Characteristics of Brazilian melanomas: real-world results before and after the introduction of new therapies.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:This study is a characterization of the treatment patterns and outcomes of a Brazilian melanoma cohort collected of 1848 patients enrolled between 1996 and 2015. RESULTS:The superficial spreading subtype (35.1%) was the most prevalent, and the favoured anatomical location was the trunk (32.8%). The most common clinical stage was I (27.6%). The most frequent initial treatment was surgery (84.7%). Sentinel node biopsy was positive in 23.3% of cases. Chemotherapy was used to treat 298 patients (16.1%), immunotherapy for 67 (3.6%) and targeted therapy for 19 (1.0%). Distant recurrence was commonly observed (22.5%) and the mutation status of the BRAF gene was verified in 132 cases, with 42.4% positivity in this subset of patients. The melanoma specific actuarial 5-year survival for the cohort was 68.8%. There was a higher 5-year survival observed in metastatic melanoma patients who received immunotherapy and/or targeted therapy (34.2%) compared patients treated with just chemotherapy (20.0%). The survival analysis showed that sex, age, Breslow, clinical stage and distant recurrence were significant prognostic factors. This study provides a real-world description of how the introduction of new therapies such as immunotherapy and BRAF inhibitors is changing treatment strategies for melanoma in developing countries.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is an important step in melanoma staging and prognostication. It is commonly performed for patients with intermediate thickness melanomas, based on clinicopathological features. However, only 20-25% of patients eventually demonstrate nodal involvement. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether tissue biomarkers with links to melanoma biology, together with clinicopathological parameters, could aid in the prediction of sentinel node involvement and improve selection of patients for SNB. In addition, we examined the role of these clinical or biological markers in disease outcome. METHODS:We collected a case-control cohort of 140 intermediate thickness (Breslow 0,9-4,0mm) melanoma patients with or without SNB involvement matched for age, gender, Breslow thickness and location. From this cohort, we tested the predictive value of common clinicopathological parameters (ulceration, mitotic count and tumor regression) and FMNL-2, ezrin and BRAF V600E immunoreactivity, for sentinel node involvement and survival. We further analyzed the correlations in the superficial spreading melanoma subtype. RESULTS:Based on our case control analysis, of the markers, BRAF V600E status (p = 0.010) and mitotic count (p = 0.036) correlated with SNB involvement. SNB status was a strong independent prognosticator for recurrence free survival (RFS p<0.001), melanoma specific survival (MSS p = 0.000) and overall survival (OS p = 0.029). In the superficially spreading melanoma subgroup, BRAF V600E positivity indicated poorer RFS (p = 0.039) and OS (p = 0.012). By combining the Breslow thickness, mitotic count and BRAF immunohistochemistry, we identified a group of superficially spreading melanomas with an excellent survival probability independent of SNB status. CONCLUSIONS:These results demonstrate that BRAF immunohistochemistry could serve as a useful addition to a marker panel for selecting intermediate thickness melanoma patients for SNB.
Project description:We used a VSV-cDNA library to treat recurrent melanoma, identifying immunogenic antigens, allowing us to target recurrences with immunotherapy or chemotherapy. Primary B16 melanoma tumors were induced to regress by frontline therapy. Mice with recurrent tumors were treated with VSV-cDNA immunotherapy. A Th17 recall response was used to screen the VSV-cDNA library for individual viruses encoding rejection antigens, subsequently targeted using immunotherapy or chemotherapy. Recurrent tumors were effectively treated with a VSV-cDNA library using cDNA from recurrent B16 tumors. Recurrence-associated rejection antigens identified included Topoisomerase-IIα, YB-1, cdc7 kinase, and BRAF. Fourteen out of 16 recurrent tumors carried BRAF mutations (595-605 region) following frontline therapy, even though the parental B16 tumors were BRAF wild type. The emergence of mutated BRAF-containing recurrences served as an excellent target for BRAF-specific immune-(VSV-BRAF), or chemo-(PLX-4720) therapies. Successful PLX-4720 therapy of recurrent tumors was associated with the development of a broad spectrum of T-cell responses. VSV-cDNA technology can be used to identify recurrence specific antigens. Emergence of mutated BRAF may be a major effector of melanoma recurrence which could serve as a target for chemo or immune therapy. This study suggests a rationale for offering patients with initially wild-type BRAF melanomas an additional biopsy to screen for mutant BRAF upon recurrence.
Project description:Melanoma is the most aggressive and deadly type of skin cancer. Surgical resection with or without lymph node sampling is the standard of care for primary cutaneous melanoma. Adjuvant therapy decisions may be informed by careful consideration of prognostic factors. High-dose adjuvant interferon alpha-2b increases disease-free survival and may modestly improve overall survival. Less toxic alternatives for adjuvant therapy are currently under study. External beam radiation therapy is an option for nodal beds where the risk of local recurrence is very high. In-transit melanoma metastases may be treated locally with surgery, immunotherapy, radiation, or heated limb perfusion. For metastatic melanoma, the options include chemotherapy or immunotherapy; targeted anti-BRAF and anti-KIT therapy is under active investigation. Standard chemotherapy yields objective tumor responses in approximately 10%-20% of patients, and sustained remissions are uncommon. Immunotherapy with high-dose interleukin-2 yields objective tumor responses in a minority of patients; however, some of these responses may be durable. Identification of activating mutations of BRAF, NRAS, c-KIT, and GNAQ in distinct clinical subtypes of melanoma suggest that these are molecularly distinct. Emerging data from clinical trials suggest that substantial improvements in the standard of care for melanoma may be possible.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gene expression profiling (GEP) has been integrated into cancer treatment decision-making in multiple neoplasms. We prospectively evaluated the prognostic utility of the 31-GEP test (DecisionDx-Melanoma, Castle Biosciences, Inc) in cutaneous melanoma (CM) patients undergoing sentinel node biopsy (SNB). METHODS:One hundred fifty-nine patients (age 26-88) diagnosed with melanoma between 01/2013 and 8/2015 underwent SNB and concurrent GEP testing. GEP results were reported as low-risk Class 1 (subclasses 1A and 1B) or high-risk Class 2 (subclasses 2A and 2B). Statistical analyses were performed with chi-square analysis, t tests, log-rank tests, and Cox proportional hazard models. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS:Median follow-up was 44.9 months for event-free cases. Median Breslow thickness was 1.4 mm (0.2-15.0 mm). There were 117 Class 1 and 42 Class 2 patients. Gender, age, Breslow thickness, ulceration, SNB positivity, and AJCC stage were significantly associated with GEP classification (P < 0.05 for all). Recurrence and distant metastasis rates were 5% and 1% for Class 1 patients compared with 55% and 36% for Class 2 patients. Sensitivities of Class 2 and SNB for recurrence were 79% and 34%, respectively. Of 10 SNB-positive/Class 2 patients, 9 recurred. By multivariate analysis, only SNB result and GEP class were statistically associated with both RFS (P = 0.008 and 0.0001) and DMFS (P = 0.019 and 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Gene expression profiling Class 2 result and SNB positivity were independently associated with recurrence and distant metastasis in primary CM patients. GEP testing may have additive prognostic utility in initial staging work-up of these patients.
Project description:BRAF mutations promote melanoma cell proliferation and survival primarily through activation of MEK. The purpose of this study was to determine the response rate (RR) for the selective, allosteric MEK1/MEK2 inhibitor trametinib (GSK1120212), in patients with metastatic BRAF-mutant melanoma.This was an open-label, two-stage, phase II study with two cohorts. Patients with metastatic BRAF-mutant melanoma previously treated with a BRAF inhibitor (cohort A) or treated with chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy (BRAF-inhibitor naive; cohort B) were enrolled. Patients received 2 mg of trametinib orally once daily.In cohort A (n = 40), there were no confirmed objective responses and 11 patients (28%) with stable disease (SD); the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 1.8 months. In cohort B (n = 57), there was one (2%) complete response, 13 (23%) partial responses (PRs), and 29 patients (51%) with SD (confirmed RR, 25%); the median PFS was 4.0 months. One patient each with BRAF K601E and BRAF V600R had prolonged PR. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events for all patients were skin-related toxicity, nausea, peripheral edema, diarrhea, pruritis, and fatigue. No cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma was observed.Trametinib was well tolerated. Significant clinical activity was observed in BRAF-inhibitor-naive patients previously treated with chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy. Minimal clinical activity was observed as sequential therapy in patients previously treated with a BRAF inhibitor. Together, these data suggest that BRAF-inhibitor resistance mechanisms likely confer resistance to MEK-inhibitor monotherapy. These data support further evaluation of trametinib in BRAF-inhibitor-naive BRAF-mutant melanoma, including rarer forms of BRAF-mutant melanoma.
Project description:The prognostic significance of BRAF and NRAS mutations in metastatic melanoma patients remains uncertain, with several studies reporting conflicting results, often biased by the inclusion of patients treated with BRAF and MEK (MAPK) inhibitors. We therefore interrogated a historical cohort of patients free of the confounding influence of MAPK inhibitor therapy.Patients with available archival tissue first diagnosed with metastatic melanoma between 2002 and 2006 were analysed. Mutational analysis was performed using the OncoCarta Panel. Patient characteristics, treatment outcome and survival were correlated with BRAF/NRAS mutation status.In 193 patients, 92 (48%) melanomas were BRAF-mutant, 39 (20%) were NRAS-mutant and 62 (32%) were wild-type for BRAF/NRAS mutations (wt). There was no difference in response to chemotherapy based on mutation status (35-37%). The distant disease-free interval (DDFI) was significantly shorter in patients with wt melanoma (27.9 months vs 35.1 for BRAF and 49.1 for NRAS) although this was not significant in multivariate analysis. Survival from stage IV melanoma diagnosis was not significantly different based on mutation status. The DDFI was significantly shorter in patients with BRAF(V600K/R) versus BRAF(V600E) melanoma in univariate and multivariate analyses.BRAF and NRAS mutation status does not influence survival in metastatic melanoma.
Project description:PURPOSE:Biomarkers are needed to stratify patients with stage II-III melanoma for clinical trials of adjuvant therapy because, while immunotherapy is protective, it also confers the risk of severe toxicity. We previously defined and validated a 53-immune gene melanoma immune profile (MIP) predictive both of distant metastatic recurrence and of disease-specific survival (DSS). Here, we test MIP on a third independent population. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:A retrospective cohort of 78 patients with stage II-III primary melanoma was analyzed using the NanoString assay to measure expression of 53 target genes, and MIP score was calculated. Statistical analysis correlating MIP with DSS, overall survival, distant metastatic recurrence, and distant metastasis-free interval was performed using ROC curves, Kaplan-Meier curves, and standard univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS:MIP significantly distinguished patients with distant metastatic recurrence from those without distant metastatic recurrence using ROC curve analysis (AUC = 0.695; P = 0.008). We defined high- and low-risk groups based on the cutoff defined by this ROC curve and find that MIP correlates with both DSS and overall survival by ROC curve analysis (AUC = 0.719; P = 0.004 and AUC = 0.698; P = 0.004, respectively). Univariable Cox regression reveals that a high-risk MIP score correlates with DSS (P = 0.015; HR = 3.2). CONCLUSIONS:MIP identifies patients with low risk of death from melanoma and may constitute a clinical tool to stratify patients with stage II-III melanoma for enrollment in clinical trials.
Project description:The recent past has witnessed unprecedented clinical progress in the treatment of advanced malignant melanoma through targeting of mutant BRAF in approximately 50% of patients and immune check point blockade in all patients. As has been well documented, responses to targeted therapy are of limited duration, and rates of clinical benefit to immunotherapy are modest. Given these factors, palliation of patients with chemotherapy remains an essential aspect of melanoma oncology. Many chemotherapeutics (and combinations with other agents, such as immunotherapy) have been evaluated in melanoma, although no chemotherapy regimen has been documented to provide an overall survival benefit in a prospective, randomized, well-controlled phase III study. We provide an overview of the development of the most common chemotherapy regimens for melanoma, discuss the clinical trial evidence supporting and contrasting them, and highlight appropriate clinical situations in which they might be used. We also discuss the future of chemotherapy for melanoma, noting the potential for combinations of chemotherapy with either targeted or immunotherapeutic agents.
Project description:In BRAF wild type advanced melanoma, immune checkpoint blockers such as anti-PD1 (anti-programmed cell death 1) are usually continued beyond progression for a hypothetical rare further response. Chemotherapy as a second-line option is considered ineffective by many practitioners based on historical data. Continuing anti-PD1 beyond progression has a high health-economic impact and is not recommended by the FDA. This study aimed to describe the efficacy and survival of advanced melanoma patients who received second-line (or more) chemotherapy after immunotherapy failure.This was a retrospective single center study conducted in a French University Hospital during an 11-month period. All advanced melanoma patients treated with chemotherapy after immunotherapy failure were included.Eighteen patients were analyzed. Therapeutic response to chemotherapy was evaluable in 16 patients: partial response was achieved in 3/16 (19%), stable disease in 1/16 (6%) and progressive disease in 12/16 (75%). Median overall survival from chemotherapy start was 12 months. Median progression-free survival was 5.4 months. The 6-month overall survival rate was 81% and the 6-month progression-free survival rate was 40%.Although the disease control rate with chemotherapy was low (25%), survival data in our study are far superior to those previously published. This could be linked to a high proportion of patients treated with anti-PD1 just prior to chemotherapy, which may suggest a potential synergy between immunotherapy and chemotherapy.
Project description:Background:Bevacizumab is a recombinant humanised monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor shown to improve survival in advanced solid cancers. We evaluated the role of adjuvant bevacizumab in melanoma patients at high risk of recurrence. Patients and methods:Patients with resected AJCC stage IIB, IIC and III cutaneous melanoma were randomised to receive either adjuvant bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg i.v. 3 weekly for 1 year) or standard observation. The primary end point was detection of an 8% difference in 5-year overall survival (OS) rate; secondary end points included disease-free interval (DFI) and distant metastasis-free interval (DMFI). Tumour and blood were analysed for prognostic and predictive markers. Results:Patients (n=1343) recruited between 2007 and 2012 were predominantly stage III (73%), with median age 56 years (range 18-88 years). With 6.4-year median follow-up, 515 (38%) patients had died [254 (38%) bevacizumab; 261 (39%) observation]; 707 (53%) patients had disease recurrence [336 (50%) bevacizumab, 371 (55%) observation]. OS at 5 years was 64% for both groups [hazard ratio (HR) 0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82-1.16, P = 0.78). At 5 years, 51% were disease free on bevacizumab versus 45% on observation (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.74-0.99, P = 0.03), 58% were distant metastasis free on bevacizumab versus 54% on observation (HR 0.91; 95% CI 0.78-1.07, P = 0.25). Forty four percent of 682 melanomas assessed had a BRAFV600 mutation. In the observation arm, BRAF mutant patients had a trend towards poorer OS compared with BRAF wild-type patients (P = 0.06). BRAF mutation positivity trended towards better OS with bevacizumab (P = 0.21). Conclusions:Adjuvant bevacizumab after resection of high-risk melanoma improves DFI, but not OS. BRAF mutation status may predict for poorer OS untreated and potential benefit from bevacizumab. Clinical Trial Information:ISRCTN 81261306; EudraCT Number: 2006-005505-64.