Antibacterial activity of lysozyme-chitosan oligosaccharide conjugates (LYZOX) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
ABSTRACT: The recent emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria requires the development of new antibiotics or new agents capable of enhancing antibiotic activity. This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of lysozyme-chitosan oligosaccharide conjugates (LYZOX) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which should resolve the problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Bactericidal tests showed that LYZOX killed 50% more P. aeruginosa (NBRC 13275), A. baumannii and MRSA than the control treatment after 60 min. In addition, LYZOX was shown to inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa (NBRC 13275 and PAO1), A. baumannii and MRSA better than its components. To elucidate the antibacterial mechanism of LYZOX, we performed cell membrane integrity assays, N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine assays, 2-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside assays and confocal laser scanning microscopy. These results showed that LYZOX affected bacterial cell walls and increased the permeability of the outer membrane and the plasma membrane. Furthermore, each type of bacteria treated with LYZOX was observed by electron microscopy. Electron micrographs revealed that these bacteria had the morphological features of both lysozyme-treated and chitosan oligosaccharide-treated bacteria and that LYZOX destroyed bacterial cell walls, which caused the release of intracellular contents from cells. An acquired drug resistance test revealed that these bacteria were not able to acquire resistance to LYZOX. The hemolytic toxicity test demonstrated the low hemolytic activity of LYZOX. In conclusion, LYZOX exhibited antibacterial activity and low drug resistance in the presence of P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii and MRSA and showed low hemolytic toxicity. LYZOX affected bacterial membranes, leading to membrane disruption and the release of intracellular contents and consequent bacterial cell death. LYZOX may serve as a novel candidate drug that could be used for the control of refractory infections.
Project description:The emergence and dissemination of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens necessitate research to find new antimicrobials against these organisms. We investigated antimicrobial production by eastern subterranean termites, Reticulitermes flavipes, against a panel of bacteria including three multidrug resistant (MDR) and four non-MDR human pathogens. We determined that the crude extract of naïve termites had a broad-spectrum activity against the non-MDR bacteria but it was ineffective against the three MDR pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Acinetobacter baumannii. Heat or trypsin treatment resulted in a complete loss of activity suggesting that antibacterial activity was proteinaceous in nature. The antimicrobial activity changed dramatically when the termites were fed with either heat-killed P. aeruginosa or MRSA. Heat-killed P. aeruginosa induced activity against P. aeruginosa and MRSA while maintaining or slightly increasing activity against non-MDR bacteria. Heat-killed MRSA induced activity specifically against MRSA, altered the activity against two other Gram-positive bacteria, and inhibited activity against three Gram-negative bacteria. Neither the naïve termites nor the termites challenged with heat-killed pathogens produced antibacterial activity against A. baumannii. Further investigation demonstrated that hemolymph, not the hindgut, was the primary source of antibiotic activity. This suggests that the termite produces these antibacterial activities and not the hindgut microbiota. Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analyses of 493 hemolymph protein spots indicated that a total of 38 and 65 proteins were differentially expressed at least 2.5-fold upon being fed with P. aeruginosa and MRSA, respectively. Our results provide the first evidence of constitutive and inducible activities produced by R. flavipes against human bacterial pathogens.
Project description:This study investigated the potential antibacterial activity of three series of compounds synthesized from 12 linear and branched polyamines with 2-8 amino groups, which were substituted to produce the corresponding guanides, biguanides, or phenylguanides, against Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial activity was measured for each compound by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration against the bacteria, and the toxicity towards mammalian cells was determined. The most effective compound, THAM trisphenylguanide, was studied in time-to-kill and cytoplasmic leakage assays against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, USA300) in comparison to chlorhexidine. Preliminary toxicity and MRSA challenge studies in mice were also conducted on this compound. THAM trisphenylguanide showed significant antibacterial activity (MIC ?1 mg/L) and selectivity against MRSA relative to all the other bacteria examined. In time-to-kill assays it showed increased antimicrobial activity against MRSA versus chlorhexidine. It induced leakage of cytoplasmic content at concentrations that did not reduce cell viability, suggesting the mechanism of action may involve membrane disruption. Using an intraperitoneal mouse model of invasive MRSA disease, THAM trisphenylguanide reduced bacterial burden locally and in deeper tissues. This study has identified a novel guanide compound with selective microbicidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, including a methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strain.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been responsible for serious hospital infections worldwide. Nanomaterials are an alternative to conventional antibiotic compounds, because bacteria are unlikely to develop microbial resistance against nanomaterials. In the past decade, graphene oxide (GO) has emerged as a material that is often used to support and stabilize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for the preparation of novel antibacterial nanocomposites. In this work, we report the synthesis of the graphene-oxide silver nanocomposite (GO-Ag) and its antibacterial activity against relevant microorganisms in medicine.GO-Ag nanocomposite was synthesized through the reduction of silver ions (Ag(+)) by sodium citrate in an aqueous GO dispersion, and was extensively characterized using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by microdilution assays and time-kill experiments. The morphology of bacterial cells treated with GO-Ag was investigated via transmission electron microscopy.AgNPs were well distributed throughout GO sheets, with an average size of 9.4±2.8 nm. The GO-Ag nanocomposite exhibited an excellent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, and Escherichia coli. All (100%) MRSA cells were inactivated after 4 hours of exposure to GO-Ag sheets. In addition, no toxicity was found for either pristine GO or bare AgNPs within the tested concentration range. Transmission electronic microscopy images offered insights into how GO-Ag nanosheets interacted with bacterial cells.Our results indicate that the GO-Ag nanocomposite is a promising antibacterial agent against common nosocomial bacteria, particularly antibiotic-resistant MRSA. Morphological injuries on MRSA cells revealed a likely loss of viability as a result of the direct contact between bacteria and the GO-Ag sheets.
Project description:Pedobacter cryoconitis strain UP508 was isolated from a soil sample using a mixture of ampicillin, kanamycin, and nalidixic acid for selection. UP508 was found to produce >30 unknown antibacterial peptides, of which eight, isopedopeptins A-H (1-8), were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation and characterized with respect to structures and biological properties. Compounds 1-8 were all composed of nine amino acid residues and one 3-hydroxy fatty acid residue, and the structures were ring-closed via an ester bond from the C-terminal aspartic acid to the 3-hydroxy fatty acid. The differences between the peptides were the size and branching of the 3-hydroxy fatty acid and the presence of a valine or a 3-hydroxyvaline residue. The isopedopeptins mainly had activity against Gram-negative bacteria, and isopedopeptin B (2), which had the best combination of antibacterial activity, in vitro cytotoxicity, and hemolytic properties, was selected for further studies against a larger panel of Gram-negative bacteria. Isopedopeptin B was found to have good activity against strains of WHO top-priority Gram-negative bacteria, i.e., carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) down to 1, 2, and 4 ?g/mL, respectively. Furthermore, compound 2 had activity against colistin-resistant strains of A. baumannii, E. coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, with a MIC down to 8, 2, and 4 ?g/mL, respectively. Compound 6 was tested in an E. coli liposome system where it induced significant leakage, indicating membrane disruption as one mechanism involved in isopedopeptin antibacterial activity. Isopedopeptin B stands out as a promising candidate for further studies with the goal to develop a new antibiotic drug.
Project description:The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria urges the development of new antibacterial agents. With a broad spectrum activity, antimicrobial peptides have been considered potential antibacterial drug leads. Using bioinformatic tools we have previously shown that viral structural proteins are a rich source for new bioactive peptide sequences, namely antimicrobial and cell-penetrating peptides. Here, we test the efficacy and mechanism of action of the most promising peptides among those previously identified against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Two cell-penetrating peptides, vCPP 0769 and vCPP 2319, have high antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, being thus multifunctional. The antibacterial mechanism of action of the two most active viral protein-derived peptides, vAMP 059 and vCPP 2319, was studied in detail. Both peptides act on both Gram-positive S. aureus and Gram-negative P. aeruginosa, with bacterial cell death occurring within minutes. Also, these peptides cause bacterial membrane permeabilization and damage of the bacterial envelope of P. aeruginosa cells. Overall, the results show that structural viral proteins are an abundant source for membrane-active peptides sequences with strong antibacterial properties.
Project description:The development of antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria is a central problem in drug discovery. In this report, we demonstrate that aromatic sulfonyl fluorides with a nitro group in their ortho position have remarkable antibacterial activity and are active against drug-resistant pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The increased rate of resistance among two highly concerned pathogens i.e. methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) necessitates the discovery of novel anti-MRSA and anti-VRE compounds. In microbial drug discovery, Streptomyces are well known source of two-thirds of natural antibiotics used clinically. Hence, screening of new strains of streptomycetes is the key step to get novel bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity against drug resistant bacteria. RESULTS:In the present study, Streptomyces antibioticus strain M7, possessing potent antibacterial activity against different pathogenic bacteria, was isolated from rhizospheric soil of Stevia rebudiana. 16S rRNA sequence of M7 (1418 bp) showed 96.47-100% similarity with different Streptomyces spp. and the maximum similarity (100%) was observed with Streptomyces antibioticus NBRC 12838T (AB184184). Phylogenetic analysis using neighbor joining method further validated its similarity with Streptomyces antibioticus NBRC 12838 T (AB184184) as it formed clade with the latter and showed high boot strap value (99%). Antibacterial metabolites isolated from the fermentation broth were characterized using NMR, FT-IR and LC-MS as actinomycins V, X2 and D. The purified actinomycins exhibited potent antibacterial activities against test bacteria viz. B. subtilis, K. pneumoniae sub sp. pneumoniae, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. typhi, E. coli, MRSA and VRE. Among these actinomycins, actinomycin X2 was more effective as compared to actinomycins D and V. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of purified compounds against a set of test bacterial organisms viz. VRE, MRSA, E. coli (S1-LF), K. pneumoniae sub sp. pneumoniae and B. subtilis ranged between 1.95 and 31.25 μg/ml. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates that actinomycins V, X2 and D produced by S. antibioticus strain M7 hold the potential to be used against multidrug resistant bacteria, particularly VRE and MRSA.
Project description:The emergence of antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic microorganisms has been led to an urgent need for antibiotic alternatives. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been introduced as promising therapeutic agents because of their remarkable potentials. A new modified cathelicidin-BF peptide (Cath-A) with 34 amino acid sequences, represents the potential antimicrobial effects against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with slight hemolytic and cytotoxic activities on eukaryotic cells. In this study, the effects of Cath-A on Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from medical instruments were studied. Cath-A inhibited the growth of bacterial cells in the range of 8?16 ?g/mL and 16-?256 ?g/mL for A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa, respectively. The peptide significantly removed the established biofilms. To display a representative approach for the cost-effective constructions of peptides, the recombinant Cath-A was cloned in the expression vector pET-32a(+) and transformed to Escherichia coli BL21. The peptide was expressed with a thioredoxin (Trx) sequence in optimum conditions. The recombinant peptide was purified with a Ni2+ affinity chromatography and the mature peptide was released after removing the Trx fusion protein with enterokinase. The final concentration of the partially purified peptide was 17.6 mg/L of a bacterial culture which exhibited antimicrobial activities. The current expression and purification method displayed a fast and effective system to finally produce active Cath-A for further in-vitro study usage.
Project description:The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance has created an urgent need for alternative drugs with new mechanisms of action. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates that could address the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, either alone or in combination with conventional antibiotics. We studied the antimicrobial efficacy and bactericidal mechanism of cecropin A2, a 36-residue ?-helical cationic peptide derived from Aedes aegypti cecropin A, focusing on the common pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa The peptide showed little hemolytic activity and toxicity toward mammalian cells, and the MICs against most clinical P. aeruginosa isolates were 32 to 64 ?g/ml, and its MICs versus other Gram-negative bacteria were 2 to 32 ?g/ml. Importantly, cecropin A2 demonstrated synergistic activity against P. aeruginosa when combined with tetracycline, reducing the MICs of both agents by 8-fold. The combination was also effective in vivo in the P. aeruginosa/Galleria mellonella model (P < 0.001). We found that cecropin A2 bound to P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharides, permeabilized the membrane, and interacted with the bacterial genomic DNA, thus facilitating the translocation of tetracycline into the cytoplasm. In summary, the combination of cecropin A2 and tetracycline demonstrated synergistic antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosain vitro and in vivo, offering an alternative approach for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections.
Project description:The percentage of bacterial infections refractory to standard antibiotic treatments is steadily increasing. Among the most problematic hospital and community-acquired pathogens are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). One novel strategy proposed for treating infections of multidrug-resistant bacteria is the activation of latent toxins of toxin-antitoxin (TA) protein complexes residing within bacteria; however, the prevalence and identity of TA systems in clinical isolates of MRSA and PA has not been defined. We isolated DNA from 78 MRSA and 42 PA clinical isolates and used PCR to probe for the presence of various TA loci. Our results showed that the genes for homologs of the mazEF TA system in MRSA and the relBE and higBA TA systems in PA were present in 100% of the respective strains. Additionally, reverse transcriptase PCR analysis revealed that these transcripts are produced in the clinical isolates. These results indicate that TA genes are prevalent and transcribed within MRSA and PA and suggest that activation of the toxin proteins could be an effective antibacterial strategy for these pathogens.