"Real World" Eligibility for Sacubitril/Valsartan in Unselected Heart Failure Patients: Data from the Swedish Heart Failure Registry.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:PARADIGM-HF demonstrated the superiority of sacubitril/valsartan over enalapril in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF). How widely applicable sacubitril/valsartan treatment is in unselected patients with HF-REF is not known. We examined eligibility of patients with HF-REF for treatment with sacubitril/valsartan, according to the criteria used in PARADIGM-HF, in the Swedish Heart Failure Registry (SwedeHF). METHODS:Patients were considered potentially eligible if they were not hospitalized, had symptoms (NYHA class II-IV) and a reduced LVEF (≤ 40%), and were prescribed an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) at a dose equivalent to enalapril ≥ 10 mg daily. In these patients, we evaluated further eligibility according to the main additional PARADIGM-HF inclusion criteria. RESULTS:Of 12,866 outpatients in NYHA functional class II-IV with an LVEF ≤ 40%, 9577 were prescribed at least 10 mg of enalapril (or equivalent) daily. Complete additional data were available for 3099 of these patients (32.4%) and of them 75.5% were potentially eligible for treatment with sacubitril/valsartan. The most common reason for ineligibility was a low natriuretic peptide level (n = 462, 14.9%). Only a small proportion of patients were ineligible due to low eGFR or serum potassium level. Because only 78% of patients were taking ≥ 10 mg enalapril or equivalent daily, only 58.9% of all patients (75.5% of 78%) were eligible for sacubitril/valsartan. CONCLUSIONS:Between 34 and 76% of symptomatic patients with HF-REF in a 'real world' population are eligible for treatment with sacubitril/valsartan, depending on background ACEI/ARB dose. The most common reason for ineligibility is a low natriuretic peptide level.
Project description:Inhibition of neurohumoural pathways such as the renin angiotensin aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems is central to the understanding and treatment of heart failure (HF). Conversely, until recently, potentially beneficial augmentation of neurohumoural systems such as the natriuretic peptides has had limited therapeutic success. Administration of synthetic natriuretic peptides has not improved outcomes in acute HF but modulation of the natriuretic system through inhibition of the enzyme that degrades natriuretic (and other vasoactive) peptides, neprilysin, has proven to be successful. After initial failures with neprilysin inhibition alone or dual neprilysin-angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, the Prospective comparison of angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure trial (PARADIGM-HF) trial demonstrated that morbidity and mortality can be improved with the angiotensin receptor blocker neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan (formerly LCZ696). In comparison to the ACE inhibitor enalapril, sacubitril/valsartan reduced the occurrence of the primary end point (cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for HF) by 20% with a 16% reduction in all-cause mortality. These findings suggest that sacubitril/valsartan should replace an ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker as the foundation of treatment of symptomatic patients (NYHA II-IV) with HF and a reduced ejection fraction. This review will explore the background to neprilysin inhibition in HF, the results of the PARADIGM-HF trial and offer guidance on how to use sacubitril/valsartan in clinical practice.
Project description:AIMS:The prognosis after hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) remains poor, especially <30 days post-discharge. Evidence-based medications with prognostic impact administered at discharge improve survival and hospital readmission, but robust studies comparing pre-discharge with post-discharge initiation are rare. The PARADIGM-HF trial established sacubitril/valsartan as a new evidence-based therapy in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (<40%) (rEF). In common with other landmark studies, it enrolled patients who were ambulatory at the time of inclusion. In addition, there is also still limited knowledge of initiation and up-titration of sacubitril/valsartan in ACEi/ARB- naïve patients and in de novo HF with rEF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS:TRANSITION is a multicentre, open-label study in which ~1000 adults hospitalized for ADHF with rEF are randomized to start sacubitril/valsartan in a pre-discharge arm (initiated ≥24 h after haemodynamic stabilization) or a post-discharge arm (initiated within Days 1-14 after discharge). The protocol allows investigators to select the appropriate starting dose and dose adjustments according to clinical circumstances. Over a 10 week treatment period, the primary and secondary objectives assess the feasibility and safety of starting sacubitril/valsartan in-hospital, early after haemodynamic stabilization. Exploratory objectives also include assessment of HF signs and symptoms, readmissions, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity troponin T levels, and health resource utilization parameters. CONCLUSIONS:TRANSITION will provide new evidence about initiating sacubitril/valsartan following hospitalization for ADHF, occurring either as de novo ADHF or as deterioration of chronic HF, and in patients with or without prior ACEI/ARB therapy. The results of TRANSITION will thus be highly relevant to the management of patients hospitalized for ADHF with rEF.
Project description:The Prospective comparison of Angiotensin Receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) with Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure (HF) trial (PARADIGM-HF) showed that adding a neprilysin inhibitor (sacubitril) to a renin-angiotensin system blocker (and other standard therapy) reduced morbidity and mortality in ambulatory patients with chronic HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). In PARADIGM-HF, valsartan combined with sacubitril (a so-called ARNI) was superior to the current gold standard of an ACEI, specifically enalapril, reducing the risk of the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular (CV) death or first HF hospitalization by 20% and all-cause death by 16%. Following the results of PARADIGM-HF, sacubitril/valsartan was approved by American and European regulatory authorities for the treatment of HFrEF. The burden of HF in Asia is substantial, both due to the huge population of the region and as a result of increasing CV risk factors and disease. Both the prevalence and mortality associated with HF are high in Asia. In the following review, we discuss the development of sacubitril/valsartan, the prototype ARNI, and the available evidence for its efficacy and safety in Asian patients with HFrEF.
Project description:AIMS:Although the effect of the angiotensin receptor blocker neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) sacubitril/valsartan on heart failure (HF) hospitalizations and cardiovascular death has been evaluated, its effects on functional capacity in patients with HF and ejection fraction (EF) >40% has yet to be determined. In addition, no prior studies have compared sacubitril/valsartan with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy. We sought to compare the effect of ARNI to background-medication-based individualized comparators (BMICs) on N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), functional capacity [6 min walk distance (6MWD)], symptoms, and quality of life [Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ)] in patients with HF and EF >40% in a randomized clinical trial. METHODS:PARALLAX is a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind multicentre clinical trial in patients with chronic symptomatic HF with EF >40%, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-IV symptoms, elevated natriuretic peptides, and evidence of structural heart disease. Eligible patients are randomized to sacubitril/valsartan vs. BMIC for cardiovascular and related co-morbidities. BMIC includes (i) enalapril, (ii) valsartan, and (iii) placebo depending on the type of medical therapy prior to enrolment. The primary endpoints are the change in plasma NT-proBNP concentration from baseline to 12 weeks and the change from baseline in 6MWD distance at 24 weeks. The secondary endpoints assess quality of life and symptom burden. CONCLUSIONS:PARALLAX will determine if sacubitril/valsartan compared with standard medical therapy for co-morbidities improves NT-proBNP levels, exercise capacity, quality of life, and symptom burden in HF patients with EF >40%.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To determine efficacy and safety of sacubitril/valsartan compared with enalapril in Indian patients of PARADIGM-HF trial.<h4>Methods</h4>A randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, phase III sub-study (NCT01035255) was conducted between April 2010 and May 2014. Patients with chronic heart failure (HF), aged >18 years with left ventricular ejection fraction ?40% were randomized (1:1) to receive either sacubitril/valsartan 200 mg twice-daily or enalapril 10 mg twice-daily. The primary endpoint was to compare efficacy of sacubitril/valsartan to enalapril in delaying time-to-first occurrence of the composite endpoint (cardiovascular [CV] death or HF hospitalization).<h4>Results</h4>The trial was stopped after a median follow-up of 27 months, because the boundary for benefit with sacubitril/valsartan had crossed. Among 637 Indian patients in PARADIGM-HF (sacubitril/valsartan, n = 322 and enalapril, n = 315), the primary outcome, CV death, and the first hospitalization for HF occurred in 21.81% and 24.76% (HR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.646-1.231), 17.45% and 20.63% (HR 0.87; 95% CI, 0.605-1.236), and 7.48% and 9.52% (HR 0.78; 95% CI, 0.461-1.350) patients in the sacubitril/valsartan and enalapril group, respectively. The all-cause mortality (19.0% vs. 21.9%) and adverse events (78.4% vs. 82.2%) were comparatively lower in the sacubitril/valsartan than enalapril group. No significant difference was seen between the benefits of treatment in Indian and the total PARADIGM-HF cohort (p value for interaction >0.05).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Results support the use of sacubitril/valsartan in Indian patients with chronic HF with reduced ejection fraction with treatment benefits similar to global PARADIGM-HF cohort.
Project description:This review aims to elucidate the optimal dosing of angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) therapy in the heart failure (HF) treatment paradigm through examination of the trial population characteristics and the mortality benefit observed in the Prospective Comparison of ARNI with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF; NCT01035255) trial. Considerations regarding the initiation and titration of sacubitril/valsartan, a first-in-class ARNI, will also be addressed. The approval of sacubitril/valsartan heralded the first novel pharmacological class in over a decade for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The PARADIGM-HF trial showed that treatment with valsartan/valsartan reduced the risk of first occurrence of either cardiovascular death or HF-related hospitalization (composite primary endpoint) by 20% compared with enalapril in patients with HFrEF. The incremental benefits of treatment with valsartan/valsartan over enalapril demonstrated in the PARADIGM-HF trial led to strong recommendations for its use over ACEIs or angiotensin receptor blockers to further reduce morbidity and mortality in the 2016 and 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Heart Failure Society of America updates to the guidelines for the management of HF. Although the optimal timing for the initiation of valsartan/valsartan has yet to be determined, its early use is likely to have a positive impact on patient outcomes.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Sacubitril-valsartan has been shown to have superior effects over angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in patients with heart failure (HF) and hypertension. The efficacy and safety of sacubitril-valsartan in patients with HF are controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to assess and compare the effect and adverse events of sacubitril-valsartan, valsartan, and enalapril in patients with HF.<h4>Methods and results</h4>We conducted a systematic search using PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Randomized controlled trials involving the use of sacubitril-valsartan in patients with HF were included. We assessed the pooled odds ratio (OR) of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and hospitalization for HF in fixed-effects models and the pooled risk ratio (RR) of symptomatic hypotension, worsening renal function, and hyperkalaemia in fixed-effects models. Of the 315 identified records, six studies involving 14 959 patients were eligible for inclusion. Sacubitril-valsartan reduced the endpoints of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in three trials with pooled ORs of 0.83 (P = 0.0006) and 0.78 (P < 0.0001), respectively. Regarding the composite outcome of hospitalization for HF in five trials, the pooled OR was 0.79 (P < 0.00001). Compared with enalapril or valsartan, sacubitril-valsartan was associated with a high risk of symptomatic hypotension (RR 1.47, P < 0.00001), low risk of worsening renal function (RR 0.81, P = 0.005), and low rate of serious hyperkalaemia (?6.0 mmol/L) (RR 0.76, P = 0.0007) in all six trials.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Compared with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, sacubitril-valsartan significantly decreased the risk of death from all causes or cardiovascular causes in HFrEF and hospitalization for HF in both patients with HFrEF and HF with preserved ejection fraction. Sacubitril-valsartan reduced the risk of renal dysfunction and serious hyperkalaemia but was associated with more symptomatic hypotension.
Project description:Heart failure (HF) and diabetes mellitus (DM) frequently coexist, with a prevalence of DM of 35-40% in patients with HF, independent of the level of impairment of the ejection fraction (EF). Furthermore, DM is considered a strong independent risk factor for the progression of HF with either preserved or reduced EF and is associated with poor prognosis. The ability of neprilysin inhibitors to elevate levels of biologically active natriuretic peptides has made them a potential therapeutic approach in HF. In the Prospective comparison of ARNi with ACEi to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF) trial, a dual-acting angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, sacubitril/valsartan was superior to enalapril in reducing the risks of death and HF hospitalization in patients with HF with reduced EF. In addition, in a post-hoc analysis of this trial, among patients with DM, treatment with sacubitril/valsartan resulted in improved glycemic control compared with enalapril. Also, there are additional studies suggesting beneficial metabolic effects of this class of drugs. In this review we discuss potential mechanisms of sacubitril/valsartan effect on glycemic control. Sacubitril/valsartan concomitantly blocks the renin-angiotensin system and inhibits neprilysin, a ubiquitous enzyme responsible for the breakdown of more than 50 vasoactive peptides, including the biologically active natriuretic peptides, bradykinin, angiotensin I and II, endothelin 1, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, insulin-B chain, and others. There are a number of potential mechanisms by which inhibition of neprilysin may lead to improvement in glycemic control, with most evidence suggesting modulation of neprilysin circulating substrates. Although there is some evidence suggesting the improvement of glucose metabolism by renin-angiotensin system inhibition, this effect is most likely modest. As these mechanisms are not fully understood, detailed mechanistic studies, as well as large randomized clinical trials in patients with DM, are needed to further clarify beneficial metabolic properties of sacubitril/valsartan.
Project description:AIMS:Circulating high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hsTn) and soluble ST2 (sST2) reflect myocardial stress in patients with heart failure (HF). Production of cyclic guanosine 3'5' monophosphate (cGMP) in response to activation of natriuretic peptide receptors reduces cardiac afterload and preload. We assessed the effects of sacubitril/valsartan on these biomarkers in patients with reduced ejection fraction and acute decompensated HF (ADHF). METHODS AND RESULTS:PIONEER-HF was a randomized, double-blind trial of sacubitril/valsartan vs. enalapril in hospitalized patients with ADHF following haemodynamic stabilization. We measured circulating hsTnT, sST2, and urinary cGMP at baseline, 1, 2 (sST2, cGMP), 4, and 8?weeks (n?=?694 with all baseline biomarkers). Ratios of geometric means (timepoint/baseline) were determined and compared as a ratio for sacubitril/valsartan vs. enalapril. Compared with enalapril, sacubitril/valsartan led to a significantly greater decline in hsTnT and sST2. This effect emerged as early as 1?week for sST2 and was significant for both at 4?weeks with a 16% greater reduction in hsTnT (P?<?0.001) and 9% greater reduction in sST2 (P?=?0.0033). Serial urinary cGMP increased with sacubitril/valsartan compared with enalapril (P?<?0.001, 1?week). The significant differences between treatment groups for each biomarker were sustained at 8?weeks. In an exploratory multivariable-adjusted analysis of cardiovascular death or HF-rehospitalization, the concentrations of hsTnT, sST2 at week 1 were significantly associated with subsequent outcome. CONCLUSION:Biomarkers of myocardial stress are elevated in patients with ADHF and associated with outcome. Compared with enalapril, sacubitril/valsartan reduces myocardial injury and haemodynamic stress as reflected by biomarkers, with an onset that is apparent within 1-4?weeks. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION:NCT02554890 clinical.trials.gov.
Project description:Despite significant therapeutic advances, patients with chronic heart failure (HF) remain at high risk for HF progression and death. Sacubitril/valsartan (previously known as LCZ696) is a first-in-class medicine that contains a neprilysin (NEP) inhibitor (sacubitril) and an angiotensin II (Ang-II) receptor blocker (valsartan). NEP is an endopeptidase that metabolizes different vasoactive peptides including natriuretic peptides, bradykinin and Ang-II. In consequence, its inhibition increases mainly the levels of both, natriuretic peptides (promoting diuresis, natriuresis and vasodilatation) and Ang-II whose effects are blocked by the angiotensin receptor blocker, valsartan (reducing vasoconstriction and aldosterone release). Results from the 8442 patient PARADIGM-HF study showed in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-IV and reduced ejection fraction treated with LCZ696 (versus enalapril), the following benefits: reduction of the risk of death from cardiovascular causes by 20%; reduction of HF hospitalizations by 21%; reduction of the risk of all-cause mortality by 16%. Overall there was a 20% risk reduction on the primary endpoint, composite measure of cardiovascular (CV) death or time to first HF hospitalization. PARADIGM-HF was stopped early after a median follow up of 27 months. Post hoc analyses of PARADIGM-HF as well as the place in therapy of sacubitril/valsartan, including future directions, are included in the present review.