Design of a 2 × 4 Hybrid MMI-MZI Configuration with MMI Phase-Shifters.
ABSTRACT: This paper reports design of a 2 × 4 hybrid multimode interferometer-Mach-zehnder interferometer (MMI-MZI) configuration consiting of compact thermo-optical switches on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. The device consists of two identical MMI slab waveguides as power splitters and couplers that are connected with two identical MMI-based phase shifters, and linear tapers at both ends of the MMIs to minimize the power coupling loss. A thin Al pad is used as a heating element and a trench is created around this pad to prevent heat from spreading, and to minimize loss. The calculated average thermo-optical switching power consumption, excess loss, and power imbalance are 1.4 mW, 0.9 dB, and 0.1 dB, respectively. The overall footprint of the device is 6 × 304 μ m 2 . The new heating method has advantages of compact size, ease of fabrication on SOI platform with the current CMOS technology, and offers low excess loss and power consumption as demanded by devices based on SOI technology. The device can act as two independent optical switches in one device.
Project description:We propose a novel 8-channel wavelength multimode interference (MMI) demultiplexer in slot waveguide structures that operate at 1530 nm, 1535 nm, 1540 nm, 1545 nm, 1550 nm, 1555 nm, 1560 nm, and 1565 nm. Gallium nitride (GaN) surrounded by silicon (Si) was found to be a suitable material for the slot-waveguide structures. The proposed device was designed by seven 1 × 2 MMI couplers, fourteen S-bands, and one input taper. Numerical investigations were carried out on the geometrical parameters using a full vectorial-beam propagation method (FV-BPM). Simulation results show that the proposed device can transmit 8-channel that works in the whole C-band (1530-1565 nm) with low crosstalk (-19.97--13.77 dB) and bandwidth (1.8-3.6 nm). Thus, the device can be very useful in optical networking systems that work on dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology.
Project description:Broadband Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) directional couplers are designed based on a combination of curved and straight coupled waveguide sections. A design methodology based on the transfer matrix method (TMM) is used to determine the required coupler section lengths, radii, and waveguide cross-sections. A 50/50 power splitter with a measured bandwidth of 88 nm is designed and fabricated, with a device footprint of 20 μm × 3 μm. In addition, a balanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer is fabricated showing an extinction ratio of >16 dB over 100 nm of bandwidth.
Project description:Sprague Dawley rats rendered hypothyroid with 22 days of MMI treatment with half the receiving T3 injection on day 21. Rats killed 24h later and hypothalamic tissue recovered. Overall design: Two condition experiment MMI vs MMI-T3 hypothalami 4 replicates per treatment
Project description:In this paper, a design for a 1 × 4 optical power splitter based on the multimode interference (MMI) coupler in a silicon (Si)-gallium nitride (GaN) slot waveguide structure is presented-to our knowledge, for the first time. Si and GaN were found as suitable materials for the slot waveguide structure. Numerical optimizations were carried out on the device parameters using the full vectorial-beam propagation method (FV-BPM). Simulation results show that the proposed device can be useful to divide optical signal energy uniformly in the C-band range (1530-1565 nm) into four output ports with low insertion losses (0.07 dB).
Project description:Sprague Dawley rats rendered hypothyroid with 22 days of MMI treatment with half the receiving T3 injection on day 21. Rats killed 24h later and hypothalamic tissue recovered. Two condition experiment MMI vs MMI-T3 hypothalami 4 replicates per treatment
Project description:An integrated device, which consists of a variable amplitude splitter and an orbital angular momentum (OAM) emitter, is proposed for the superposition of optical vortex beams. With fixed wavelength and power of incident beam, the OAM of the radiated optical superimposed vortex beam can be dynamically tuned. To verify the operating principle, the proposed device has been fabricated on the SOI substrate and experimentally measured. The experimental results confirm the tunability of superimposed vortex beams. Moreover, the ability of independently varying the OAM flux and the geometric distribution of intensity is illustrated and discussed with numerical simulation. We believe that this work would be promising in various applications.
Project description:All-optical signal processing avoids the conversion between optical signals and electronic signals and thus has the potential to achieve a power efficient photonic system. Micro-scale all-optical devices for light manipulation are the key components in the all-optical signal processing and have been built on the semiconductor platforms (e.g., silicon and III-V semiconductors). However, the two-photon absorption (TPA) effect and the free-carrier absorption (FCA) effect in these platforms deteriorate the power handling and limit the capability to realize complex functions. Instead, silicon nitride (Si3N4) provides a possibility to realize all-optical large-scale integrated circuits due to its insulator nature without TPA and FCA. In this work, we investigate the physical dynamics of all-optical control on a graphene-on-Si3N4 chip based on thermo-optic effect. In the experimental demonstration, a switching response time constant of 253.0?ns at a switching energy of ~50?nJ is obtained with a device dimension of 60??m?×?60??m, corresponding to a figure of merit (FOM) of 3.0?nJ?mm. Detailed coupled-mode theory based analysis on the thermo-optic effect of the device has been performed.
Project description:The cell-permeant peptide inhibitor of MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2), MMI-0100, inhibits MK2 and downstream fibrosis and inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that MMI-0100 reduces intimal hyperplasia in a mouse vein graft model, pulmonary fibrosis in a murine bleomycin-induced model and development of adhesions in conjunction with abdominal surgery. MK2 is critical to the pathogenesis of ischemic heart injury as MK2(-/-) mice are resistant to ischemic remodeling. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting MK2 with MMI-0100 would protect the heart after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in vivo. AMI was induced by placing a permanent LAD coronary ligation. When MMI-0100 peptide was given 30 min after permanent LAD coronary artery ligation, the resulting fibrosis was reduced/prevented ~50% at a 2 week time point, with a corresponding improvement in cardiac function and decrease in left ventricular dilation. In cultured cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts, MMI-0100 inhibited MK2 to reduce cardiomyocyte caspase 3/7 activity, while enhancing primary cardiac fibroblast caspase 3/7 activity, which may explain MMI-0100's salvage of cardiac function and anti-fibrotic effects in vivo. These findings suggest that therapeutic inhibition of MK2 after acute MI, using rationally-designed cell-permeant peptides, inhibits cardiac fibrosis and maintains cardiac function by mechanisms that involve inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis, while enhancing primary cardiac fibroblast cell death.
Project description:Neuro-biology inspired Spiking Neural Network (SNN) enables efficient learning and recognition tasks. To achieve a large scale network akin to biology, a power and area efficient electronic neuron is essential. Earlier, we had demonstrated an LIF neuron by a novel 4-terminal impact ionization based n+/p/n+ with an extended gate (gated-INPN) device by physics simulation. Excellent improvement in area and power compared to conventional analog circuit implementations was observed. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a compact conventional 3-terminal partially depleted (PD) SOI- MOSFET (100?nm gate length) to replace the 4-terminal gated-INPN device. Impact ionization (II) induced floating body effect in SOI-MOSFET is used to capture LIF neuron behavior to demonstrate spiking frequency dependence on input. MHz operation enables attractive hardware acceleration compared to biology. Overall, conventional PD-SOI-CMOS technology enables very-large-scale-integration (VLSI) which is essential for biology scale (~1011 neuron based) large neural networks.
Project description:Background: Accumulating evidence suggests inhibiting neuroinflammation as a potential target in therapeutic or preventive strategies for Alzheimer's disease (AD). MAPK-activated protein kinase II (MK2), downstream kinase of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 MAPK, was unveiled as a promising option for the treatment of AD. Increasing evidence points at MK2 as involved in neuroinflammatory responses. MMI-0100, a cell-penetrating peptide inhibitor of MK2, exhibits anti-inflammatory effects and is in current clinical trials for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, it is important to understand the actions of MMI-0100 in neuroinflammation. Methods: The mouse memory function was evaluated using novel object recognition (NOR) and object location recognition (OLR) tasks. Brain hippocampus tissue samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR, Western blotting, and immunostaining. Near-infrared fluorescent and confocal microscopy experiments were used to detect the brain uptake and distribution after intranasal MMI-0100 application. Results: Central MMI-0100 was able to ameliorate the memory deficit induced by A?1-42 or LPS in novel object and location memory tasks. MMI-0100 suppressed LPS-induced activation of astrocytes and microglia, and dramatically decreased a series of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1?, COX-2, and iNOS via inhibiting phosphorylation of MK2, but not ERK, JNK, and p38 in vivo and in vitro. Importantly, one of the reasons for the failure of macromolecular protein or peptide drugs in the treatment of AD is that they cannot cross the blood-brain barrier. Our data showed that intranasal administration of MMI-0100 significantly ameliorates the memory deficit induced by A?1-42 or LPS. Near-infrared fluorescent and confocal microscopy experiment results showed that a strong fluorescent signal, coming from mouse brains, was observed at 2 h after nasal applications of Cy7.5-MMI-0100. However, brains from control mice treated with saline or Cy7.5 alone displayed no significant signal. Conclusions: MMI-0100 attenuates A?1-42- and LPS-induced neuroinflammation and memory impairments via the MK2 signaling pathway. Meanwhile, these data suggest that the MMI-0100/MK2 system may provide a new potential target for treatment of AD.