An order-to-disorder structural switch activates the FoxM1 transcription factor.
ABSTRACT: Intrinsically disordered transcription factor transactivation domains (TADs) function through structural plasticity, adopting ordered conformations when bound to transcriptional co-regulators. Many transcription factors contain a negative regulatory domain (NRD) that suppresses recruitment of transcriptional machinery through autoregulation of the TAD. We report the solution structure of an autoinhibited NRD-TAD complex within FoxM1, a critical activator of mitotic gene expression. We observe that while both the FoxM1 NRD and TAD are primarily intrinsically disordered domains, they associate and adopt a structured conformation. We identify how Plk1 and Cdk kinases cooperate to phosphorylate FoxM1, which releases the TAD into a disordered conformation that then associates with the TAZ2 or KIX domains of the transcriptional co-activator CBP. Our results support a mechanism of FoxM1 regulation in which the TAD undergoes switching between disordered and different ordered structures.
Project description:Proteins with intrinsically disordered domains are implicated in a vast range of biological processes, especially in cell signaling and regulation. Having solved the quaternary structure of the folded domains in the tumor suppressor p53 by a multidisciplinary approach, we have now determined the average ensemble structure of the intrinsically disordered N-terminal transactivation domain (TAD) by using residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) from NMR spectroscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Remarkably, not only were we able to measure RDCs of the isolated TAD, but we were also able to do so for the TAD in both the full-length tetrameric p53 protein and in its complex with a specific DNA response element. We determined the orientation of the TAD ensemble relative to the core domain, found that the TAD was stiffer in the proline-rich region (residues 64-92), which has a tendency to adopt a polyproline II (PPII) structure, and projected the TAD away from the core. We located the TAD in SAXS experiments on a complex between tetrameric p53 and four Taz2 domains that bind tightly to the TAD (residues 1-57) and acted as "reporters." The p53-Taz2 complex was an extended cross-shaped structure. The quality of the SAXS data enabled us to model the disordered termini and the folded domains in the complex with DNA. The core domains enveloped the response element in the center of the molecule, with the Taz2-bound TADs projecting outward from the core.
Project description:An important component of the activity of p53 as a tumor suppressor is its interaction with the transcriptional coactivators cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) and p300, which activate transcription of p53-regulated stress response genes and stabilize p53 against ubiquitin-mediated degradation. The highest affinity interactions are between the intrinsically disordered N-terminal transactivation domain (TAD) of p53 and the TAZ1 and TAZ2 domains of CBP/p300. The NMR spectra of simple binary complexes of the TAZ1 and TAZ2 domains with the p53TAD suffer from exchange broadening, but innovations in construct design and isotopic labeling have enabled us to obtain high-resolution structures using fusion proteins, uniformly labeled in the case of the TAZ2-p53TAD fusion and segmentally labeled through transintein splicing for the TAZ1-p53TAD fusion. The p53TAD is bipartite, with two interaction motifs, termed AD1 and AD2, which fold to form short amphipathic helices upon binding to TAZ1 and TAZ2 whereas intervening regions of the p53TAD remain flexible. Both the AD1 and AD2 motifs bind to hydrophobic surfaces of the TAZ domains, with AD2 making more extensive hydrophobic contacts consistent with its greater contribution to the binding affinity. Binding of AD1 and AD2 is synergistic, and structural studies performed with isolated motifs can be misleading. The present structures of the full-length p53TAD complexes demonstrate the versatility of the interactions available to an intrinsically disordered domain containing bipartite interaction motifs and provide valuable insights into the structural basis of the affinity changes that occur upon stress-related posttranslational modification.
Project description:The transcription factor B-Myb is a key regulator of the cell cycle in vertebrates, with activation of transcription involving the recognition of specific DNA target sites and the recruitment of functional partner proteins, including the coactivators p300 and CBP. Here we report the results of detailed studies of the interaction between the transactivation domain of B-Myb (B-Myb TAD) and the TAZ2 domain of p300. The B-Myb TAD was characterized using circular dichroism, fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy, which revealed that the isolated domain exists as a random coil polypeptide. Pull-down and spectroscopic experiments clearly showed that the B-Myb TAD binds to p300 TAZ2 to form a moderately tight (K(d) ~1.0-10 µM) complex, which results in at least partial folding of the B-Myb TAD. Significant changes in NMR spectra of p300 TAZ2 suggest that the B-Myb TAD binds to a relatively large patch on the surface of the domain (~1200 Å(2)). The apparent B-Myb TAD binding site on p300 TAZ2 shows striking similarity to the surface of CBP TAZ2 involved in binding to the transactivation domain of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), which suggests that the structure of the B-Myb TAD-p300 TAZ2 complex may share many features with that reported for STAT1 TAD-p300 TAZ2.
Project description:The transcriptional coactivator p300 binds to and mediates the transcriptional functions of the tetrameric tumor suppressor p53. Both proteins consist of independently folded domains linked by intrinsically disordered sequences. A well studied short sequence of the p53 transactivation domain, p53(15-29), binds weakly to four folded domains of p300 [Taz1/cysteine-histidine-rich region 1 (CH1), Kix, Taz2/CH3, IBiD], with dissociation constants (K(D)) in the 100 muM region. However, we found that a longer N-terminal transactivation domain construct p53(1-57) bound tightly to each p300 domain. Taz2/CH3 had the greatest affinity (K(D) = 27 nM) and competes with the N-terminal domain of Mdm2 for the p53 N terminus. p300 thus can protect the N terminus of p53 against the binding of other proteins. Mutations of p53 that abrogate transactivation (L22Q/W23S, W53Q/F54S) greatly weakened binding to each p300 domain, linking phenotypic defects to weakened coactivator binding. We propose a complex between tetrameric p53 and p300 in which four domains of p300 wrap around the four transactivation domains of p53.
Project description:Disordered regions and Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs) are involved in critical cellular processes and may acquire a stable three-dimensional structure only upon binding to their partners. IDPs may follow a folding-after-binding process, known as induced folding, or a folding-before-binding process, known as conformational selection. The transcription factor p53 is involved in the regulation of cellular events that arise upon stress or DNA damage. The p53 domain structure is composed of an N-terminal transactivation domain (p53TAD), a DNA Binding Domain and a tetramerization domain. The activity of TAD is tightly regulated by interactions with cofactors, inhibitors and phosphorylation. To initiate transcription, p53TAD binds to the TAZ2 domain of CBP, a co-transcription factor, and undergoes a folding and binding process, as revealed by the recent NMR structure of the complex. The activity of p53 is regulated by phosphorylation at multiple sites on the TAD domain and recent studies have shown that modifications at three residues affect the binding towards TAZ2. However, we still do not know how these phosphorylations affect the structure of the bound state and, therefore, how they regulate the p53 function. In this work, we have used computational simulations to understand how phosphorylation affects the structure of the p53TAD:TAZ2 complex and regulates the recognition mechanism. Phosphorylation has been proposed to enhance binding by direct interaction with the folded protein or by changing the unbound conformation of IDPs, for example by pre-folding the protein favoring the recognition mechanism. Here, we show an interesting turn in the p53 case: phosphorylation mainly affects the bound structure of p53TAD, highlighting the complexity of IDP protein-protein interactions. Our results are in agreement with previous experimental studies, allowing a clear picture of how p53 is regulated by phosphorylation and giving new insights into how post-translational modifications can regulate the function of IDPs.
Project description:Determination of affinities and binding sites involved in protein-ligand interactions is essential for understanding molecular mechanisms in biological systems. Here we combine singular value decomposition and global analysis of NMR chemical shift perturbations caused by protein-protein interactions to determine the number and location of binding sites on the protein surface and to measure the binding affinities. Using this method we show that the isolated AD1 and AD2 binding motifs, derived from the intrinsically disordered N-terminal transactivation domain of the tumor suppressor p53, both interact with the TAZ2 domain of the transcriptional coactivator CBP at two binding sites. Simulations of titration curves and line shapes show that a primary dissociation constant as small as 1-10 nM can be accurately estimated by NMR titration methods, provided that the primary and secondary binding processes are coupled. Unexpectedly, the site of binding of AD2 on the hydrophobic surface of TAZ2 overlaps with the binding site for AD1, but AD2 binds TAZ2 more tightly. The results highlight the complexity of interactions between intrinsically disordered proteins and their targets. Furthermore, the association rate of AD2 to TAZ2 is estimated to be 1.7 × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1), approaching the diffusion-controlled limit and indicating that intrinsic disorder plus complementary electrostatics can significantly accelerate protein binding interactions.
Project description:Molecular interactions between the tumor suppressor p53 and the transcriptional coactivators CBP/p300 are critical for the regulation of p53 transactivation and stability. The transactivation domain (TAD) of p53 binds directly to several CBP/p300 domains (TAZ1, TAZ2, NCBD, and KIX). Here we map the interaction between the p53 TAD and the CBP KIX domain using isothermal titration calorimetry and NMR spectroscopy. KIX is a structural domain in CBP/p300 that can simultaneously bind two polypeptide ligands, such as the activation domain of MLL and the kinase-inducible activation domain (pKID) of CREB, using distinct interaction surfaces. The p53 TAD consists of two subdomains (AD1 and AD2); peptides corresponding to the isolated AD1 and AD2 subdomains interact with KIX with relatively low affinity, but a longer peptide containing both subdomains binds KIX tightly. In the context of the full-length p53 TAD, AD1 and AD2 bind synergistically to KIX. Mapping of the chemical shift perturbations onto the structure of KIX shows that isolated AD1 and AD2 peptides bind to both the MLL and pKID sites. Spin-labeling experiments show that the complex of the full-length p53 TAD with KIX is disordered, with the AD1 and AD2 subdomains each interacting with both the MLL and pKID binding surfaces. Phosphorylation of the p53 TAD at Thr18 or Ser20 increases the KIX binding affinity. The affinity is further enhanced by simultaneous phosphorylation of Thr18 and Ser20, and the specificity of the interaction is increased. The p53 TAD simultaneously occupies the two distinct sites that have been identified on the CBP KIX domain and efficiently competes for these sites with other known KIX-binding transcription factors.
Project description:CBP/p300 transcriptional coactivators mediate gene expression by integrating cellular signals through interactions with multiple transcription factors. To elucidate the molecular and structural basis for CBP-dependent gene expression, we determined structures of the CBP TAZ1 and TAZ2 domains in complex with the transactivation domains (TADs) of signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2) and STAT1, respectively. Despite the topological similarity of the TAZ1 and TAZ2 domains, subtle differences in helix packing and surface grooves constitute major determinants of target selectivity. Our results suggest that TAZ1 preferentially binds long TADs capable of contacting multiple surface grooves simultaneously, whereas smaller TADs that are restricted to a single contiguous binding surface form complexes with TAZ2. Complex formation for both STAT TADs involves coupled folding and binding, driven by intermolecular hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Phosphorylation of S727, required for maximal transcriptional activity of STAT1, does not enhance binding to any of the CBP domains. Because the different STAT TADs recognize different regions of CBP/p300, there is a potential for multivalent binding by STAT heterodimers that could enhance the recruitment of the coactivators to promoters.
Project description:The tumor suppressor activity of p53 is regulated by interactions with the ubiquitin ligase HDM2 and the general transcriptional coactivators CBP and p300. Using NMR spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry, we have dissected the binding interactions between the N-terminal transactivation domain (TAD) of p53, the TAZ1, TAZ2, KIX, and nuclear receptor coactivator binding domains of CBP, and the p53-binding domain of HDM2. The p53 TAD contains amphipathic binding motifs within the AD1 and AD2 regions that mediate interactions with CBP and HDM2. Binding of the p53 TAD to CBP domains is dominated by interactions with AD2, although the affinity is enhanced by additional interactions with AD1. In contrast, binding of p53 TAD to HDM2 is mediated primarily by AD1. The p53 TAD can bind simultaneously to HDM2 (through AD1) and to any one of the CBP domains (through AD2) to form a ternary complex. Phosphorylation of p53 at T18 impairs binding to HDM2 and enhances affinity for the CBP KIX domain. Multisite phosphorylation of the p53 TAD at S15, T18, and S20 leads to increased affinity for the TAZ1 and KIX domains of CBP. These observations suggest a mechanism whereby HDM2 and CBP/p300 function synergistically to regulate the p53 response. In unstressed cells, CBP/p300, HDM2 and p53 form a ternary complex that promotes polyubiquitination and degradation of p53. After cellular stress and DNA damage, p53 becomes phosphorylated at T18 and other residues in the AD1 region, releases HDM2 and binds preferentially to CBP/p300, leading to stabilization and activation of p53.
Project description:Anchor residues, which are deeply buried upon binding, play an important role in protein-protein interactions by providing recognition specificity and facilitating the binding kinetics. Up to now, studies on anchor residues have been focused mainly on ordered proteins. In this study, we investigated anchor residues in intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) which are flexible in the free state. We identified the anchor residues of the N-terminus of the p53 protein (Glu17-Asn29, abbreviated as p53N) which are involved in binding with two different targets (MDM2 and Taz2), and analyzed their side chain conformations in the unbound states. The anchor residues in the unbound p53N were found to frequently sample conformations similar to those observed in the bound complexes (i.e., Phe19, Trp23, and Leu26 in the p53N-MDM2 complex, and Leu22 in the p53N-Taz2 complex). We argue that the bound-like conformations of the anchor residues in the unbound state are important for controlling the specific interactions between IDPs and their targets. Further, we propose a mechanism to account for the binding promiscuity of IDPs in terms of anchor residues and molecular recognition features (MoRFs).