Altered Brain Expression of Insulin and Insulin-Like Growth Factors in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration: Another Degenerative Disease Linked to Dysregulation of Insulin Metabolic Pathways.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is the third most common dementing neurodegenerative disease with nearly 80% having no known etiology. OBJECTIVE:Growing evidence that neurodegeneration can be linked to dysregulated metabolism prompted us to measure a panel of trophic factors, receptors, and molecules that modulate brain metabolic function in FTLD. METHODS:Postmortem frontal (Brodmann's area [BA]8/9 and BA24) and temporal (BA38) lobe homogenates were used to measure immunoreactivity to Tau, phosphorylated tau (pTau), ubiquitin, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and its receptor (TGF-β1R), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3, neurotrophin-4, tropomyosin receptor kinase, and insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) and their receptors by direct-binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS:FTLD brains had significantly elevated pTau, ubiquitin, TGF-β1, and HNE immunoreactivity relative to control. In addition, BDNF and neurotrophin-4 were respectively reduced in BA8/9 and BA38, while neurotrophin-3 and nerve growth factor were upregulated in BA38, and tropomyosin receptor kinase was elevated in BA24. Lastly, insulin and insulin receptor expressions were elevated in the frontal lobe, IGF-1 was increased in BA24, IGF-1R was upregulated in all three brain regions, and IGF-2 receptor was reduced in BA24 and BA38. CONCLUSIONS:Aberrantly increased levels of pTau, ubiquitin, HNE, and TGF-β1, marking neurodegeneration, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation, overlap with altered expression of insulin/IGF signaling ligand and receptors in frontal and temporal lobe regions targeted by FTLD. Dysregulation of insulin-IGF signaling networks could account for brain hypometabolism and several characteristic neuropathologic features that characterize FTLD but overlap with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Dementia with Lewy Body Disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is widely used in rotator cuff repairs but its effect on the healing process is unclear. Several cell culture studies on the effect of allogenic PRP have reported promising results but are not transferable to clinical practice. The aim of the present study is to assess the possible effect of autologous PRP on rotator cuff tendon cells. The amount of growth factors involved with tendon-bone healing (PDGF-AB, IGF-1, TGF-β1, BMP-7 and -12) is quantified. METHODS:Rotator cuff tissue samples were obtained from (n = 24) patients grouped by age (>/< 65 years) and sex into four groups and cells were isolated and characterized. Later, autologous PRP preparations were obtained and the effect was analyzed by means of cell proliferation, collagen I synthesis and expression of collagen I and III. Furthermore, the PRPs were quantified for growth factor content by means of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-AB), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), transforming growth factor (TGF-β1), as well as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -7 and - 12. RESULTS:Cell proliferation and absolute synthesis of collagen I were positively affected by PRP exposure compared to controls (p < 0.05), but expression and relative synthesis of collagen I (normalized to cell proliferation) were significantly reduced. PRP contained high amounts of IGF-1 and lower levels of TGF-β1 and PDGF-AB. The amounts of BMP-7 and -12 were below the detection limits. CONCLUSIONS:PRP is a source of growth factors such involved with tendon-bone healing. PRP had an anabolic effect on the human rotator cuff tenocytes of the same individual in vitro by means of cell proliferation and absolute, but not relative collagen I synthesis. These results encourage further studies on clinical outcomes with more comparable standards in terms of preparation and application methods. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Controlled laboratory study.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Limited evidence is available on the association of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and risk of heart failure in population-based samples. We investigated whether serum IGFs concentrations can predict mortality from heart failure. METHODS:We conducted a nested case-control study of 39,242 subjects aged 40-79 years who participated in the JACC study, a large Japanese prospective cohort study; participants provided serum samples and were followed up for 9 years. In heart failure cases and age-, sex-, community-, and year of blood withdrawal-matched controls, we measured serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and transforming growth factor (TGF-β1). RESULTS:During the follow-up, there were 88 heart failure deaths (44 men and 44 women). Each increment of 1 standard deviation [SD] of IGF-II (120.0 ng/mL in women and 143.7 ng/mL in men) was associated with a 47% reduced risk of mortality from heart failure; multivariable odds ratio was 0.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-0.94, P-trend = 0.03). The multivariable odds ratio in the highest quartile of IGFBP3 serum concentrations (≥3.29 µg/mL in women and ≥3.31 µg/mL in men) compared with the lowest (<2.11 µg/mL in women and <2.56 µg/mL in men) was 0.24 (95% CI, 0.05-1.11; P-trend = 0.12). No association was found between serum concentrations of IGF-I or TGF-β1 and risk of heart failure. CONCLUSIONS:Higher serum concentrations of IGF-II were associated with lower mortality from heart failure, which might suggest a possible role of IGF-II in the occurrence or prognosis of heart failure.
Project description:In experimental models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), cerebellar hypoplasia and hypofoliation are associated with insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) resistance with impaired signaling through pathways that mediate growth, survival, plasticity, metabolism, and neurotransmitter function. To more directly assess the roles of impaired insulin and IGF signaling during brain development, we administered intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of si-RNA targeting the insulin receptor, (InR), IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), or IGF-2R into postnatal day 2 (P2) Long Evans rat pups and examined the sustained effects on cerebellar function, structure, and neurotransmitter-related gene expression (P20).Rotarod tests on P20 demonstrated significant impairments in motor function, and histological studies revealed pronounced cerebellar hypotrophy, hypoplasia, and hypofoliation in si-InR, si-IGF-1R, and si-IGF-2R treated rats. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that si-InR, and to a lesser extent si-IGF-2R, broadly inhibited expression of insulin and IGF-2 polypeptides, and insulin, IGF-1, and IGF-2 receptors in the brain. ELISA studies showed that si-InR increased cerebellar levels of tau, phospho-tau and ?-actin, and inhibited GAPDH. In addition, si-InR, si-IGF-1R, and si-IGF-2R inhibited expression of choline acetyltransferase, which mediates motor function. Although the ICV si-RNA treatments generally spared the neurotrophin and neurotrophin receptor expression, si-InR and si-IGF-1R inhibited NT3, while si-IGF-1R suppressed BDNF.early postnatal inhibition of brain InR expression, and to lesser extents, IGF-R, causes structural and functional abnormalities that resemble effects of FASD. The findings suggest that major abnormalities in brains with FASD are mediated by impairments in insulin/IGF signaling. Potential therapeutic strategies to reduce the long-term impact of prenatal alcohol exposure may include treatment with agents that restore brain insulin and IGF responsiveness.
Project description:This study was designed to enumerate regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and estimate transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) levels in type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients with respect to disease duration and associated autoimmune diseases.One hundred and fifty patients and twenty healthy controls were recruited in the study. The patients were subcategorized into eight categories on the basis of disease duration (new onset [NO] and long standing [LS]) and associated diseases, i.e., celiac disease (CD) and autoimmune thyroid disease (AiTD). Treg cells were assessed as CD4+ CD25hi+, FOXP3+ cells and serum TGF-β1 levels were assessed by ELISA.The frequency of Tregs and levels of TGF-β1 were significantly increased in the patients compared to the healthy controls. Among the different categories of the patients, no significant differences were seen for TGF- β1 levels, but for Tregs in patients with T1D and AiTD (P = 0.035). A significant correlation was also found between percentage count of Tregs and TGF-β1 levels in NO cases in all disease subcategories, but not in LS patients.Thus, there was an increased percentage of Tregs and serum levels of TGF-β1 in T1D patients, irrespective of the disease duration and associated autoimmune diseases. The significant correlation in these two parameters at the onset of the disease, but not in LS disease, indicates that the immunological milieu in LS autoimmune diseases is more complicated with disease-associated conditions such as prolonged hyperglycemia, insulin therapy, and/or continued gluten in diet. Treatment and modulation of these long-term complications for improving immunological parameters require further research.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a therapeutic biologic that is used for treatment of musculoskeletal pathologies in equine athletes. Due to the expense of PRP kits, and the volumes obtained, freezing aliquots for future dosing is common. Aliquots of PRP are also commonly frozen for later analysis of growth factor concentrations in in vitro research. A variety of freezing methods are used and storage duration until analysis is often not reported. The optimal frozen storage conditions and duration to maintain concentrations of commonly measured growth factors and enzymes in PRP are unknown. Our objectives were two-fold. First, to determine the effect of a single freeze-thaw cycle on PRP protein concentrations and establish their baseline levels. Second, to evaluate the effect of storage in -20 °C automatic defrost freezer, - 20 °C manual defrost freezer, - 80 °C manual defrost freezer, and liquid nitrogen for 1, 3, and 6 months on PRP protein concentrations, compared to the established baseline concentrations. RESULTS:Fold-change between fresh activated and snap frozen PRP were analyzed using paired t-test. A snap frozen-thaw cycle resulted in increased MMP-9 (p = 0.0021), and a small significant decrease in TGF-β1 (p = 0.0162), while IGF-1 and PDGF-BB were unchanged compared to fresh activated PRP. Fold-change over time within storage method were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test. IGF-1 decreased in all conditions (p < 0.0001). At all time-points at -20 °C (p < 0.0001), and at 3 and 6 months at -80 °C (p < 0.0070), PDGF-BB decreased. TGF- β1 was unchanged or increased after 6 months (p < 0.0085). MMP-9 decreased at 3-months at -20 °C, and at all times at -80 °C and in liquid nitrogen compared to snap frozen (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:The protein profile of equine frozen-stored PRP differs from fresh PRP. For clinical applications equine PRP can be stored at -80 °C for 1 month or in liquid nitrogen for 6 months to maintain PDGF-BB and TGF-β1 concentration, but IGF-1 concentrations will be reduced. The storage temperature and duration should be reported in studies measuring protein concentrations in PRP. To accurately measure IGF-1 concentrations, PRP samples should be analyzed immediately.
Project description:Recently, a possible link between toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and liver disease was suggested, although it was limited to fibrosis. Based on this report, we investigated whether TLR7 has a pivotal role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The TLR7 signaling pathway, which is activated by imiquimod (TLR7 ligand) naturally, induced autophagy and released insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) into medium from hepatocytes. Lipid accumulation induced by unsaturated fatty acid (UFA; arachidonic acid:oleic acid?=?1:1) in hepatocytes, was attenuated in TLR7 and autophagy activation. Interestingly, TLR7 activation attenuated UFA-induced lipid peroxidation products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal (4-HNE). To clarify a possible pathway between TLR7 and lipid peroxidation, we treated hepatocytes with MDA and 4-HNE. MDA and 4-HNE induced 2-folds lipid accumulation in UFA-treated hepatocytes via blockade of the TLR7 signaling pathway's IGF-1 release compared to only UFA-treated hepatocytes. In vivo experiments carried out with TLR7 knockout mice produced results consistent with in vitro experiments. In conclusion, TLR7 prevents progression of NAFLD via induced autophagy and released IGF-1 from liver. These findings suggest a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of NAFLD.
Project description:Physical training improves insulin sensitivity and can prevent type 2 diabetes. However, approximately 20% of individuals lack a beneficial outcome in glycemic control. TGF-β, identified as a possible upstream regulator involved in this low response is also a potent regulator of microRNAs (miRs). Aim of this study was to elucidate the potential impact of TGF-β-driven miRNAs on individual exercise response. Non-targeted long and sncRNA sequencing analyses of TGF-β1-treated human skeletal muscle cells corroborated the effects of TGF-β1 on muscle cell differentiation and the induction of extracellular matrix components, and identified several TGF-β1-regulated miRs. qPCR validated a potent upregulation of miR143/145 and miR181a2 by TGF-β1 in both human myoblasts and differentiating myotubes. Human skeletal muscle biopsy donors participating in a supervised 8-week endurance training intervention (n=40) were categorized as responder based on fold change ISIMats (≥ +1.1) or low responder. In skeletal muscle of low responders, TGF-β signaling and miR143/145 levels were stronger induced by training than in responders. Target-mining revealed HDACs, MYHs and insulin signaling components INSR and IRS1 as potential miR143/145 targets. All these targets were down-regulated in TGF-β1-treated myotubes. Transfection of miR mimics in differentiated myotubes validated MYH1, MYH4, and IRS1 as miR143/145 targets. Elevated TGF-β signaling and miR143/145 induction in skeletal muscle of low responders might obstruct improvements in insulin sensitivity by training in two ways: By negatively impacting cell fusion and myofiber functionality via miR143 suppressing its novel targets MYH1/4; by directly impairing insulin signaling via reduction of INSR by TGF-β and fine-tuned IRS1 suppression by miR143. Overall design: Human skeletal muscle cells treated with TGF-β1, TGF-β1 + SB431542, or control cells. Data was analysed by RNAseq.
Project description:Physical training improves insulin sensitivity and can prevent type 2 diabetes. However, approximately 20% of individuals lack a beneficial outcome in glycemic control. TGF-β, identified as a possible upstream regulator involved in this low response is also a potent regulator of microRNAs (miRs). Aim of this study was to elucidate the potential impact of TGF-β-driven miRNAs on individual exercise response. Non-targeted long and sncRNA sequencing analyses of TGF-β1-treated human skeletal muscle cells corroborated the effects of TGF-β1 on muscle cell differentiation and the induction of extracellular matrix components, and identified several TGF-β1-regulated miRs. qPCR validated a potent upregulation of miR143/145 and miR181a2 by TGF-β1 in both human myoblasts and differentiating myotubes. Human skeletal muscle biopsy donors participating in a supervised 8-week endurance training intervention (n=40) were categorized as responder based on fold change ISIMats (≥ +1.1) or low responder. In skeletal muscle of low responders, TGF-β signaling and miR143/145 levels were stronger induced by training than in responders. Target-mining revealed HDACs, MYHs and insulin signaling components INSR and IRS1 as potential miR143/145 targets. All these targets were down-regulated in TGF-β1-treated myotubes. Transfection of miR mimics in differentiated myotubes validated MYH1, MYH4, and IRS1 as miR143/145 targets. Elevated TGF-β signaling and miR143/145 induction in skeletal muscle of low responders might obstruct improvements in insulin sensitivity by training in two ways: By negatively impacting cell fusion and myofiber functionality via miR143 suppressing its novel targets MYH1/4; by directly impairing insulin signaling via reduction of INSR by TGF-β and fine-tuned IRS1 suppression by miR143. Overall design: Human skeletal muscle cells treated with TGF-β1, TGF-β1 + SB431542, or control cells. Data was analysed by small RNAseq.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with progressive impairments in brain insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and insulin receptor substrate (IRS) signaling through Akt pathways that regulate neuronal growth, survival, metabolism, and plasticity. The intracerebral streptozotocin (i.c. STZ) model replicates the full range of abnormalities in sporadic AD. T3D-959, an orally active PPAR-delta/gamma agonist remediates neurocognitive deficits and AD neuropathology in the i.c. STZ model.This study characterizes the effects of T3D-959 on AD biomarkers, insulin/IGF/IRS signaling through Akt pathways, and neuroinflammation in an i.c. STZ model.Long Evans rats were treated with i.c. STZ or saline, followed by daily oral doses of T3D-959 (1?mg/kg) or saline initiated 1 day (T3D-959-E) or 7 days (T3D-959-L) later through Experimental Day 28. Protein and phospho-protein expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine activation were measured in temporal lobe homogenates by duplex or multiplex bead-based ELISAs.i.c. STZ treatments caused neurodegeneration with increased pTau, A?PP, A?42, ubiquitin, and SNAP-25, and reduced levels of synaptophysin, IGF-1 receptor (R), IRS-1, Akt, p70S6K, mTOR, and S9-GSK-3?. i.c. STZ also broadly increased neuroinflammation. T3D-959 abrogated or reduced most of the AD neuropathological and biomarker abnormalities, increased/normalized IGF-1R, IRS-1, Akt, p70S6K, and S9-GSK-3?, and decreased expression of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines. T3D-959-E or -L effectively restored insulin/IGF signaling, whereas T3D-959-L more broadly resolved neuroinflammation.AD remediating effects of T3D-959 are potentially due to enhanced expression of key insulin/IGF signaling proteins and inhibition of GSK-3? and neuroinflammation. These effects lead to reduced neurodegeneration, cognitive impairment, and AD biomarker levels in the brain.
Project description:Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is present in porcine enamel extracts and is critical for proper mineralization of tooth enamel. Here, we show that the mRNA of latent TGF-β1 is expressed throughout amelogenesis. Latent TGF-β1 is activated by matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP20), coinciding with amelogenin processing by the same proteinase. Activated TGF-β1 binds to the major amelogenin cleavage products, particularly the neutral-soluble P103 amelogenin, to maintain its activity. The P103 amelogenin-TGF-β1 complex binds to TGFBR1 to induce TGF-β1 signalling. The P103 amelogenin-TGF-β1 complex is slowly cleaved by kallikrein 4 (KLK4), which is secreted into the transition- and maturation-stage enamel matrix, thereby reducing TGF-β1 activity. To exert the multiple biological functions of TGF-β1 for amelogenesis, we propose that TGF-β1 is activated or inactivated by MMP20 or KLK4 and that the amelogenin cleavage product is necessary for the in-solution mobility of TGF-β1, which is necessary for binding to its receptor on ameloblasts and retention of its activity.