Contribution of Hepatitis B Virus Infection to the Aggressiveness of Primary Liver Cancer: A Clinical Epidemiological Study in Eastern China.
ABSTRACT: Background and aims: The contribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection to the aggressiveness of primary liver cancer (PLC) remains controversial. We aimed to characterize this in eastern China. Methods: We enrolled 8,515 PLC patients whose specimens were reserved at the BioBank of the hepatobiliary hospital (Shanghai, China) during 2007-2016. Of those, 3,124 who received primary radical resection were involved in survival analysis. A nomogram was constructed to predict the survivals using preoperative parameters. Results: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), and combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma (CHC) accounted for 94.6, 3.7, and 1.7%, respectively. The rates of HBV infection were 87.5, 49.2, and 80.6%, respectively. HBV infection was significantly associated with 10-year earlier onset, more cirrhosis, higher ?-fetoprotein, higher carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), more microvascular invasion (MVI), lower neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and lower platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in HCC. HBV infection was also associated with 7-year earlier onset, more cirrhosis, higher ?-fetoprotein, more MVI, and lower PLR in ICC. In the multivariate Cox analysis, high circulating HBV DNA, ?-fetoprotein, CA19-9, NLR, tumor size, number, encapsulation, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage, and MVI predicted an unfavorable prognosis in HCC; only CA19-9 and BCLC stage, rather than HBV-related parameters, had prognostic values in ICC. A nomogram constructed with preoperative HBV-related parameters including HBV load, ultrasonic cirrhosis, and ?-fetoprotein perform better than the current staging systems in predicting postoperative survival in HCC. Conclusion: HBV promotes the aggressiveness of HCC in Chinese population. The contributions of HBV to ICC and other etiological factors to HCC might be indirect via arousing non-resolving inflammation.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage C (BCLC C) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) includes a heterogeneous population for which sorafeninb is one of the recommended therapies. We aim to evaluate the real world clinical treatment and survival of BCLC stage C patients in an Asian cohort. METHODS:This is a retrospective cohort study that enrolled 427 consecutive BCLC stage C patients diagnosed between 2011 and 2017 by using the HCC registry data for our hospital. All patients were managed via a multidisciplinary team (MDT) approach. RESULTS:Hepatitis B surface antigen positive was noted in 50.6% of the patients. The patients were classified as performance status (PS)1 alone (n = 83; 19.4%), PS2 alone (n = 23; 5.4%), or macrovascular invasion (MVI) or extrahepatic spread (EHS) (n = 321; 75.2%). The median overall survival (OS) was 11.0 months in the whole cohort. The most frequent treatments were transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) in the PS1 (45.8%) and PS2 patients (52.2%) and sorafenib (32.4%) in the MVI or EHS patients. The independent prognostic factors were the PS, Child-Pugh class, MVI or EHS, alpha fetoprotein levels, and treatment type. CONCLUSIONS:We reported the real world management in BCLC stage C patients in an Asian cohort through the use of personalized management via a MDT approach.
Project description:Background:Numerous studies have shown that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) without microvascular invasion (MVI) may have better outcomes. This study established a preoperative MVI risk nomogram mainly incorporating three related risk factors of MVI in BCLC 0/A HCC after surgery. Methods:Independent predictors for the risk of MVI were investigated, and an MVI risk nomogram was established based on 60 patients in the training group who underwent curative hepatectomy for BCLC 0/A HCC and validated using a dataset in the validation group. Results:Univariate analysis in the training group showed that hepatitis viral B (HBV) DNA (P=0.034), tumor size (P<0.001), CT value in the venous phase (P=0.039), CT value in the delayed phase (P=0.017), peritumoral enhancement (P=0.013), visible small blood vessels in the arterial phase (P=0.002), and distance from the tumor to the inferior vena cava (IVC) (DTI, P=0.004) were risk factors significantly associated with the presence of MVI. According to multivariate analysis, the independent predictive factors of MVI, including tumor size (P=0.002), CT value in the delayed phase (P=0.018), and peritumoral enhancement (P=0.057), were incorporated in the corresponding nomogram. The nomogram displayed an unadjusted C-index of 0.851 and a bootstrap-corrected C-index of 0.832. Calibration curves also showed good agreement on the presence of MVI. ROC curve analyses showed that the nomogram had a large AUC (0.851). Conclusions:The proposed nomogram consisting of tumor size, CT value in the delayed phase, and peritumoral enhancement was associated with MVI risk in BCLC 0/A HCC following curative hepatectomy.
Project description:<b>Background and Aims</b>: Although previous studies suggested that female patients who underwent curative resection in early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) had better survival rates than male patients, it is unclear whether females in different HCC stages actually have survival advantage. This study aimed to investigate whether gender differences in the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification system contributed to different survival outcomes in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC. <b>Methods</b>: A retrospective analysis was performed of 1,753 patients diagnosed with HBV-related HCC between January 2008 and June 2017 at the Beijing Ditan hospital. The BCLC stages were classified into BCLC stage 0-B and BCLC stage C-D groups. Factors determining overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed via univariate and multivariate analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards regression models. <b>Results</b>: The cohort consisted of 1,202 BCLC stage 0-B and 551 BCLC stage C-D HBV-related HCC patients. Gender was identified to be an independent risk factor for OS (HR = 0.617; 95% CI, 0.426-0.895; <i>p</i> = 0.011) and PFS (HR = 0.728; 95% CI, 0.558-0.950; <i>p</i> = 0.019) in BCLC stage 0-B HBV-related HCC patients. With respect to OS and PFS, there were significant differences between female and male patients only in BCLC stage 0-B, but not in BCLC stage C-D. The OS and PFS in BCLC stage 0-B for female patients was significantly greater than that for male patients (<i>p</i> = 0.0103, <i>p</i> = 0.0112). Tumor multiplicity and size were independent risk factors for female patients in BCLC stage 0-B, whereas tumor multiplicity, tumor size, HBV-DNA, hemoglobin, total bilirubin, and alpha-fetoprotein levels were independent risk factors for male patients in BCLC stage 0-B. <b>Conclusions</b>: Different outcomes in OS or PFS with respect to gender only exist in BCLC stage 0-B HBV-related HCC patients. Female patients have a better outcome than male patients in BCLC stage 0-B.
Project description:Aim: The study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of preoperative alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (A-G score) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Methods: A total of 474 solitary HCC patients were included. Survival analysis was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were analyzed in a multivariate model. The comparison of the predictive value of AFP, GGT, and A-G score was performed by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis and decision curve analysis (DCA). Results: Of the 474 patients, 137(28.9%), 241(50.8%), and 96(20.3%) patients were assigned to A-G score 0, 1, and 2, respectively. In multivariate analysis, A-G score, tumor size, microvascular invasion, tumor differentiation, satellite lesion, and state of HBV infection were independently predictive factors for RFS of solitary HCC patients. The A-G score could significantly stratify solitary HCC patients with a distinguished prognosis. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year RFS and OS among patients with A-G score 1 was better than that of patients with A-G score 2 and worse than that of patients with A-G score 0(all p < 0.05). Based on the result from the ROC analysis and DCA analysis, the A-G score appeared to be superior to either AFP or GGT alone in the prediction of prognosis of solitary HCC patients. In the subgroup analysis, the A-G score could accurately predict the prognosis of solitary HCC patients without MVI or with liver cirrhosis. Conclusions: Preoperative A-G score could effectively and simply predict prognosis of solitary HCC patients after hepatectomy, especially for those with non-MVI solitary HCC or those with liver cirrhosis.
Project description:We aimed to develop and validate a radiomics nomogram for preoperative prediction of microvascular invasion (MVI) in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).A total of 304 eligible patients with HCC were randomly divided into training (n=184) and independent validation (n=120) cohorts. Portal venous and arterial phase computed tomography data of the HCCs were collected to extract radiomic features. Using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator algorithm, the training set was processed to reduce data dimensions, feature selection, and construction of a radiomics signature. Then, a prediction model including the radiomics signature, radiologic features, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level, as presented in a radiomics nomogram, was developed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The radiomics nomogram was analyzed based on its discrimination ability, calibration, and clinical usefulness. Internal cohort data were validated using the radiomics nomogram.The radiomics signature was significantly associated with MVI status (P < 0.001, both cohorts). Predictors, including the radiomics signature, nonsmooth tumor margin, hypoattenuating halos, internal arteries, and alpha-fetoprotein level were reserved in the individualized prediction nomogram. The model exhibited good calibration and discrimination in the training and validation cohorts (C-index [95% confidence interval]: 0.846 [0.787-0.905] and 0.844 [0.774-0.915], respectively). Its clinical usefulness was confirmed using a decision curve analysis.The radiomics nomogram, as a noninvasive preoperative prediction method, shows a favorable predictive accuracy for MVI status in patients with HBV-related HCC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. With a predicted 2.4-fold rise in liver cancer incidence by 2020, there is an urgent need for early, inexpensive diagnostic biomarkers to deploy in the clinic. METHODS:We employed ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC/MS-MS) for the quantitation of four metabolites, creatine riboside (CR), N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA), cortisol sulfate, and a lipid molecule designated as 561+, in urine samples from the NCI-MD cohort comprising 98 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases, 101 high-risk subjects, and 95 controls. Validation was carried out in the TIGER-LC cohort [n = 370 HCC and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) cases, 471 high-risk subjects, 251 controls], where ICC, the second most common primary hepatic malignancy, is highly prevalent. Metabolite quantitation was also conducted in TIGER-LC tissue samples (n = 48 ICC; n = 51 HCC). RESULTS:All profiled metabolites were significantly increased in liver cancer when compared with high-risk subjects and controls in the NCI-MD study. In the TIGER-LC cohort, the four-metabolite profile was superior at classifying ICC than a clinically utilized marker, CA19-9, and their combination led to a significantly improved model (AUC = 0.88, P = 4E-8). Metabolites CR and NANA were significantly elevated in ICC when compared with HCC cases in both urine and tissue samples. High levels of CR were associated with poorer prognosis in ICC. CONCLUSIONS:Four metabolites are significantly increased in HCC and ICC and are robust at classifying ICC in combination with the clinically utilized marker CA19-9. IMPACT:Noninvasive urinary metabolite biomarkers hold promise for diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of ICC.
Project description:Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue and correlate with aggressiveness and prognosis of HCC.Using the GSE14520 microarray expression profile from Gene Expression Omnibus, we compared HSP gene expression between tumour and non-tumour tissues and correlated this with outcomes in HCC patients.We analysed 220 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC patients and 25 HSPs in this study. With the exception of HSPA4L, HSPA12A and HSPB8, members of the HSP family, including HSPH1, HSPBP1, HSPA1A, HSPA1B, HSPA1L, HSPA2, HSPA4, HSPA5, HSPA8, HSPA9, HSPAA1, HSPAB1, HSPA14, HSPB11, HSPA13, HSP90B1 and HSPBAP1, were all overexpressed in tumour tissues (all P < 0.001). In contrast, HSPB6, HSPB7, HSPA6, HSPB2 and HSPB3 were upregulated in non-tumour tissues (all P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that cirrhosis (HR = 5.282, 95% CI = 1.294-21.555, P = 0.02), Barcelona Clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging (HR = 2.151, 95% CI = 1.682-2.750, P < 0.001), HSPA12A (HR = 1.042, 95% CI = 1.003-1.082, P = 0.033) and HSP90B1 (HR = 1.001, 95% CI = 1.000-1.001, P = 0.011) were negatively associated with survival of HBV-related HCC patients. Furthermore, advanced BCLC staging (HR = 1.797, 95% CI = 1.439-2.244, P < 0.001) was also associated with earlier recurrence of HCC. The high expression of HSPA4 (HR = 1.002, 95% CI = 1.000-1.004, P = 0.019), HSPA5 (HR = 1.0, 95% CI = 1.0-1.0, P = 0.046) and HSPA6 (HR = 1.008, 95% CI = 1.001-1.015, P = 0.021) was similarly associated with HCC recurrence.The expression of most HSPs was higher in tumour tissues than in non-tumour tissues. High BCLC staging scores, advanced cirrhosis and the overexpression of HSPA12A and HSP90B1 might be associated with poor survival from HCC, whereas high levels of HSPA4, HSPA5 and HSPA6 might be associated with earlier recurrence of HCC.
Project description:This study aimed to assess the features of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) at computerized tomography (CT) and verify the risk of misdiagnosis of ICC as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhosis. CT appearances of 98 histologically confirmed ICC nodules from 84 cirrhotic patients were retrospectively reviewed, taking into consideration the pattern and dynamic contrast uptake during the arterial, portal venous and delayed phases. During the arterial phase, 53 nodules (54.1%) showed peripheral rim-like enhancement, 35 (35.7%) hyperenhancement, 9 (9.2%) hypoenhancement and 1 (1.0%) isoenhancement. The ICC nodules showed heterogeneous dynamic contrast patterns, being progressive enhancement in 35 nodules (35.7%), stable enhancement in 28 nodules (28.6%), wash-in and wash-out pattern in 15 nodules (15.3%) and all other enhancement patterns in 20 nodules (20.4%). There were no significant differences in the dynamic vascular patterns of ICC according to nodule size (p > 0.05). ICC in cirrhosis has varied enhancement patterns at contrast-enhanced multiphase multidetector CT. Though the majority of ICC did not display typical radiological hallmarks of HCC, if dynamic CT scan was used as the sole modality for the non-invasive diagnosis of nodules in cirrhosis, the risk of misdiagnosis of ICC for HCC is not negligible.
Project description:Background/Aims:Antiviral therapy (AVT) reduces the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). This multicenter retrospective study investigated the effects of AVT and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related factors on the risk of HCC development in a cohort with heterogeneous HBV status. Methods:A total of 1,843 patients with CHB from two institutions were included in this study. Ultrasound and laboratory tests, including the ?-fetoprotein test, were conducted regularly to detect HCC development. Results:The mean age of our study population (1,063 men and 780 women) was 49.4 years. Cirrhosis was identified in 617 patients (33.5%). During follow-up (median, 42.5 months), 81 patients developed HCC (1.39% per person-year). A total of 645 patients (35.0%) received ongoing AVT at enrollment. Ongoing AVT was not significantly associated with the risk of HCC development (all p>0.05). HBV-related variables (HBV DNA level, hepatitis B e antigen status, and alanine aminotransferase level) were also not significantly associated with the risk of HCC development (all p>0.05). In contrast, cirrhosis was significantly associated with the risk of HCC development, regardless of adjustment (adjusted hazard ratio=4.098 to 7.020; all p<0.05). Cirrhosis significantly predicted the risk of HCC development in subgroups with and without ongoing AVT at enrollment, regardless of adjustment. Conclusions:Our study showed that cirrhosis, not AVT and HBV-related variables, was associated with HCC development in a cohort of patients with heterogeneous HBV status. Our results may help clinicians apply individualized surveillance strategies according to fibrotic status in patients with CHB.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), routinely used for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is limited with relatively low sensitivity and high false positivity in HBV-related HCC (HBV-HCC). Thus, an alternative approach was explored to improve specificity/sensitivity for diagnosis of HBV-HCC, using the combination of AFP, inflammatory score, and liver function. METHODS:Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) (n = 510) and HBV-HCC (n = 473) patients were identified retrospectively for this study. The diagnostic value of single vs combined biomarkers for HBV-HCC was analyzed, using ROC curve. RESULTS:It was observed that elderliness, male sex, cirrhosis, HBeAg+ or no-antiviral therapy, and elevation of ALT, AST, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and AFP were associated with developing HBV-HCC. However, the cut-off ALT defined by Chinese standard, but not by AASLD, was a risk factor. Interestingly, AFP of HBeAg- HBV-HCC patients without cirrhosis was significantly higher than that of the HBeAg+ patients. AUC values for AFP, ALT, AST, or NLR were 0.84 (95% CI: 0.815-0.862), 0.533 (95% CI: 0.501-0.565), 0.696 (95% CI: 0.666-0.725), or 0.684 (95% CI: 0.654-0.713) with optimal cut-off at 7.21 ng/mL, 43 IU/mL, 38 IU/mL, or 2.61, respectively. Combination of AFP with ALT, AST, and NLR improved the diagnostic performance for HBV-HCC, compared to any of the single biomarkers or any other combinations among these patients (except no-cirrhosis). CONCLUSIONS:Elderliness, male sex, elevated ALT, AST, NLR, AFP, cirrhosis, HBeAg+ , and no-antiviral treatment were independent risk factors for HBV-HCC. AASLD standard of ALT cut-off value may not be suitable for the Chinese population. Regular monitoring of HCC among HBeAg- patients with abnormal AFP may improve the management of HBV-HCC. The diagnostic performance of AFP combined with ALT, AST, and NLR for HBV-HCC was superior to single biomarker or any other combinations among these patients, and its diagnostic equation can be used as useful tool for differentiation of HBV-HCC from CHB.