Phenotype and Variant Spectrum in the LAMB3 Form of Amelogenesis Imperfecta.
ABSTRACT: Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders characterized by abnormal formation of dental enamel, either in isolation or as part of a syndrome. Heterozygous variants in laminin subunit beta 3 ( LAMB3) cause AI with dominant inheritance in the absence of other cosegregating clinical features. In contrast, biallelic loss-of-function variants in LAMB3 cause recessive junctional epidermolysis bullosa, characterized by life-threatening skin fragility. We identified 2 families segregating autosomal dominant AI with variable degrees of a distinctive hypoplastic phenotype due to pathogenic variants in LAMB3. Whole exome sequencing revealed a nonsense variant (c.3340G>T, p.E1114*) within the final exon in family 1, while Sanger sequencing in family 2 revealed a variant (c.3383-1G>A) in the canonical splice acceptor site of the final exon. Analysis of cDNA from family 2 revealed retention of the final intron leading to a premature termination codon. Two unerupted third molar teeth from individual IV:5 in family 2 were subject to computerized tomography and scanning electron microscopy. LAMB3 molar teeth have a multitude of cusps versus matched controls. LAMB3 enamel was well mineralized but pitted. The architecture of the initially secreted enamel was abnormal, with cervical enamel appearing much less severely affected than coronal enamel. This study further defines the variations in phenotype-genotype correlation for AI due to variants in LAMB3, underlines the clustering of nonsense and frameshift variants causing AI in the absence of junctional epidermolysis bullosa, and highlights the shared AI phenotype arising from variants in genes coding for hemidesmosome proteins.
Project description:The conventional approach to identifying the defective gene in a family with an inherited disease is to find the disease locus through family studies. However, the rapid development and decreasing cost of next generation sequencing facilitates a more direct approach. Here, we report the identification of a frameshift mutation in LAMB3 as a cause of dominant hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Whole-exome sequencing of three affected family members and subsequent filtering of shared variants, without prior genetic linkage, sufficed to identify the pathogenic variant. Simultaneous analysis of multiple family members confirms segregation, enhancing the power to filter the genetic variation found and leading to rapid identification of the pathogenic variant. LAMB3 encodes a subunit of Laminin-5, one of a family of basement membrane proteins with essential functions in cell growth, movement and adhesion. Homozygous LAMB3 mutations cause junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) and enamel defects are seen in JEB cases. However, to our knowledge, this is the first report of dominant AI due to a LAMB3 mutation in the absence of JEB.
Project description:Amelogenesis imperfecta is a group of inherited diseases affecting the quality and quantity of dental enamel. To date, mutations in more than ten genes have been associated with non-syndromic amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Among these, ENAM and LAMB3 mutations are known to be parts of the etiology of hypoplastic AI in human cases. When both alleles of LAMB3 are defective, it could cause junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), while with only one mutant allele in the C-terminus of LAMB3, it could result in severe hypoplastic AI without skin fragility. We enrolled three Chinese families with hypoplastic autosomal-dominant AI. Despite the diagnosis falling into the same type, the characteristics of their enamel hypoplasia were different. Screening of ENAM and LAMB3 genes was performed by direct sequencing of genomic DNA from blood samples. Disease-causing mutations were identified and perfectly segregated with the enamel defects in three families: a 19-bp insertion mutation in the exon 7 of ENAM (c.406_407insTCAAAAAAGCCGACCACAA, p.K136Ifs*16) in Family 1, a single-base deletion mutation in the exon 5 of ENAM (c. 139delA, p. M47Cfs*11) in Family 2, and a LAMB3 nonsense mutation in the last exon (c.3466C>T, p.Q1156X) in Family 3. Our results suggest that heterozygous mutations in ENAM and LAMB3 genes can cause hypoplastic AI with markedly different phenotypes in Chinese patients. And these findings extend the mutation spectrum of both genes and can be used for mutation screening of AI in the Chinese population.
Project description:Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) can be either isolated or part of a larger syndrome. Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a collection of autosomal-recessive disorders featuring AI associated with skin fragility and other symptoms. JEB is a recessive syndrome usually caused by mutations in both alleles of COL17A1, LAMA3, LAMB3, or LAMC2. In rare cases, heterozygous carriers in JEB kindreds display enamel malformations in the absence of skin fragility (isolated AI). We recruited two kindreds with autosomal-dominant amelogenesis imperfecta (ADAI) characterized by generalized severe enamel hypoplasia with deep linear grooves and pits. Whole-exome sequencing of both probands identified novel heterozygous mutations in the last exon of LAMB3 that likely truncated the protein. The mutations perfectly segregated with the enamel defects in both families. In Family 1, an 8-bp deletion (c.3446_3453del GACTGGAG) shifted the reading frame (p.Gly 1149Glufs*8). In Family 2, a single nucleotide substitution (c.C3431A) generated an in-frame translation termination codon (p.Ser1144*). We conclude that enamel formation is particularly sensitive to defects in hemidesmosome/basement-membrane complexes and that syndromic and non-syndromic forms of AI can be etiologically related.
Project description:Junctional epidermolysis bullosa is a heterogeneous autosomal recessively inherited blistering skin disorder associated with fragility at the dermal-epidermal junction. Previously, mutations in this condition have been described in the three genes for the anchoring filament protein laminin 5 (LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2), in the gene encoding the hemidesmosome-associated beta4 integrin (ITGB4), and in the gene for the hemidesmosomal protein type XVII collagen (COL17A1/BPAG2). In this study, we report a patient with a form of junctional epidermolysis bullosa with skin fragility and dental anomalies who is a compound heterozygote for a novel combination of mutations, ie, a glycine substitution mutation in one allele and an internal duplication in the other allele of COL17A1. The patient also has two offspring, both of whom have inherited the glycine substitution mutation, whereas the other COL17A1 allele is normal. The latter individuals show no evidence of skin fragility but have marked dental abnormalities with enamel hypoplasia and pitting. The clinical phenotype of junctional epidermolysis bullosa in the proband in this family probably arises due to a combination of the glycine substitution and the internal duplication in COL17A1, whereas the dental abnormalities of her offspring may be the result of the glycine substitution in COL17A1 alone, resulting in this dominantly inherited clinical phenotype.
Project description:Tooth agenesis (TA), the failure of development of one or more permanent teeth, is a common craniofacial abnormality observed in different world populations. The genetic etiology of TA is heterogeneous; more than a dozen genes have been associated with isolated or nonsyndromic TA, and more than 80 genes with syndromic forms. In this study, we applied whole exome sequencing (WES) to identify candidate genes contributing to TA in four Turkish families. Likely pathogenic variants with a low allele frequency in the general population were identified in four disease-associated genes, including two distinct variants in TSPEAR, associated with syndromic and isolated TA in one family each; a variant in LAMB3 associated with syndromic TA in one family; and a variant in BCOR plus a disease-associated WNT10A variant in one family with syndromic TA. With the notable exception of WNT10A (Tooth agenesis, selective, 4, MIM #150400), the genotype-phenotype relationships described in the present cohort represent an expansion of the clinical spectrum associated with these genes: TSPEAR (Deafness, autosomal recessive 98, MIM #614861), LAMB3 (Amelogenesis imperfecta, type IA, MIM #104530; Epidermolysis bullosa, junctional, MIMs #226700 and #226650), and BCOR (Microphthalmia, syndromic 2, MIM #300166). We provide evidence supporting the candidacy of these genes with TA, and propose TSPEAR as a novel nonsyndromic TA gene. Our data also suggest potential multilocus genomic variation, or mutational burden, in a single family, involving the BCOR and WNT10A loci, underscoring the complexity of the genotype-phenotype relationship in the common complex trait of TA.
Project description:Inherited tooth enamel hypoplasia occurs due to mutations in genes that encode major enamel components. Enamel hypoplasia also has been reported in junctional epidermolysis bullosa, caused by mutations in the genes that encode type XVII collagen (COL17), a component of the epithelial-mesenchymal junction. To elucidate the pathological mechanisms of the enamel hypoplasia that arise from the deficiency of epithelial-mesenchymal junction molecules, such as COL17, we investigated tooth formation in our recently established Col17(-/-) and Col17 rescued mice. Compared with wild-type mice, the incisors of the Col17(-/-) mice exhibited reduced yellow pigmentation, diminished iron deposition, delayed calcification, and markedly irregular enamel prisms, indicating the presence of enamel hypoplasia. The molars of the Col17(-/-) mice demonstrated advanced occlusal wear. These abnormalities were corrected in the Col17 rescued humanized mice. Thus, the Col17(-/-) mice clearly reproduced the enamel hypoplasia in human patients with junctional epidermolysis bullosa. We were able to investigate tooth formation in the Col17(-/-) mice because the Col17(-/-) genotype is not lethal. Col17(-/-) mouse incisors had poorly differentiated ameloblasts that lacked enamel protein-secreting Tomes' processes and reduced mRNA expression of amelogenin, ameloblastin, and of other enamel genes. These findings indicated that COL17 regulates ameloblast differentiation and is essential for normal formation of Tomes' processes. In conclusion, COL17 deficiency disrupts the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, leading to both defective ameloblast differentiation and enamel malformation.
Project description:In a highly inbred Australian Shepherd litter, three of the five puppies developed widespread ulcers of the skin, footpads, and oral mucosa within the first weeks of life. Histopathological examinations demonstrated clefting of the epidermis from the underlying dermis within or just below the basement membrane, which led to a tentative diagnosis of junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) with autosomal recessive inheritance. Endoscopy in one affected dog also demonstrated separation between the epithelium and underlying tissue in the gastrointestinal tract. As a result of the severity of the clinical signs, all three dogs had to be euthanized. We sequenced the genome of one affected puppy and compared the data to 73 control genomes. A search for private variants in 37 known candidate genes for skin fragility phenotypes revealed a single protein-changing variant, LAMB3:c.1174T>C, or p.Cys392Arg. The variant was predicted to change a conserved cysteine in the laminin ?3 subunit of the heterotrimeric laminin-322, which mediates the binding of the epidermal basement membrane to the underlying dermis. Loss-of-function variants in the human LAMB3 gene lead to recessive forms of JEB. We confirmed the expected co-segregation of the genotypes in the Australian Shepherd family. The mutant allele was homozygous in two genotyped cases and heterozygous in three non-affected close relatives. It was not found in 242 other controls from the Australian Shepherd breed, nor in more than 600 other controls. These data suggest that LAMB3:c.1174T>C represents the causative variant. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first report of a LAMB3-related JEB in domestic animals.
Project description:Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), a genetically heterogeneous group of blistering skin diseases, can be caused by mutations in the genes encoding laminin 5 or collagen XVII, which are components of the hemidesmosome-anchoring filament complex in the skin. Here, a family with severe nonlethal JEB and with mutations in genes for both proteins was identified. The index patient was compound heterozygous for the COL17A1 mutations L855X and R1226X and was heterozygous for the LAMB3 mutation R635X. As a consequence, two functionally related proteins were affected. Absence of collagen XVII and attenuated laminin 5 expression resulted in rudimentary hemidesmosome structure and separation of the epidermis from the basement membrane, with severe skin blistering as the clinical manifestation. In contrast, single heterozygotes carrying either (1) one or the other of the COL17A1 null alleles or (2) a double heterozygote for a COL17A1 and a LAMB3 null allele did not have a pathological skin phenotype. These observations indicate that the known allelic heterogeneity in JEB is further complicated by interactions between unlinked mutations. They also demonstrate that identification of one mutation in one gene is not sufficient for determination of the genetic basis of JEB in a given family.
Project description:Deficiency of basement membrane heterotrimeric laminin 332 component, coded by LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2 genes, causes junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), a severe skin adhesion defect. Herein, we report the first application of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated homology direct repair (HDR) to in situ restore LAMB3 expression in JEB keratinocytes in vitro and in immunodeficient mice transplanted with genetically corrected skin equivalents. We packaged an adenovector carrying Cas9/guide RNA (gRNA) tailored to the intron 2 of LAMB3 gene and an integration defective lentiviral vector bearing a promoterless quasi-complete LAMB3 cDNA downstream a splice acceptor site and flanked by homology arms. Upon genuine HDR, we exploited the in vitro adhesion advantage of laminin 332 production to positively select LAMB3-expressing keratinocytes. HDR and restored laminin 332 expression were evaluated at single-cell level. Notably, monoallelic-targeted integration of LAMB3 cDNA was sufficient to in vitro recapitulate the adhesive property, the colony formation typical of normal keratinocytes, as well as their cell growth. Grafting of genetically corrected skin equivalents onto immunodeficient mice showed a completely restored dermal-epidermal junction. This study provides evidence for efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated in situ restoration of LAMB3 expression, paving the way for ex vivo clinical application of this strategy to laminin 332 deficiency.
Project description:Mutations of the LAMB3 gene cause a lethal form of junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB). We hypothesized that early intra-amniotic gene transfer in a severe murine model of JEB would improve or correct the skin phenotype. Time-dated fetuses from heterozygous LAMB3(IAP) breeding pairs underwent ultrasound guided intra-amniotic injection of lentiviral vector encoding the murine LAMB3 gene at embryonic day 8 (E8). Gene expression was monitored by immunohistochemistry. The transgenic laminin-β3 chain was shown to assemble with its endogenous partner chains, resulting in detectable amounts of laminin-332 in the basement membrane zone of skin and mucosa. Ultrastructually, the restoration of ∼60% of hemidesmosomal structures was also noted. Although we could correct the skin phenotype in 11.9% of homozygous LAMB3(IAP) mice, none survived beyond 48 h. However, skin transplants from treated E18 homozygous LAMB3(IAP) fetuses maintained normal appearance for 6 months with persistence of normal assembly of laminin-332. These results demonstrate for the first time long-term phenotypic correction of the skin pathology in a severe model of JEB by in vivo prenatal gene transfer. Although survival remained limited due to the limitations of this mouse model, this study supports the potential for treatment of JEB by prenatal gene transfer.