were similar to those obtained from neighboring trees based on ITS2 gene sequences. On the other hand, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 barcodes of 68 fungal isolates yielded nine OTUs, but five fungal isolates were not assigned to any of these OTUs. Molecular diversity was highest for OTU-8, which included only European isolates. Two haplotypes were observed within OTU-8 and OTU-9, while only one haplotype was found within each of the remaining OTUs. Malaysia did not share haplotypes with other countries. Overall results indicate that, apart from the Malaysian genotypes, A. tetracladia genotypes were geographically widespread irrespective of sampling time, sites or substrates. Furthermore, PCR-DGGE appeared to be a rapid tool for assessing intraspecific diversity of aquatic hyphomycetes.
Project description:Analysis of sequence variations among isolates of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. macacae from 14 Indian rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear rRNA gene was undertaken. Like those from P. carinii f. sp. hominis, the ITS sequences from various P. carinii f. sp. macacae isolates were not identical. Two major types of sequences were found. One type of sequence was shared by 13 isolates. These 13 sequences were homologous but not identical. Variations were found at 13 of the 180 positions in the ITS1 region and 28 of the 221 positions in the ITS2 region. These sequence variations were not random but exhibited definite patterns when the sequences were aligned. According to this sequence variation, ITS1 sequences were classified into three types and ITS2 sequences were classified into five types. The remaining specimen had ITS1 and ITS2 sequences substantially different from the others. Although some specimens had the same ITS1 or ITS2 sequence, all 14 samples exhibited a unique whole ITS sequence (ITS1 plus ITS2). The 5.8S rRNA gene sequences were also analyzed, and only two types of sequences that differ by only one base were found. Unlike P. carinii f. sp. hominis infections in humans, none of the monkey lung specimens examined in this study were found to be infected by more than one type of P. carinii f. sp. macacae. These results offer insights into the genetic differences between P. carinii organisms which infect distinct species.
Project description:Secondary structure models of the 5.8S rRNA and both internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) are proposed for Calciodinelloideae (Peridiniaceae) and are also plausible for other dinoflagellates. The secondary structure of the 5.8S rRNA corresponds to previously developed models, with two internal paired regions and at least one 5.8S rRNA-28S rRNA interaction. A general secondary structure model of ITS1 for Calciodinelloideae (and other dinoflagellates), consisting of an open multibranch loop with three major helices, is proposed. The homology of these paired regions with those found in other taxa, published in previous studies (e.g. yeast, green algae and Platyhelmithes) remains to be determined. Finally, a general secondary structure model of ITS2 for Calciodinelloideae (and other dinoflagellates) is reconstructed. Based on the 5.8S rRNA-28S rRNA interaction, it consists of a closed multibranch loop, with four major helices. At least helix III and IV have homology with paired regions found in other eukaryotic taxa (e.g. yeast, green algae and vertebrates). Since the secondary structures of both ITS regions are more conserved than the nucleotide sequences, their analysis helps in understanding molecular evolution and increases the number of structural characters. Thus, the structure models developed in this study may be generally useful for future phylogenetic analyses.
Project description:Sequence analysis of Pneumocystis jiroveci internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions has become an important epidemiological tool. The objectives of the present study were to investigate sequence variations in the ITS1-5.8S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-ITS2 regions; determine the P. jiroveci genotypes present in Cape Town, South Africa; and resolve the lineage evolution of the types by use of the coalescent theory. ITS regions were amplified from samples collected from 19 patients. PCR products were cloned, and four to five clones were sequenced from each specimen. Statistical parsimony was applied for coalescence-based network genotype analysis. The most prevalent type was Eg (14 of 19 patients, 33 of 83 clones), followed by Gg (4 of 19 patients, 7 of 83 clones), Eu (3 of 19 patients, 5 of 83 clones), and Gh (2 of 19 patients, 2 of 83 clones). Four new combinations (Eo, Je, Ge, and No), 11 new ITS1 sequences, and 13 new ITS2 sequences were identified. A new ITS2 type was detected in three patients and was designated type u. Coinfection appeared to be common, with 15 of 19 patients harboring more than one type and with up to six types per specimen. The resultant parsimony network identified Eg as the most probable ancestral haplotype and supported the occurrence of recombinational events within the population studied. Although the 5.8S rDNA region revealed only 13 clones containing one to two nucleotide polymorphisms, it may assist in defining types. Coalescent theory proposed that Eg is an ancestral type from which microevolutionary subtypes radiate.
Project description:The aim of the study was mycological examination of ulcerated corneal tissues from an ophthalmic patient. Tissue fragments were analyzed on potato-glucose agar (PDA) and maltose (MA) (Difco) media using standard laboratory techniques. Cultures were identified using classical and molecular methods. Macro- and microscopic colony morphology was characteristic of fungi from the genus Aspergillus (restricted growth series), most probably Aspergillus penicillioides Speg. Molecular analysis of the following rDNA regions: ITS1, ITS2, 5.8S, 28S rDNA, LSU and ?-tubulin were carried out for the isolates studied. A high level of similarity was found between sequences from certain rDNA regions, i.e. ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and LSU, what confirmed the classification of the isolates to the species A. penicillioides. The classification of our isolates to A. penicillioides species was confirmed also by the phylogenetic analysis.The aim of the study was mycological examination of ulcerated corneal tissues from an ophthalmic patient. Tissue fragments were analyzed on potato-glucose agar (PDA) and maltose (MA) (Difco) media using standard laboratory techniques. Cultures were identified using classical and molecular methods. Macro- and microscopic colony morphology was characteristic of fungi from the genus Aspergillus (restricted growth series), most probably Aspergillus penicillioides Speg. Molecular analysis of the following rDNA regions: ITS1, ITS2, 5.8S, 28S rDNA, LSU and ?-tubulin were carried out for the isolates studied. A high level of similarity was found between sequences from certain rDNA regions, i.e. ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and LSU, what confirmed the classification of the isolates to the species A. penicillioides. The classification of our isolates to A. penicillioides species was confirmed also by the phylogenetic analysis.
Project description:The phylogenetic position of three taxa from two trematode genera, belonging to the subfamily Acanthostominae (Opisthorchioidea: Cryptogonimidae), were analysed using partial 28S ribosomal DNA (Domains 1-2) and internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2). Bayesian inference and Maximum likelihood analyses of combined 28S rDNA and ITS1 + 5.8S + ITS2 sequences indicated the monophyly of the genus Acanthostomum (A. cf. americanum and A. burminis) and paraphyly of the Acanthostominae. These phylogenetic relationships were consistent in analyses of 28S alone and concatenated 28S + ITS1 + 5.8S + ITS2 sequences analyses. Based on molecular phylogenetic analyses, the subfamily Acanthostominae is therefore a paraphyletic taxon, in contrast with previous classifications based on morphological data. Phylogenetic patterns of host specificity inferred from adult stages of other cryptogonimid taxa are also well supported. However, analyses using additional genera and species are necessary to support the phylogenetic inferences from this study. Our molecular phylogenetic reconstruction linked two larval stages of A. cf. americanum cercariae and metacercariae. Here, we present the evolutionary and ecological implications of parasitic infections in freshwater and brackish environments.
Project description:Two new species isolated from plant leaves belonging to Talaromyces section Talaromyces are reported, namely T. neofusisporus (ex-type AS3.15415 (T)?=?CBS 139516 (T)) and T. qii (ex-type AS3.15414 (T)?=?CBS 139515 (T)). Morphologically, T. neofusisporus is featured by forming synnemata on CYA and YES, bearing appressed biverticillate penicilli and smooth-walled fusiform conidia about 3.5-4.5?×?2-2.5??m; and T. qii is characterized by velutinous colony texture, yellowish green conidia, yellow mycelium and ovoid to subglobose echinulate conidia measuring 3-3.5??m. Phylogenetically, T. neofusisporus is such a unique species that no close relatives are found according to CaM, BenA and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 as well as the combined three-gene sequences; and T. qii is related to T. thailandensis according to CaM, BenA and the combined sequence matrices, whereas ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences do not support the close relationship between T. qii and T. thailandensis.
Project description:A variety of genes have been used to type Pneumocystis carinii. In the present study, nucleotide sequence variations in the ITS1 and ITS2 internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the rRNA genes were used to type Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis DNA obtained from the lungs of 60 human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. These regions were amplified by PCR, cloned, and sequenced. Multibase polymorphisms were identified among samples. Several new genotypes are reported on the basis of the nucleotide sequence variations at previously unreported positions of both the ITS1 and the ITS2 regions. Twelve new ITS1 sequences were observed, in addition to the nine sequence types reported previously. The most common was type E, which was observed in 60.5% of the samples. The sequence variations in the ITS1 region were mainly located at positions 5, 12, 23, 24, 45, 53, and 54. Sixteen new ITS2 types were also identified, in addition to the 13 types reported previously. The most common was type g (26.6%). The sequences of the ITS2 regions in most specimens were different from the previously published sequence at bases 120 and 166 through 183. The most common variations observed were deletions at positions 177 through 183. The presence of more than one sequence type in some patients (60%) suggested the occurrence of coinfection with multiple P. carinii strains. The genetic polymorphism observed demonstrates the degree of diversity of Pneumocystis strains that infect humans. Furthermore, the high degree of polymorphism suggests that these genes are evolving faster than other genes. Consequently, the sequence information derived is useful for purposes such as examination of the potential of person-to-person transmission and recurrent infections but perhaps not for other genotyping applications that rely on more stable genetic loci.