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TRPA1-expressing lamina propria mesenchymal cells regulate colonic motility.
ABSTRACT: The physiological process of defecation is directly controlled by colorectal motility. The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel is expressed in small intestine enterochromaffin cells and is involved in gastrointestinal motility via serotonin release. In the colorectum, however, enterochromaffin cell localization is largely distinct from that in the small intestine. Here, we investigated the role of lower gastrointestinal tract TRPA1 in modulating colorectal motility. We found that in colonic tissue, TRPA1 is predominantly expressed in mesenchymal cells of the lamina propria, which are clearly distinct from those in the small intestine. These cells coexpressed COX1 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1. Intracolonic administration of TRPA1 agonists induced colonic contraction, which was suppressed by a prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor 1 antagonist. TRPA1 activation induced calcium influx and PGE2 release from cultured human fibroblastic cells. In dextran sulfate sodium-treated animals, both TRPA1 and its endogenous agonist were dramatically increased in the colonic lamina propria, accompanied by abnormal colorectal contractions. Abnormal colorectal contractions were significantly prevented by pharmacological and genetic inhibition of TRPA1. In conclusion, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, mesenchymal TRPA1 activation results in PGE2 release and consequently promotes colorectal contraction, representing what we believe is a novel physiological and inflammatory bowel disease-associated mechanism of gastrointestinal motility.
Project description:Cannabichromene (CBC) is a major non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid that inhibits endocannabinoid inactivation and activates the transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1). Both endocannabinoids and TRPA1 may modulate gastrointestinal motility. Here, we investigated the effect of CBC on mouse intestinal motility in physiological and pathological states.Inflammation was induced in the mouse small intestine by croton oil. Endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol), palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide levels were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; TRPA1 and cannabinoid receptors were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR; upper gastrointestinal transit, colonic propulsion and whole gut transit were evaluated in vivo; contractility was evaluated in vitro by stimulating the isolated ileum, in an organ bath, with ACh or electrical field stimulation (EFS).Croton oil administration was associated with decreased levels of anandamide (but not 2-arachidonoyl glycerol) and palmitoylethanolamide, up-regulation of TRPA1 and CB? receptors and down-regulation of CB? receptors. Ex vivo CBC did not change endocannabinoid levels, but it altered the mRNA expression of TRPA1 and cannabinoid receptors. In vivo, CBC did not affect motility in control mice, but normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility. In vitro, CBC reduced preferentially EFS- versus ACh-induced contractions. Both in vitro and in vivo, the inhibitory effect of CBC was not modified by cannabinoid or TRPA1 receptor antagonists.CBC selectively reduces inflammation-induced hypermotility in vivo in a manner that is not dependent on cannabinoid receptors or TRPA1.
Project description:Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is abundantly present throughout the gastrointestinal tract and stored mostly in enterochromaffin (EC) cells, which are located on the mucosal surface. 5-HT released from EC cells stimulate both intrinsic and extrinsic nerves, which results in various physiological and pathophysiological responses, such as gastrointestinal contractions. EC cells are believed to have the ability to respond to the chemical composition of the luminal contents of the gut; however, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms have not been identified. Here, we demonstrate that the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel TRPA1, which is activated by pungent compounds or cold temperature, is highly expressed in EC cells. We also found that TRPA1 agonists, including allyl isothiocyanate and cinnamaldehyde, stimulate EC cell functions, such as increasing intracellular Ca(2+) levels and 5-HT release, by using highly concentrated EC cell fractions and a model of EC cell function, the RIN14B cell line. Furthermore, we showed that allyl isothiocyanate promotes the contraction of isolated guinea pig ileum via the 5-HT(3) receptor. Taken together, our results indicate that TRPA1 acts as a sensor molecule for EC cells and may regulate gastrointestinal function.
Project description:There is a growing awareness of the role that TRP channels play in regulating sensory and motor functions in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study we used an in-vitro murine model of colonic peristaltic-like complexes (CPMCs) to evaluate the role of exogenous and endogenous TRPA1 signaling processes in regulating colonic motility. Using in-vitro recordings of intraluminal pressure to monitor the presence of CPMCs in colonic segments we performed a series of experiments on male CD1 mice (2 months of age) and found that CPMC activity was attenuated by TRPA1 agonists. Bath application of the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 had no effect upon basal CPMC activity whereas application of the synthetic TRPA1 agonist ASP7663 caused a reversible dose dependent decrease in CPMC frequency that was blocked by HC-030031. Cinnamaldehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal elicited long lasting decreases in CPMC frequency that were blocked by HC-030031 whereas the decreased CPMC activity invoked by AITC could not be blocked by HC-030031. Our results show that any potential mechanosensory function of TRPA1 doesn't involve contributing to distension induced colonic motor activity and that a role for TRPA1 in the colon is through regulating motility through exogenous and endogenous agonist induced inhibitory effects.
Project description:Enterochromaffin cell-derived serotonin (5-HT) promotes intestinal inflammation. We tested hypotheses that peripheral tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) inhibitors, administered orally, block 5-HT biosynthesis and deplete 5-HT from enterochromaffin cells sufficiently to ameliorate intestinal inflammation; moreover, peripheral TPH inhibitors fail to enter the murine enteric nervous system (ENS) or central nervous systems and thus do not affect constitutive gastrointestinal motility.Two peripheral TPH inhibitors, LP-920540 and telotristat etiprate (LX1032; LX1606) were given orally to mice. Effects were measured on 5-HT levels in the gut, blood and brain, 5-HT immunoreactivity in the ENS, gastrointestinal motility and severity of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Quantitation of clinical scores, histological damage and intestinal expression of inflammation-associated cytokines and chemokines with focused microarrays and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR were employed to evaluate the severity of intestinal inflammation.LP-920540 and LX1032 reduced 5-HT significantly in the gut and blood but not in the brain. Neither LP-920540 nor LX1032 decreased 5-HT immunoreactive neurons or fibres in the myenteric plexus and neither altered total gastrointestinal transit time, colonic motility or gastric emptying in mice. In contrast, oral LP-920540 and LX1032 reduced the severity of TNBS-induced colitis; the expression of 24% of 84 genes encoding inflammation-related cytokines and chemokines was lowered at least fourfold and the reduced expression of 17% was statistically significant.Observations suggest that that peripheral TPH inhibitors uncouple the positive linkage of enterochromaffin cell-derived 5-HT to intestinal inflammation. Because peripheral TPH inhibitors evidently do not enter the murine ENS, they lack deleterious effects on constitutive intestinal motility in mice.
Project description:Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) plays a critical role in intestinal mucosal tolerance and barrier integrity. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-dependent PGE2 production involves mobilisation of arachidonic acid. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LbGG) is one of the most widely used probiotics reported to colonise the colonic mucosa. LbGG contributes to the protection of the small intestine against radiation injury through the repositioning of mucosal COX-2 expressing cells. However, it is unknown if LbGG modulates PGE2 production in the colonic mucosa under homeostasis and the major cellular elements involved in these processes. Colonic epithelial and CD90+ mesenchymal stromal cells, also known as (myo) fibroblasts (CMFs), are abundant innate immune cells in normal colonic mucosa able to produce PGE2 . Herein, we tested the hypothesis that under colonic mucosal homeostasis, LbGG modulates the eicosanoid pathway resulting in increased PGE2 production in both epithelial and stromal cells. Among the five tested human colonic epithelial cell lines, only exposure of Caco-2 to LbGG for 24 hr led to the mobilisation of arachidonic acid with concomitant increase in the components within the leukotriene and COX-2-dependent PGE2 pathways. By contrast, CMFs isolated from the normal human colonic mucosa responded to LbGG with increased expression of COX-2 and PGE2 in the prostaglandin pathway, but not 5-LO in the leukotriene pathway. Oral gavage of C57BL/6 mice for 5 days with LbGG (5 × 108 Colony-Forming Unit (CFU)/dose) increased COX-2 expression in the colonic mucosa. The majority of cells upregulating COX-2 protein expression were located in the colonic lamina propria and colocalised with ?-SMA+ cells corresponding to the CMF phenotype. This process was myeloid differentiation factor-88-dependent, because silencing of myeloid differentiation factor-88 expression in CMFs abrogated LbGG-induced upregulation of COX-2 in culture and in vivo. Taken together, our data suggest that LbGG increases release of COX-2-mediated PGE2 , contributing to the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis in the colon and CMFs are among the major contributors to this process.
Project description:In the gastrointestinal tract, tachykinin NK(2) receptors are localized both on smooth muscle and nerve fibres. NK(2) receptor antagonists reduce exaggerated intestinal motility in various diarrhoea models but the site of action contributing to this effect is unknown. In this study we investigated the effects of atropine (1.4 micromol kg(-1), i.v.), hexamethonium (13.5 micromol kg(-1), i.v.), and nepadutant (0.1 micromol kg(-1), i.v.), a selective tachykinin NK(2) receptor antagonist, on distension (0.5 and 1 ml)-, or irritation (acetic acid, 0.5 ml of 7.5% v v(-1))-induced motility in the rat distal colon in vivo. The effects of atropine, hexamethonium or N(omega)-nitro-L-argininemethylester (L-NAME, 1.85 micromol kg(-1), i.v.) on [betaAla(8)]NKA(4-10) (10 nmol kg(-1), i.v.)-induced colonic contractions were also investigated. When the colonic balloon was filled with a subthreshold volume (0.5 ml), the intraluminal instillation of acetic acid triggered a high-amplitude phasic colonic motility which was partially reduced by nepadutant and suppressed by either hexamethonium or atropine. Filling of the balloon with 1 ml evoked reflex (hexamethonium-sensitive), atropine-sensitive phasic colonic motility: nepadutant had no significant effect on the distension-evoked motility. Neither hexamethonium nor atropine significantly reduced [betaAla(8)]NKA(4-10)-induced colonic contractions, whereas nepadutant suppressed them. Following L-NAME pretreatment, [betaAla(8)]NKA(4-10)-induced colonic contractions were inhibited by both atropine and hexamethonium. In hexamethonium-pretreated animals, an atropine-sensitive component of [betaAla(8)]NKA(4-10)-induced colonic contractions was also evident. These results indicate that the application of irritants onto the colonic mucosa induces the release of endogenous tachykinins which enhance excitatory cholinergic mechanisms through the stimulation of NK(2) receptors.
Project description:Activation of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel TRPA1 by cinnamaldehyde has been shown to stimulate serotonin release in enterochromaffin QGP-1 cells. However, the impact of cinnamaldehyde on serotonin release in enterocytes is less well understood. In addition, since the neurotransmitter serotonin plays a regulatory role in a large variety of gastrointestinal and metabolic functions, it is of interest to study which structural characteristics determine cinnamaldehyde-induced serotonin release by enterocytes. Thus, the present study analyzed serotonin release in differentiated Caco-2 cells as a model for enterocytes in comparison to enterochromaffin QGP-1 cells after stimulation with cinnamaldehyde and 17 naturally occurring structurally related compounds by means of a serotonin ELISA. Stimulation with cinnamaldehyde induced a dose-dependent increase in serotonin release starting from 0.5 mM in both cell lines, with a larger effect size in Caco-2 enterocytes compared to that in QGP-1 enterochromaffin cells. Serotonin release in Caco-2 cells induced by additional 17 structurally related compounds correlated with serotonin release in QGP-1 cells, showing the highest effects for coniferylaldehyde with a 15.84 ± 3.23-fold increase in Caco-2 cells, followed by the parent compound cinnamaldehyde (13.45 ± 2.15), cinnamyl alcohol (6.68 ± 1.08), and ?-methyl-cinnamaldehyde (6.59 ± 0.93). Analysis of structural and molecular characteristics that modulate serotonin release in Caco-2 enterocytes revealed that the ability of a compound to activate TRPA1, demonstrated by means of HEK293 cells transiently expressing hTRPA1, is a decisive factor to stimulate serotonin release in Caco-2 enterocytes, preferring small, electrophilic compounds with a lower polar surface area. In addition, blocking of TRPA1 using 30 ?M AP-18 significantly reduced the cinnamaldehyde-induced serotonin release by 30.0 ± 5.24%, confirming a TRPA1-dependent component in serotonin release by Caco-2 cells.
Project description:The transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family includes transducers of mechanical and chemical stimuli for visceral sensory neurons. TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is implicated in inflammatory pain; it interacts with G-protein-coupled receptors, but little is known about its role in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Sensory information from the GI tract is conducted via 5 afferent subtypes along 3 pathways.Nodose and dorsal root ganglia whose neurons innnervate 3 different regions of the GI tract were analyzed from wild-type and TRPA1(-/-) mice using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, retrograde labeling, and in situ hybridization. Distal colon sections were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In vitro electrophysiology and pharmacology studies were performed, and colorectal distension and visceromotor responses were measured. Colitis was induced by administration of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid.TRPA1 is required for normal mechano- and chemosensory function in specific subsets of vagal, splanchnic, and pelvic afferents. The behavioral responses to noxious colonic distension were substantially reduced in TRPA1(-/-) mice. TRPA1 agonists caused mechanical hypersensitivity, which increased in mice with colitis. Colonic afferents were activated by bradykinin and capsaicin, which mimic effects of tissue damage; wild-type and TRPA1(-/-) mice had similar direct responses to these 2 stimuli. After activation by bradykinin, wild-type afferents had increased mechanosensitivity, whereas, after capsaicin exposure, mechanosensitivity was reduced: these changes were absent in TRPA1(-/-) mice. No interaction between protease-activated receptor-2 and TRPA1 was evident.These findings demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for TRPA1 in normal and inflamed mechanosensory function and nociception within the viscera.
Project description:The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for food digestion and absorption. The muscularis propria propels the foodstuff through the GI tract and defects in intestine motility may cause obstruction disorders. Our present genetic studies identified non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl as an important regulator of the muscularis propria homeostasis and a risk factor for rectal prolapse. Mouse deficient for c-Abl showed defects in the muscularis propria of gastrointestinal tract and older c-Abl -/- mice developed megaesophagus and rectal prolapse. Inhibition of c-Abl with imatinib mesylate, an anti-CML drug, or ablation of c-Abl using Prx1-Cre, which marks smooth muscle cells, recapitulated most of the muscularis propria phenotypes. The pathogenesis of rectal prolapse was attributable to overproliferation of smooth muscle cells, which was caused by enhanced ERK1/2 activation. Administration of ERK inhibitor U0126 impeded the development of rectal prolapse in c-Abl deficient mice. These results reveal a role for c-Abl-regulated smooth muscle proliferation in the pathogenesis of rectal prolapse, and imply that long-term use of imatinib mesylate may cause gastrointestinal problems in patients while ERK inhibitor may be effective in treating rectal prolapse.
Project description:Gut microbiota alterations have been described in several diseases with altered gastrointestinal (GI) motility, and awareness is increasing regarding the role of the gut microbiome in modulating GI function. Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is a key regulator of GI motility and secretion. To determine the relationship among gut microbes, colonic contractility, and host serotonergic gene expression, we evaluated mice that were germ-free (GF) or humanized (HM; ex-GF colonized with human gut microbiota). 5-HT reduced contractile duration in both GF and HM colons. Microbiota from HM and conventionally raised (CR) mice significantly increased colonic mRNAs Tph1 [(tryptophan hydroxylase) 1, rate limiting for mucosal 5-HT synthesis; P < 0.01] and chromogranin A (neuroendocrine secretion; P < 0.01), with no effect on monoamine oxidase A (serotonin catabolism), serotonin receptor 5-HT4, or mouse serotonin transporter. HM and CR mice also had increased colonic Tph1 protein (P < 0.05) and 5-HT concentrations (GF, 17 ± 3 ng/mg; HM, 25 ± 2 ng/mg; and CR, 35 ± 3 ng/mg; P < 0.05). Enterochromaffin (EC) cell numbers (cells producing 5-HT) were unchanged. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) promoted TPH1 transcription in BON cells (human EC cell model). Thus, gut microbiota acting through SCFAs are important determinants of enteric 5-HT production and homeostasis.