Factors Associated With Withdrawal From Dialysis Therapy in Incident Hemodialysis Patients Aged 80 Years or Older.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Among kidney disease patients ?80 years progressing to end-stage renal disease, there is growing interest in conservative nondialytic management approaches. However, among those who have initiated hemodialysis, little is known about the impact of withdrawal from dialysis on mortality, nor the patient characteristics associated with withdrawal from dialysis. STUDY DESIGN:Historical cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:We examined 133,162 incident hemodialysis patients receiving care within a large national dialysis organization from 2007 to 2011. MEASURES:We identified patients who withdrew from dialysis, either as a listed cause of death or censor reason. Incidence rates and subdistribution hazard ratios for withdrawal from dialysis as well as 4 other censoring reasons were examined across age groups. In addition, demographic and clinical characteristics associated with withdrawal from dialysis therapy among patients ?80 years old was assessed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:Among 17,296 patients aged ?80 years, 10% of patients withdrew from dialysis. Duration from the last hemodialysis treatment to death was 10 [interquartile range 6-16] days in patients with available data. Withdrawal from dialysis was the second and third most common cause of death among patients aged ?80 years and <80 years, respectively. Among patients ?80 years, minorities were much less likely than non-Hispanic whites to stop dialysis. Other factors associated with higher odds of dialysis withdrawal included having a central venous catheter compared to an arteriovenous fistula at dialysis start, dementia, living in mid-west regions, and less favorable markers associated with malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia syndrome such as higher white blood cell counts and lower body mass index, albumin, and normalized protein catabolic rate. CONCLUSION/IMPLICATIONS:Among very-elderly incident hemodialysis patients, dialysis therapy withdrawal exhibits wide variations across age, race and ethnicity, regions, cognitive status, dialysis vascular access, and nutritional status. Further studies examining implications of withdrawal from dialysis in older patients are warranted.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>We studied the distribution of causes of death in the CONTRAST cohort and compared the proportion of cardiovascular deaths with other populations to answer the question whether cardiovascular mortality is still the principal cause of death in end stage renal disease. In addition, we compared patients who died from the three most common death causes. Finally, we aimed to study factors related to dialysis withdrawal.<h4>Methods</h4>We used data from CONTRAST, a randomized controlled trial in 714 chronic hemodialysis patients comparing the effects of online hemodiafiltration versus low-flux hemodialysis. Causes of death were adjudicated. The distribution of causes of death was compared to that of the Dutch dialysis registry and of the Dutch general population.<h4>Results</h4>In CONTRAST, 231 patients died on treatment. 32% died from cardiovascular disease, 22% due to infection and 23% because of dialysis withdrawal. These proportions were similar to those in the Dutch dialysis registry and the proportional cardiovascular mortality was similar to that of the Dutch general population. cardiovascular death was more common in patients <60 years. Patients who withdrew were older, had more co-morbidity and a lower mental quality of life at baseline. Patients who withdrew had much co-morbidity. 46% died within 5 days after the last dialysis session.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Although the absolute risk of death is much higher, the proportion of cardiovascular deaths in a prevalent end stage renal disease population is similar to that of the general population. In older hemodialysis patients cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular death risk are equally important. Particularly the registration of dialysis withdrawal deserves attention. These findings may be partly limited to the Dutch population.
Project description:<h4>Background and objectives</h4>Withdrawal from maintenance hemodialysis before death has become more common because of high disease and treatment burden. The study objective was to identify patient factors and examine the terminal course associated with hemodialysis withdrawal, and assess patterns of palliative care involvement before death among patients on maintenance hemodialysis.<h4>Design, setting, participants, & measurements</h4>We designed an observational cohort study of adult patients on incident hemodialysis in a midwestern United States tertiary center, from January 2001 to November 2013, with death events through to November 2015. Logistic regression models evaluated associations between patient characteristics and withdrawal status and palliative care service utilization.<h4>Results</h4>Among 1226 patients, 536 died and 262 (49% of 536) withdrew. A random sample (10%; 52 out of 536) review of Death Notification Forms revealed 73% sensitivity for withdrawal. Risk factors for withdrawal before death included older age, white race, palliative care consultation within 6 months, hospitalization within 30 days, cerebrovascular disease, and no coronary artery disease. Most withdrawal decisions were made by patients (60%) or a family member (33%; surrogates). The majority withdrew either because of acute medical complications (51%) or failure to thrive/frailty (22%). After withdrawal, median time to death was 7 days (interquartile range, 4-11). In-hospital deaths were less common in the withdrawal group (34% versus 46% nonwithdrawal, <i>P</i>=0.003). A third (34%; 90 out of 262) of those that withdrew received palliative care services. Palliative care consultation in the withdrawal group was associated with longer hemodialysis duration (odds ratio, 1.19 per year; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.3; <i>P</i><0.001), hospitalization within 30 days of death (odds ratio, 5.78; 95% confidence interval, 2.62 to 12.73; <i>P</i><0.001), and death in hospital (odds ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 3.27; <i>P</i>=0.02).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this single-center study, the rate of hemodialysis withdrawals were twice the frequency previously described. Acute medical complications and frailty appeared to be driving factors. However, palliative care services were used in only a minority of patients.
Project description:Very early withdrawal from treatment in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an increasingly important, but poorly understood, issue. Here, we identified the reasons and risk factors for very early withdrawal from PD.Incident PD patients from The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University above 18?years who started treatment between January 1 2006 and December 31 2011 were included. Cessation of PD therapy within the first 90?days after beginning dialysis was classified as very early withdrawal.Totally 1444 patients were enrolled. Of these, 71 (4.9%) withdrew from PD therapy during the first 90?days. Primary reasons for very early withdrawal included death (34 patients, 47.9%), transplantation (21 patients, 29.6%) and transfer to hemodialysis (14 patients, 19.7%). The leading reasons for death were cardiovascular and infectious disease, accounting for 41.2% (14 patients) and 23.5% (8 patients) of total deaths, respectively. Dialysate leakage (six patients, 42.9%) and catheter dysfunction (five patients, 35.7%) were the main reasons for transfer to hemodialysis. In multivariate analysis, predictors for very early PD withdrawal were older age (per decade increasing; hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.45; p?=?.019), higher systolic blood pressure (per 10?mmHg increasing; HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.20-1.50; p?<?.001), lower hemoglobin (per 10?g/l increasing; HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.57-0.78; p?<?.001), lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.10-0.54; p?=?.001) and lower residual urine volume (per 100?ml/d increasing; HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.84-0.95; p?=?.001).Death was the primary reason for very early withdrawal from PD. Risk factors for very early withdrawal from PD were older in age, had higher systolic blood pressure, lower hemoglobin, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower residual urine volume.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Little is known about differences in the clinical course between patients receiving maintenance dialysis who do and do not withdraw from dialysis therapy. STUDY DESIGN:Case-control analysis. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:US patients with Medicare coverage who received maintenance hemodialysis for 1 year or longer in 2008 through 2011. PREDICTORS:Comorbid conditions, hospitalizations, skilled nursing facility stays, and a morbidity score based on durable medical equipment claims. OUTCOME:Withdrawal from dialysis therapy. MEASUREMENTS:Rates of medical events, hospitalizations, skilled nursing facility stays, and a morbidity score. RESULTS:The analysis included 18,367 (7.7%) patients who withdrew and 220,443 (92.3%) who did not. Patients who withdrew were older (mean age, 75.3±11.5 [SD] vs 66.2±14.1 years) and more likely to be women and of white race, and had higher comorbid condition burdens. The odds of withdrawal among women were 7% (95% CI, 4%-11%) higher than among men. Compared to age 65 to 74 years, age 85 years or older was associated with higher adjusted odds of withdrawal (adjusted OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.54-1.68), and age 18 to 44 years with lower adjusted odds (adjusted OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.32-0.40). Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics were less likely to withdraw than whites (adjusted ORs of 0.36 [95% CI, 0.35-0.38], 0.47 [95% CI, 0.42-0.53], and 0.46 [95% CI, 0.44-0.49], respectively). A higher durable medical equipment claims-based morbidity score was associated with withdrawal, even after adjustment for traditional comorbid conditions and hospitalization; compared to a score of 0 (lowest presumed morbidity), adjusted ORs of withdrawal were 3.48 (95% CI, 3.29-3.67) for a score of 3 to 4 and 12.10 (95% CI, 11.37-12.87) for a score ?7. Rates of medical events and institutionalization tended to increase in the months preceding withdrawal, as did morbidity score. LIMITATIONS:Results may not be generalizable beyond US Medicare patients; people who withdrew less than 1 year after dialysis therapy initiation were not studied. CONCLUSIONS:Women, older patients, and those of white race were more likely to withdraw from dialysis therapy. The period before withdrawal was characterized by higher rates of medical events and higher levels of morbidity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are the preferred vascular access type in most hemodialysis patients. However, the optimal vascular access type in octogenarians and older (?80?years) hemodialysis patients remains widely debated given their limited life expectancy and lower AVF maturation rates. METHODS:Among incident hemodialysis patients receiving care in a large national dialysis organization during 2007-2011, we examined patterns of vascular access type conversion in 1 year following dialysis initiation in patients <80 versus ?80 years of age. Among a subcohort of patients ?80?years of age, we examined the association between vascular access type conversion and mortality using multivariable survival models. RESULTS:In the overall cohort of 100?804 patients, the prevalence of AVF/arteriovenous graft (AVG) as the primary vascular access type increased during the first year of hemodialysis, but plateaued thereafter. Among 8356 patients ?80?years of age and treated for >1 year, those with initial AVF/AVG use and placement of AVF from a central venous catheter (CVC) had lower mortality compared with patients with persistent CVC use. When the reference group was changed to patients who had AVF placement from a CVC in the first year of dialysis, those with initial AVF use had similar mortality. A longer duration of CVC use was associated with incrementally worse survival. CONCLUSIONS:Among incident hemodialysis patients ?80?years of age, placement of an AVF from a CVC within the first year of dialysis had similar mortality compared with initial AVF use. Our data suggest that initial CVC use with later placement of an AVF may be an acceptable option among elderly hemodialysis patients.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Whether and how factors associated with elective hemodialysis withdrawal differ from those associated with non-withdrawal death soon after maintenance hemodialysis initiation have not been well studied. METHODS:A retrospective cohort analysis was performed using USRDS data from 2011 to 2014. Patients were randomly categorized 2:1 into training and validation samples. Elective withdrawal deaths were identified using the Death Notification form. Multinomial logistic regression was used to fit a prediction model for three outcome categories (withdrawal, non-withdrawal death, survival at 6 months) as a function of demographic, comorbidity, and functional status. FINDINGS:The training sample comprised 80,284 hemodialysis patients. Mean age was 71.7 ± 11.4 years, 44.9% were female, 72.9% were white, and 22.8% were black. Within 6 months, 19.1% died, of whom 2099 (2.6%) withdrew and 13,223 (16.5%) died of a non-withdrawal cause; 13.7% of all deaths were withdrawals. Baseline characteristics and event rates were similar among the 40,142 patients in the validation sample. The model was calibrated adequately and could discriminate moderately well between withdrawal and survival (area under ROC curve [AUC]: 0.77) and between non-withdrawal death and survival (AUC: 0.73). However, discrimination between withdrawal and non-withdrawal death was relatively low (AUC: 0.62). Older age and white, compared with non-white, race were each associated with greater odds of death, and these associations were stronger for withdrawal than for non-withdrawal death. DISCUSSION:Advanced age and white, as opposed to black, race were most strongly associated with early elective hemodialysis withdrawal compared with non-withdrawal death. However, it is difficult to differentiate between patients who will experience early withdrawal vs. non-withdrawal death, as many factors are similarly associated with both outcomes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Although dialysis is typically started in an effort to prolong survival, mortality is reportedly high in the first few months. However, it remains unclear whether this is true in Japanese patients who tend to have a better prognosis than other ethnicities, and if health conditions such as functional status (FS) at initiation of dialysis influence prognosis.<h4>Methods</h4>We investigated the epidemiology of early death and its association with FS using Japanese national registry data in 2007, which included 35,415 patients on incident dialysis and 7,664 with FS data. The main outcome was early death, defined as death within 3 months after initiation of hemodialysis (HD). The main predictor was FS at initiation of HD. Levels of functional disability were categorized as follows: severe (bedridden), moderate (overt difficulties in exerting basic activities of daily living), or mild/none (none or some functional disabilities).<h4>Results</h4>Early death remained relatively common, especially among elderly patients (overall: 7.1%; those aged ?80 years: 15.8%). Severely and even only a moderately impaired FS were significantly associated with early death after starting dialysis (adjusted risk ratios: 3.93 and 2.38, respectively). The incidence of early death in those with impaired FS increased with age (36.5% in those with severely impaired FS and aged ?80 years).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Early death after starting dialysis was relatively common, especially among the elderly, even in Japanese patients. Further, early death was significantly associated with impaired FS at initiation of HD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The comorbidity index is a predictor of mortality in dialysis patients but there are few reports for predicting elderly dialysis mortality and national population-based cost studies on elderly dialysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term mortality of incident elderly dialysis patients using the Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) and to assess the inpatient and outpatient visits along with non-dialysis costs.<h4>Methods</h4>Data were obtained from catastrophic illness registration of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Incident elderly dialysis patients (age ?75 years) receiving hemodialysis for more than 90 days between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2007, were included. Baseline comorbidities were determined one year prior to the first dialysis day according to ICD-9 CM codes. Survival time, mortality rate, hospitalization time, outpatient visit frequency, and costs were calculated for different age and CCI groups.<h4>Results</h4>In 10,759 incident elderly hemodialysis patients, hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were significantly increased in the different age groups (p < 0.001) and CCI patients (p < 0.001). Death rates increased with both increasing age and CCI score. High comorbidity incident hemodialysis and elderly patients were found to have increased length of hospital stay and total hospitalization costs.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This population-based cohort study indicated that both age and higher CCI values were predictors of survival in incident elderly hemodialysis. Increased costs and mortality rates were evident in the oldest patients and in those with high CCI scores. Conservative treatment might be considered in high comorbidity and low-survival rate end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite improvements in dialysis treatment, mortality rates remain high, especially among older hemodialysis patients. Quality of life (QOL) among hemodialysis patients is strongly associated with higher risk of death. This study aimed to describe the health-related QOL and its change in older maintenance hemodialysis patients and to demonstrate characteristics associated with health-related QOL. METHODS:Data on 892 maintenance hemodialysis patients aged 60 years or older who were surveyed using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form at baseline and 2 years after study enrollment in phases 4 (2009-2011) and 5 (2012-2014) of the Japanese Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study were analyzed. We categorized participants into 3 age groups (60-69, 70-79, and ?80 years) and described baseline physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores, as well as their distribution of changes after 2 years across each category. RESULTS:Hemodialysis patients aged 70-79 years and ?80 years had lower PCS scores than those aged 60-69 years (median: 70-79 years = 43.1; interquartile range [IQR], 35.2-49.4; ?80 years = 38.8; IQR, 31.6-43.8; 60-69 years = 45.4; IQR, 37.5-51.4; p < 0.001). In contrast, MCS scores did not significantly differ by age category (70-79 years = 45.6; IQR, 38.4-53.7; ?80 years = 45.4; IQR, 36.9-55.1; 60-69 years = 46.8; IQR, 39.5-55.7; p = 0.1). As dialysis vintage lengthened, the PCS score significantly became lower, whereas no association was found with change in the MCS score. The MCS score declined over time in older patients, especially among those aged 80 years and older after 2 years' follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:Physical QOL became worse as dialysis vintage lengthened. In contrast, mental QOL declined over time within a relatively short period among older maintenance hemodialysis patients.
Project description:Incident hemodialysis patients have the highest mortality in the first several months after starting dialysis treatments. We hypothesized that the patterns and risk factors associated with this early mortality differ from those in later dialysis therapy periods.We examined mortality patterns and predictors during the first several months of hemodialysis treatment in 18,707 incident patients since the first week of hemodialysis therapy and estimated the population attributable fractions for selected time periods in the first 24 months.The 18,707 incident hemodialysis patients were 45% women and 54% diabetics. The standardized mortality ratios (95% confidence interval) in the 1st to 3rd month of hemodialysis therapy were 1.81 (1.74-1.88), 1.79 (1.72-1.86), and 1.34 (1.27-1.40), respectively. The standardized mortality ratio reached prevalent mortality only by the 7th month. No survival advantage for African Americans existed in the first 6 months. Patients with low albumin <3.5 g/dl had the highest proportion of infection-related deaths while patients with higher albumin levels had higher cardiovascular deaths including 76% of deaths during the first 3 months. Use of catheter as vascular access and hypoalbuminemia <3.5 g/dl explained 34% (17-54%) and 33% (19-45%) of all deaths in the first 90 days, respectively.Incident hemodialysis patients have the highest mortality during the first 6 months including 80% higher death risk in the first 2 months. The presence of a central venous catheter and hypoalbuminemia <3.5 g/dl each explain one third of all deaths in the first 90 days.