A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial of Game Plan, A Web Application to Help Men Who Have Sex with Men Reduce Their HIV Risk and Alcohol Use.
ABSTRACT: Alcohol use is a key risk factor for HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM). Past studies show that brief motivational interventions (BMI) can increase the use of prevention methods (e.g., condoms), reduce alcohol use, and can be adapted for web-based delivery. However, few studies have explored these interventions' effects in MSM. Forty high-risk, heavy drinking MSM who sought rapid HIV testing were randomly assigned to receive either (1) standard post-test counseling (SPC) alone, or (2) SPC plus Game Plan (GP), a tablet tablet-based BMI for alcohol use and HIV risk. Over three months of follow-up, GP participants reported 24% fewer heavy drinking days, 17% fewer alcohol problems, and 50% fewer new anal sex partners than controls. GP participants also reported fewer high-risk condomless anal sex events than controls, but these differences were not significant. These initial results suggest that web-based BMIs may be promising tools to help MSM reduce health risk behaviors.
Project description:Among people with HIV, alcohol use is associated with increased prevalence of sexual transmission behaviors. We examined associations between alcohol use in the prior year and sexual behaviors approximately six months later among 1857 women, 6752 men who have sex with men (MSM) and 2685 men who have sex with women (MSW). Any alcohol use was associated with increased risk of unsafe vaginal sex among women; anal sex and =>2 anal sex partners among MSM; and anal sex, =>2 anal or vaginal sex partners, and unsafe vaginal sex among MSW. In particular, among women >7 alcoholic drinks/week and among MSW =>5 alcoholic drinks/drinking day increased the likelihood of certain subsequent sexual behaviors. For all groups, especially women, the risk of sex under the influence of drugs/alcohol markedly increased with increases in quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption. These different patterns of drinking and sexual behaviors indicate the importance of tailored counseling messages to women, MSM and MSW.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>This research was conducted to assess the correlates of alcohol consumption and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Shandong province, China.<h4>Methods</h4>A cross-sectional survey provided demographics, sexual behaviors, illicit drug use, alcohol consumptions, and service utilization.<h4>Results</h4>Of 1,230 participants, 82.8% were single, 85.7% aged <35 years, 47.2% had college or higher education, and 11.7% drank alcohol >3 times per week in the past six months. The average total score of stigmatizing and discriminatory attitude was 37.4 ± 4.4. More frequent episodes of alcohol use were independently associated with higher levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination, unprotected anal sex, bisexual identity, multiple male sex partners, drug use, and lower levels of education. Expressing higher levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes was independently associated with alcohol use, unprotected male anal sex, bisexuals, more male sex partners, commercial sex with men, and non-receipt of peer education in the past year.<h4>Conclusion</h4>HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes are common and associated with alcohol use and unprotected sex among MSM. The finding highlights the needs to develop programs that would reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes and strengthen alcohol use prevention and risk reduction initiatives among MSM.
Project description:Receptive anal intercourse, multiple partners, condomless sex, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and drug/alcohol addiction are familiar factors that correlate with increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk among men who have sex with men (MSM). To improve estimation to HIV acquisition, we created a composite score using questions from routine survey of 3588 MSM in Beijing, China. The HIV prevalence was 13.4%. A risk scoring tool using penalized maximum likelihood multivariable logistic regression modeling was developed, deploying backward step-down variable selection to obtain a reduced-form model. The full penalized model included 19 sexual predictors, while the reduced-form model had 12 predictors. Both models calibrated well; bootstrap-corrected c-indices were 0.70 (full model) and 0.71 (reduced-form model). Non-Beijing residence, short-term living in Beijing, illegal drug use, multiple male sexual partners, receptive anal sex, inconsistent condom use, alcohol consumption before sex, and syphilis infection were the strongest predictors of HIV infection. Discriminating higher-risk MSM for targeted HIV prevention programming using a validated risk score could improve the efficiency of resource deployment for educational and risk reduction programs. A valid risk score can also identify higher risk persons into prevention and vaccine clinical trials, which would improve trial cost-efficiency.
Project description:Alcohol consumption has frequently been purported as a driver of condomless sex and HIV transmission, but to date, experimental evidence for the causal risk-taking impact of alcohol among HIV-positive populations is lacking. The present experiment sought to determine whether acute alcohol consumption has a direct causal impact on condomless sex intentions among HIV-positive men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM), and to assess whether alcohol's impact differs between MSM who are HIV-positive versus HIV-negative.In a randomized controlled alcohol administration experiment, HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM were brought into a specialized barroom laboratory and randomly assigned to beverage consumption condition: alcohol (target blood alcohol concentration = 0.080%), placebo alcohol (target blood alcohol concentration = 0.000%), or water (control). Participants then underwent a video-based sexual arousal manipulation (sexually aroused/nonaroused) and indicated their intentions to engage in condom-protected and condomless sexual acts in a standardized paradigm. The primary outcome entailed intentions to engage in condomless receptive and condomless insertive anal sex.A total of 282 MSM (141 HIV-positive; 141 HIV-negative) completed experimental procedures. MSM who received alcohol reported significantly stronger intentions to engage in condomless sex than those who received placebo alcohol or water (F(1,274) = 9.43, P = 0.002). The impact of alcohol did not differ between HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM (F(1,274) = 1.86, P = 0.174).The present investigation entailed the first risk-focused alcohol administration experiment to involve an HIV-positive sample, and results demonstrated that consuming alcohol had an independent, causal impact on intentions to engage in sexual behaviors that can result in HIV transmission. Findings strongly suggest that alcohol-focused initiatives should be incorporated into HIV prevention efforts.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The relationship between sexual practices, identity and role among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV risk is the subject of ongoing investigation but less is known about how these aspects of sexuality relate to human papilloma-virus (HPV), an independent risk factor for HIV. This observational study investigated the relationship between HPV and sexual practices, identity and role as well as other sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV risk factors among HIV-negative heterosexually and homosexually identified Peruvian MSM. SETTING:Community-based clinic for MSM in Lima, Peru. PARTICIPANTS:756 subjects were screened based on inclusion criteria of: born anatomically male; age ?18 years; had any anal intercourse with a man during the previous 12 months; residing in metropolitan Lima; HIV negative; willing to commit to twice-yearly clinic visits for 24 months; had not participated in an HIV or HPV vaccine study. 600/756 participants met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled, of whom 48% (284) identified as homosexual and 10% (57) as heterosexual, the basis of the analyses performed. RESULTS:Compared with homosexually identified MSM, heterosexually identified MSM had completed fewer years of formal education and were less likely to have: anogenital HPV or visible anal warts; given oral sex to a man; or used a condom with their most recent female sexual partner (all p<0.05). Conversely, heterosexually identified MSM were more likely to have: visible penile warts; used a condom during last anal intercourse; smoked cigarettes; had transactional sex; and used drugs during sex in the previous month (all p<0.01). There was no difference found between heterosexually and homosexually identified MSM by syphilis or high-risk HPV prevalence. CONCLUSIONS:HPV burden, wart type (penile vs anal) and select HIV/STI risk behaviours differed between heterosexually and homosexually identified Peruvian MSM. Understanding the implications of these differences can lead to tailored HIV/STI prevention interventions for heterosexually identified MSM. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT01387412.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Transgender women (TW) and men who have sex with men (MSM) are often conflated in HIV research and prevention programs, despite clear differences that exist in culture and behavior. METHODS:We examined baseline data from a large treatment-as-prevention study among TW and MSM in Lima, Peru, to assess differences in risk behavior. Baseline assessment included HIV testing and a questionnaire including sociodemographics, sexual behavior, social venue attendance, and drug and alcohol use. Poisson regression with robust standard errors was used to calculate prevalence ratios adjusted for confounding variables [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR)] and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing the prevalence of covariates related to HIV risk in MSM and TW. RESULTS:Overall, 310 TW and 2807 MSM participated between July 2013 and September 2015 and were included in this analysis. TW engaged in some protective sexual health practices more than MSM, including HIV testing in the last year (aPR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.42 to 1.84) and condom use at the last sexual encounter (aPR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.36). TW were more likely to have sex while using alcohol (aPR 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.31) or drugs (aPR 2.24, 95% CI: 1.47 to 3.41), have alcohol dependency (aPR 1.38, 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.66), engage in receptive anal sex (aPR 1.31, 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.36), and have received money, gifts, or favors in exchange of anal sex (1.96, 95% CI: 1.74 to 2.20). CONCLUSIONS:TW and MSM exhibited distinct risk profiles, suggesting that interventions specifically targeted to each group may provide new opportunities for more effective HIV prevention programs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Little is known about the epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea.<h4>Methods</h4>A single-center cross-sectional study was conducted with HIV-infected men in Korea. Participants completed a detailed sexual behavior risk factor questionnaire. Anal samples were collected for cytology and HPV genotyping. Factors associated with anal HPV infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, stratifying by sexual behaviour.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 201 HIV-infected men were included in the study: 133 were from men who have sex with men (MSM) and 68 from men who have sex with women (MSW). Any anal HPV infection was detected in 82.7% of HIV-infected MSM and in 51.5% of HIV- infected MSW (P < 0.001). High-risk HPV (HR-HPV) prevalence was higher among MSM (47.4%) than MSW (25.0%; P = 0.002). The HR-HPV types identified most frequently were HPV 16 (11%), HPV 18 (9.9%), and HPV 58 (5%) in MSM, and HPV 58(11%) and HPV 16 (8.9%) in MSW. Prevalence of any HPV types in 9-valent vaccine types was higher among MSM than MSW (47.4% vs 22.1%. P = 0.001). Abnormal anal cytology was more commonly detected in MSM than MSW (42.9% vs.19.1%, P < 0.001). In HIV-infected MSM, higher number of lifetime male sex partners was significantly associated with any anal HPV infection, but age was a significant risk factor associated with anal HR-HPV infection.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Anal HPV infection was highly prevalent in HIV-infected MSM in Korea, and also commonly found in HIV-infected MSW. In HIV-infected MSM, the significant risk factor for being infected with any HPV infection was lifetime number of male sexual partners, and with anal oncogenic HPV infection was age.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>There is little evidence on the need for differentiated HIV prevention services for men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSW) and people who inject drugs (PWID in Nigeria. The aim of the study was to determine and compare the HIV sexual risk profiles of FSW, MSM and PWID resident in Nigeria; and identify factors associated with condom use among the groups. This will help identify if differentiated HIV prevention services are needed for MSM, FSW and PWID in Nigeria.<h4>Methods</h4>This is a cross-sectional study. Data on sexual practices (anal, vaginal and oral sex), history of alcohol and psychoactive substance use, and high risk sexual behaviors for HIV infection (inconsistent use of condom) was collected from study FSW, MSM and PWID resident in Enugu, Nassarawa, Benue, and Akwa-Ibom States of Nigeria between April and June, 2015. Association between sexual practices, alcohol and psychoactive substance use, and HIV sexual risk behaviors; and differences in sexual risk behaviors of MSM, FSW and PWID were determined using Pearson chi-square for categorical variables, and t-test for continuous variables. Determinants of condom use in the last 30?days were identified using logistic regression analysis.<h4>Results</h4>The study population consisted of 188 (38.5%) FSW, 145 (29.7%) MSM and 155 (31.8%) PWID. MSM (AOR: 0.17; 95%CI: 0.05-0.67; p?=?0.01) and PWID (AOR: 0.07; 95%CI: 0.02-0.21; p?<?0.001) were significantly less likely than FSW to have used condom in the last 30?days. A lower proportion of FSW and PWID used condom during anal sex in the last 12?months when compared with MSM (p?<?0.001 respectively). The proportion of MSM (23.5%) and FSW (23.4%) who had ever used psychoactive drugs was high. Of those who had ever used psychoactive drugs, 25.0% of FSW and 29.4% of MSM had injected drugs in the last 30?days of the survey. Also, 39.3% of PWID shared needles and syringes. The use of psychoactive substances (AOR: 5.01; 95%CI: 2.59-9.68; p <?0.001) and the ability to negotiate condom use (AOR: 2.04; 95%CI: 1.06-3.93; p?=?0.03) were factors associated with condom use in the last 30?days of the survey.<h4>Conclusion</h4>HIV prevention programs designed for MSM, FSW and PWID need to address inconsistent condom use during sex by addressing condom negotation skills. This sexual risk behavior is common to the three groups.
Project description:To determine HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional RDS survey of MSM in Abidjan from October 2011 to February 2012. Eligibility criteria included age ≥ 18 years and having had oral or anal sex with another man in the last 12 months. Weighted data analysis was conducted with RDSAT and SAS. We enrolled 603 participants, of whom 601 (99.7%) completed the questionnaire and 581 (96.7%) consented to HIV testing. HIV population prevalence was estimated as 18.0% (95% CI: 13.0-23.1); 86.4% (95% CI: 75.1-94.9) of HIV-positive MSM were unaware of their serostatus. In multivariable analysis, adjusting for age, education, and income, HIV infection was associated with unprotected sex at last sex with a woman, more than two male anal sex partners in last 12 months, inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a man, self-perceived risk of HIV, history of forced sex, history of physical abuse due to MSM status, and not receiving last HIV test result prior to study. HIV prevalence among MSM in Abidjan is more than four times as high as that of general population men. MSM engage in high-risk sexual behavior and most HIV-positive MSM are unaware of their serostatus. Greater access to HIV prevention, care, and treatment services targeted to MSM is necessary.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Reducing high-risk behaviours (i.e. multiple partnership, condomless anal/vaginal sex, alcohol use before sex, illicit drug use) after HIV diagnosis is critical for curtailing HIV transmission. We designed an intervention to explore peer- counselling in reducing high-risk behaviours among newly diagnosed HIV-positive Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS:We randomized 367 newly diagnosed HIV-positive men to either standard-of-care (SOC; n = 183) or peer-counselling intervention (n = 184), and followed them for 12 months (visit at 0-, 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-month). SOC participants received counselling on high-risk behaviour reduction by clinic staff. Intervention participants received both SOC and peer counselling. A generalized estimating equation was used to compare pre-post diagnosis high-risk behaviour change; logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of practicing high-risk behaviours between intervention and SOC participants. Both intent-to-treat and per-protocol (full-dosage) approaches were used for the analyses. RESULTS:For pre- and post-diagnosis comparisons, multiple partnership fell from 50% to 16% (p < 0.001), alcohol use before sex from 23% to 9% (p = 0.001), illicit drug use from 33% to 6% (p < 0.001), condomless anal sex from 47% to 4% (insertive from 23% to 2%; receptive from 36% to 3%; p < 0.001). In the intent-to-treat analysis accounting for repeated measures, peer counselling was more likely to reduce insertive anal sex (AOR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.94), condomless anal sex (AOR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.64) and illicit drug use (AOR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.64). In the per-protocol analysis, peer counselling was associated with a lower likelihood of using illicit drug (OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.81) and having condomless vaginal sex with women (OR = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.98). CONCLUSIONS:We observed a 14 to 43% decrease in the prevalence of selected high-risk behaviours after HIV diagnosis. Peer counselling had a greater impact in reducing condomless anal sex with men, illicit drug use and condomless vaginal sex with women over time. Future studies with exclusive peer-counselling arm are necessary to test its efficacy and effectiveness among Chinese MSM. Clinical Trial Number: NCT01904877.