Assessment of Anti-Factor Xa Levels of Patients Undergoing Colorectal Surgery Given Once-Daily Enoxaparin Prophylaxis: A Clinical Study Examining Enoxaparin Pharmacokinetics.
ABSTRACT: Importance:Between 4% and 12% of patients undergoing colorectal surgery and receiving enoxaparin, 40 mg per day, have a postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) event. An improved understanding of why "breakthrough" VTE events occur despite guideline-compliant prophylaxis is an important patient safety question. Objective:To determine the proportion of patients undergoing colorectal surgery who received adequate anticoagulation based on peak anti-factor Xa (aFXa) levels while receiving enoxaparin at 40 mg per day. Design, Setting, and Participants:This prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial was conducted between February 2017 and July 2018 with 90-day follow-up at a quaternary academic medical center in the Intermountain West and included patients undergoing colorectal surgery who had surgery after receiving general anesthesia, were admitted for at least 3 days, and received enoxaparin, 40 mg once daily. Interventions:All patients had aFXa levels measured after receiving enoxaparin 40 mg per day. Patients whose aFXa level was out of range entered the trial's interventional arm where real-time enoxaparin dose adjustment and repeated aFXa measurement were performed. Main Outcomes and Measures:Primary outcome: in-range peak aFXa levels (goal range, 0.3-0.5 IU/mL) with enoxaparin, 40 mg per day. Secondary outcomes: (1) in-range trough aFXa levels (goal range, 0.1-0.2 IU/mL) and (2) the proportion of patients with in-range peak aFXa levels from enoxaparin, 40 mg once daily, vs the real-time enoxaparin dose adjustment protocol. Results:Over 16 months, 116 patients undergoing colorectal surgery (65 women [56.0%]; 99 white individuals [85.3%], 13 Hispanic or Latino individuals [11.2%], and 4 Pacific Islander individuals [3.5%]; mean [range] age, 52.1 [18-85] years) were enrolled. Among 106 patients (91.4%) whose peak aFXa level was appropriately drawn, 72 (67.9%) received inadequate anticoagulation (aFXa?
Project description:Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can be encountered by 60% of hospitalized patients. Anticoagulants have been recommended to reduce the risk of VTE in patients with risk factors. However, no specific dosing recommendations for obese patients are provided in the current practice guidelines. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of weight-based dosing of enoxaparin for VTE prophylaxis among morbidly obese patients undergoing surgery.Adult patients were enrolled if they have a body mass index (BMI) of ≥35 kg/m2 and were scheduled for surgery. These patients were prescribed enoxaparin (0.5 mg/kg subcutaneously [SC] once daily). Peak anti-factor Xa levels were measured 4 h after the third dose of enoxaparin. The primary outcome measure was to determine whether a weight-based dosing of enoxaparin of 0.5 mg/kg produce the anticipated peak anti-Xa levels (0.2-0.6 IU/m) among obese patients undergoing surgery. Secondary outcomes include the incidence of VTE, the incidence of minor or major bleeding, and the incidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT).Fifty patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 53 ± 16 years, 74% of the patients were female. The mean BMI was 40.5 ± 5, and the average enoxaparin dose was 50 ± 9.8 SC daily. Nearly 88% of the patients reached the target anti-factor Xa (0.427 ± 0.17). None of the patients developed HIT or VTE. There was no incidence of major or minor bleeding.Weight-based enoxaparin dose led to the anticipated peak anti-Xa levels (0.2-0.6 IU/mL) in most of the morbidly obese study patients undergoing surgery without any evidence of major side effects. The weight-based dosing of enoxaparin was also effective in preventing VTE in all patients. Although these results are promising, further comparative trials are needed in the setting of morbidly obese surgical patients.
Project description:Several biosimilar versions of enoxaparin are already approved and in use globally. Analytical characterization can establish good quality control in manufacturing, but they may not assure similarity in clinical outcomes between biosimilar and branded enoxaparin. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of biosimilar Cristália versus branded Sanofi enoxaparin in venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery at risk for VTE. In this randomized, prospective single-blind study, we compared Cristália enoxaparin (Ce), a biosimilar version, versus branded Sanofi enoxaparin (Se; at a dose of 40 mg subcutaneously per day postoperatively from 7 to 10 days) in 243 patients submitted to major abdominal surgery at risk for VTE for VTE prevention. The primary efficacy outcome was occurrence of VTE or death related to VTE. The principal safety outcomes were a combination of major bleeding and clinically relevant non-major bleeding. Bilateral duplex scanning of the legs was performed from days 10 to 14, and follow-ups were performed up to 60 days after surgery. The incidence of VTE was 4.9% in the Cristália group and 1.1% in the Sanofi group (absolute risk difference = 3.80%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.4%-9.0%) yielding noninferiority since the 95% CI does not reach the prespecified value Δ = 20%. Clinically significant bleeding occurred in 9.9% in the Cristália group and in 5.5% in the Sanofi group (n.s. ). In conclusion, this study suggests that 40 mg once daily of Ce, a biosimilar enoxaparin, is as effective and safe as the branded Sanofi enoxaparin in the prophylaxis of VTE in patients submitted to major abdominal surgery at risk for VTE.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Thromboprophylaxis dosing strategies using enoxaparin in elderly patients with renal disease are limited, while dose adjustments or monitoring of anti-Xa levels are recommended. We sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of enoxaparin 20?mg versus 30?mg subcutaneously daily by comparing anti-Xa levels, thrombosis and bleeding. METHODS:We conducted a prospective, single-blinded, single-center randomized clinical trial including non-surgical patients, 70?years of age or older, with renal disease requiring thromboprophylaxis. Patients were randomized to receive either 20?mg or 30?mg of enoxaparin. The primary endpoint was peak anti-Xa levels on day 3. Secondary endpoints included trough anti-Xa levels on day 3, achievement of within range prophylactic target peak anti-Xa levels and the occurrence of hemorrhage, thrombosis, thrombocytopenia or hyperkalemia during hospitalization. RESULTS:Thirty-two patients were recruited and sixteen patients were randomized to each arm. Mean peak anti-Xa level was significantly higher in 30?mg arm (n?=?13) compared to the 20?mg arm (n?=?11) 0.26?±?0.11, 95%CI (0.18-0.34), versus 0.14?±?0.09, 95CI (0.08-0.19) UI/ml, respectively; p?=?0.004. Mean trough anti-Xa level was higher in 30?mg arm (n?=?10) compared to the 20?mg arm (n?=?16), 0.06?±?0.03, 95CI (0.04-0.08) versus 0.03?±?0.03, 95CI (0.01-0.05) UI/ml, respectively; p?=?0.044. Bleeding events reported in the 30?mg arm were one retroperitoneal bleed requiring multiple transfusions, and in the 20?mg arm one hematuria. No thrombotic events were reported. CONCLUSION:Peak anti-Xa levels provided by enoxaparin 20?mg were lower than the desired range for thromboprophylaxis in comparison to enoxaparin 30?mg. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The trial was retrospectively registered on ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03158792 . Registered: May 18, 2017.
Project description:Importance:Current guidelines recommend a 28-day course of enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after surgery for gynecologic cancer. The high cost of this medication and the low adherence rates observed in prior studies provide an opportunity to benefit patients by demonstrating the safety of a more cost-effective, easier to use thromboprophylactic. Objective:To investigate the safety and efficacy of an oral treatment alternative for thromboprophylaxis in postoperative patients with gynecologic cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants:This was a patient-based, multicenter, open-label, blinded, end point, randomized clinical trial conducted May 2015 to March 2019 in outpatient and inpatient gynecologic oncology settings. Women undergoing surgery for suspected or confirmed gynecologic cancer were approached for recruitment. The trial compared rates of major bleeding and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events during a 90-day follow-up period in patients taking apixaban or enoxaparin for postoperative thromboprophylaxis using a modified intent-to-treat analysis. Data analysis was performed from October to December 2019. Interventions:Women were randomized to 28 days of apixaban (2.5 mg orally twice daily) or enoxaparin (40 mg subcutaneously daily). Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was major bleeding and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events. Secondary outcomes included incidence of venous thromboembolic events, adverse events, medication adherence, participant quality of life, and medication satisfaction. Results:Of 500 women recruited for the study, 400 were enrolled and randomized (median age, 58.0 years; range, 18.0-89.0 years); 204 received apixaban and 196 received enoxaparin. Treatment groups did not differ in terms of race/ethnicity, cancer stage, or surgery modality (open vs robotic). There were no statistically significant differences between the apixaban and enoxaparin groups in terms of rates of major bleeding events (1 patient [0.5%] vs 1 patient [0.5%]; odds ratio [OR],?1.04; 95% CI, 0.07-16.76; P?>?.99), clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events (12 patients [5.4%] vs 19 patients [9.7%]; OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.87-4.1; P?=?.11), venous thromboembolic events (2 patients [1.0%] vs 3 patients [1.5%]; OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 0.26-9.50; P?=?.68), adverse events, medication adherence, or quality of life between the groups. Participant satisfaction was significantly greater in the apixaban group with regard to ease of taking the medication (186 patients [98.9%] vs 110 patients [58.8%]; OR, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.01-0.25; P?<?.001) and pain associated with taking the medication (4 patients [2.1%] vs 92 patients [49.2%]; OR, 9.20; 95% CI, 2.67-31.82; P?<?.001). Conclusions and Relevance:These findings suggest that oral apixaban is a potentially safe, less painful, and easier-to-take alternative to subcutaneous enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after surgery for gynecologic cancer. The efficacy of apixaban to prevent venous thromboembolic events is hypothesized as being equivalent. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02366871.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of switching therapy from low molecular weight heparin (LMWH; enoxaparin) to dabigatran for prevention of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) in patients undergoing elective total hip or knee replacement surgery (THR/TKR). METHODS:This was a prospective, multicenter, open-label, single-arm, observational, study in patients undergoing THR or TKR who were to receive enoxaparin 40 mg for thromboprophylaxis. Enoxaparin was initiated before or after surgery according to local practice, and was switched to dabigatran 220 mg once daily at a time point chosen by the investigator. The coprimary endpoints were major bleeding events, and the composite of symptomatic VTE and all-cause mortality, from last use of enoxaparin to 24 h after last intake of dabigatran. RESULTS:Altogether, 168 (81 THR, 87 TKR) patients were enrolled, of whom 161 received both enoxaparin and dabigatran, 2 received dabigatran only and 5 received enoxaparin only. The median time of the first dabigatran tablet was 24.0 h after the last LMWH dosage and the median number of days on dabigatran treatment was 36 days. No symptomatic VTE or death occurred during the study. One major bleeding event was seen at the surgical site and required treatment cessation. Three minor bleeding events were observed. CONCLUSIONS:In the normal clinical setting, switching from LMWH to dabigatran in patients who had undergone THR and TKR was safe and effective in preventing VTE. The reported adverse events and serious adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile for dabigatran. Switching from a subcutaneous to an oral anticoagulant may offer greater convenience in the outpatient setting after discharge. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01153698.
Project description:Experimental data indicate that reducing factor XI levels attenuates thrombosis without causing bleeding, but the role of factor XI in the prevention of postoperative venous thrombosis in humans is unknown. FXI-ASO (ISIS 416858) is a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide that specifically reduces factor XI levels. We compared the efficacy and safety of FXI-ASO with those of enoxaparin in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.In this open-label, parallel-group study, we randomly assigned 300 patients who were undergoing elective primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty to receive one of two doses of FXI-ASO (200 mg or 300 mg) or 40 mg of enoxaparin once daily. The primary efficacy outcome was the incidence of venous thromboembolism (assessed by mandatory bilateral venography or report of symptomatic events). The principal safety outcome was major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding.Around the time of surgery, the mean (±SE) factor XI levels were 0.38±0.01 units per milliliter in the 200-mg FXI-ASO group, 0.20±0.01 units per milliliter in the 300-mg FXI-ASO group, and 0.93±0.02 units per milliliter in the enoxaparin group. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 36 of 134 patients (27%) who received the 200-mg dose of FXI-ASO and in 3 of 71 patients (4%) who received the 300-mg dose of FXI-ASO, as compared with 21 of 69 patients (30%) who received enoxaparin. The 200-mg regimen was noninferior, and the 300-mg regimen was superior, to enoxaparin (P<0.001). Bleeding occurred in 3%, 3%, and 8% of the patients in the three study groups, respectively.This study showed that factor XI contributes to postoperative venous thromboembolism; reducing factor XI levels in patients undergoing elective primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty was an effective method for its prevention and appeared to be safe with respect to the risk of bleeding. (Funded by Isis Pharmaceuticals; FXI-ASO TKA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01713361.).
Project description:Venous thromboembolism is an important patient safety in plastic surgery, and multiple clinical trials in the past 10 years have provided increased understanding of the risks and benefits of venous thromboembolism prevention strategies. This paper provides an exhaustive discussion of the rationale behind and methodology for an in progress randomized double-blind clinical trial in plastic surgery inpatients, in which the 2 study arms are enoxaparin 40?mg twice daily and enoxaparin 0.5?mg/kg twice daily. The trial's primary aims are to: (1) demonstrate whether enoxaparin 0.5?mg/kg twice daily is superior to enoxaparin 40?mg twice daily for the pharmacokinetic endpoint of overanticoagulation (anti-Factor Xa > 0.4 IU/mL) and (2) demonstrate whether enoxaparin 0.5?mg/kg twice daily is not inferior to enoxaparin 40?mg twice daily for the pharmacokinetic endpoint of underanticoagulation (anti-Factor Xa < 0.2 IU/mL). The results of this trial will provide Level I evidence to help guide plastic surgeon's choice of postoperative prophylactic anticoagulation.
Project description:Extended venous thromboembolism prophylaxis (EVTEP) with low-molecular weight heparin such as enoxaparin for 28 days following surgery for cancer significantly reduces venous thromboembolic events compared to a standard 6-10 day course. National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines suggest EVTEP should be offered to patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. Local EVTEP prescribing and monitoring guidelines in a busy inner city teaching hospital colorectal surgery unit, were devised to ensure NICE guidelines are followed. Adherence to local EVTEP guidelines was recorded through a retrospective audit of patients undergoing elective colorectal cancer surgery during February 2011 (n=19). Prospective re-audit cycles were undertaken during April-May (n=17) and September-December 2012 (n=17). The first audit cycle revealed that overall standards were not being met with just 11% of 'at risk' patients being correctly identified in pre-operative assessment clinic and continued low adherence to guidelines on the ward with only 44% of patients being prescribed EVTEP at discharge. Following each audit cycle, educational interventions were directed towards the multi-disciplinary team involved in the care of patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. This involved education of the team members regarding EVTEP, presentation of the audit results with instruction for improvement. Results of the second and third audit cycles showed improvements in guideline adherence with 100% of patients in these cohorts having been prescribed EVTEP at discharge. Marked improvements were also seen in the correct identification of 'at risk' patients, patient education in pre-operative assessment clinic, and warning of potential side-effects. This project has shown a significant global improvement in EVTEP-related patient care and adherence to local guidelines following education of the multi-disciplinary team involved, which consequently reduced the risk of venous thromboembolism within this patient cohort.
Project description:Advanced pancreatic cancer (APC), beside its high mortality, causes the highest rates of venous thromboembolic events (VTE). Enoxaparin, a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), is effective in prevention and treatment of VTE. Some small studies indicated that this benefit might extend to patients with cancer and probably prolong survival due to independent mechanisms. We initiated this safety investigation to get feasibility information on intensified chemotherapy combined with LMWH in outpatients with APC treated in 1st line.The trial was a prospective, open-label, single center investigation in outpatients with inoperable pancreatic cancer who were treated with intensified first-line chemotherapy along with concomitant application of subcutaneous LMWH. The combined chemotherapy consisted of gemcitabine 1 g/m2 (30 min), 5-FU 750 mg/m2 (24 h), folinic acid 200 mg/m2 (30 min), and Cisplatin 30 mg/m2 (90 min) on day 1 and 8; q3w for the first 12 weeks (GFFC) followed by gemcitabine alone in patients without cancer progression. The simultaneous application of prophylactic enoxaparin started on day 1 of chemotherapy with a fixed dose of 40 mg daily. Statistical analyses were performed using R 3.01 with software package CMPRSK and SPSS software v19.0.The investigation was stopped after recruitment of 19 patients. At this time 15 patients had completed the required 12 weeks of treatment. Based on 71 cycles of GFFC?+ enoxaparin (median 4/pt [range: 2-4]) and 108 cycles of single-agent gemcitabine + enoxaparin (median 4/pt [range: 0-18]) the cumulative frequency of NCI-CTC toxicities grade 3/4 was below 10%. One case (5%) of a symptomatic non-lethal thromboembolic event was observed while receiving LMWH treatment. No severe bleeding event as defined in the protocol has been observed. The median overall survival was 10.05 [95% CI: 8.67-18.14] months.The addition of enoxaparin to GFFC chemotherapy is feasible, safe and does not appear to affect the efficacy or the toxicity profile of the chemotherapy regimen in patients with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Based on these findings we have initiated the randomized CONKO-004 trial to examine whether enoxaparin reduces the incidence of thromboembolic events or increases overall outcome.Clinical Trials NCT01945879.
Project description:We carried out a dose-response model-based meta-analysis to assess venous thromboembolism (VTE) and bleeding with factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors (apixaban, edoxaban, rivaroxaban) and a thrombin inhibitor (dabigatran) compared with European (EU) (40 mg q.d.) and North American (NA) (30 mg Q12H) dose regimens of a low molecular weight heparin (enoxaparin) following orthopedic surgery. Statistically significant differences in both VTE and bleeding outcomes were found between the NA and EU doses of enoxaparin, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for the NA vs. EU dose of 0.73 (0.71-0.76) and 1.20 (1.14-1.29) for total VTE and major bleeding, respectively. At approved doses, estimated odds ratios vs. both doses of enoxaparin for the three FXa inhibitors (range: 0.35-0.75 for VTE; 0.76-1.09 for bleeding) compared with those for dabigatran (range: 0.66-1.21 for VTE; 1.10-1.38 for bleeding) suggested generally greater efficacy and less bleeding for the FXa inhibitors.