Primary Cilia Exhibit Mechanosensitivity to Cyclic Tensile Strain and Lineage-Dependent Expression in Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.
ABSTRACT: Non-motile primary cilia are dynamic cellular sensory structures and are expressed in adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). We have previously shown that primary cilia are involved in chemically-induced osteogenic differentiation of human ASC (hASCs) in vitro. Further, we have reported that 10% cyclic tensile strain (1 Hz, 4 hours/day) enhances hASC osteogenesis. We hypothesize that primary cilia respond to cyclic tensile strain in a lineage dependent manner and that their mechanosensitivity may regulate the dynamics of signaling pathways localized to the cilium. We found that hASC morphology, cilia length and cilia conformation varied in response to culture in complete growth, osteogenic differentiation, or adipogenic differentiation medium, with the longest cilia expressed in adipogenically differentiating cells. Further, we show that cyclic tensile strain both enhances osteogenic differentiation of hASCs while it suppresses adipogenic differentiation as evidenced by upregulation of RUNX2 gene expression and downregulation of PPARG and IGF-1, respectively. This study demonstrates that hASC primary cilia exhibit mechanosensitivity to cyclic tensile strain and lineage-dependent expression, which may in part regulate signaling pathways localized to the primary cilium during the differentiation process. We highlight the importance of the primary cilium structure in mechanosensing and lineage specification and surmise that this structure may be a novel target in manipulating hASC for in tissue engineering applications.
Project description:Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC) have shown great potential for bone tissue engineering. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this potential are not yet known, in particular the separate and combined effects of three-dimensional (3D) culture and mechanical loading on hASC osteogenesis. Mechanical stimuli play a pivotal role in bone formation, remodeling, and fracture repair. To further understand hASC osteogenic differentiation and response to mechanical stimuli, gene expression profiles of proliferating or osteogenically induced hASC in 3D collagen I culture in the presence and absence of 10% uniaxial cyclic tensile strain were examined using microarray analysis. About 847 genes and 95 canonical pathways were affected during osteogenesis of hASC in 3D culture. Pathway analysis indicated the potential roles of Wnt/?-catenin signaling, bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in hASC during osteogenic differentiation. Application of 10% uniaxial cyclic tensile strain suggested synergistic effects of strain with osteogenic differentiation media on hASC osteogenesis as indicated by significantly increased calcium accretion of hASC. There was no significant further alteration in the four major pathways (Wnt/?-catenin, BMP, PDGF, and IGF-1). However, 184 transcripts were affected by 10% cyclic tensile strain. Function and network analysis of these transcripts suggested that 10% cyclic tensile strain may play a role during hASC osteogenic differentiation by upregulating two crucial factors in bone regeneration: (1) proinflammatory cytokine regulators interleukin 1 receptor antagonist and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3; (2) known angiogenic inductors fibroblast growth factor 2, matrix metalloproteinase 2, and vascular endothelial growth factor A. This is the first study to investigate the effects of both 3D culture and mechanical load on hASC osteogenic differentiation. A complete microarray analysis investigating both the separate effect of soluble osteogenic inductive factors and the combined effects of chemical and mechanical stimulation was performed on hASC undergoing osteogenic differentiation. We have identified specific genes and pathways associated with mechanical response and osteogenic potential of hASC, thus providing significant information toward improved understanding of our use of hASC for functional bone tissue engineering applications.
Project description:Human adipose stem cells (hASCs) are an attractive cell source for bone tissue engineering applications. However, a critical issue to be addressed before widespread hASC clinical translation is the dramatic variability in proliferative capacity and osteogenic potential among hASCs isolated from different donors. The goal of this study was to test our hypothesis that electrical cell-substrate impedance spectroscopy (ECIS) could track complex bioimpedance patterns of hASCs throughout proliferation and osteogenic differentiation to better understand and predict variability among hASC populations. Superlots composed of hASCs from young (aged 24-36 years), middle-aged (aged 48-55 years), and elderly (aged 60-81 years) donors were seeded on gold electrode arrays. Complex impedance measurements were taken throughout proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. During osteogenic differentiation, four impedance phases were identified: increase, primary stabilization, drop phase, and secondary stabilization. Matrix deposition was first observed 48-96 hours after the impedance maximum, indicating, for the first time, that ECIS can identify morphological changes that correspond to late-stage osteogenic differentiation. The impedance maximum was observed at day 10.0 in young, day 6.1 in middle-aged, and day 1.3 in elderly hASCs, suggesting that hASCs from younger donors require a longer time to differentiate than do hASCs from older donors, but young hASCs proliferated more and accreted more calcium long-term. This is the first study to use ECIS to predict osteogenic potential of multiple hASC populations and to show that donor age may temporally control onset of osteogenesis. These findings could be critical for development of patient-specific bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine therapies. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:502-511.
Project description:Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are multipotent progenitor cells with self-renewal capabilities and multilineage differentiation potential, including osteogenesis. Although protein deubiquitinases have been linked to stem cell fate determination, whether protein deubiquitination contributes to lineage commitment during osteogenic differentiation of hASCs remains to be investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the ubiquitin specific protease 7 (USP7) on osteogenic differentiation of hASCs.An osteocalcin promoter driven luciferase reporter system was established to initially discover the potential association between USP7 and hASC osteogenesis. To further characterize the function of USP7 in osteogenic differentiation of hASCs, a combination of in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out through genetic depletion or overexpression of USP7 using a lentiviral strategy. Moreover, HBX 41,108, a cyanoindenopyrazine-derived deubiquitinase inhibitor of USP7, was utilized at different doses to further examine whether USP7 regulated osteogenic differentiation of hASCs through its enzymatic activity.We demonstrated that USP7 depletion was associated with remarkable downregulation of the reporter gene activity. Genetic depletion of USP7 by lentiviral RNAi markedly suppressed hASC osteogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, while overexpression of USP7 enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. Notably, chemical blockade via the small molecular inhibitor HBX 41,108 could efficiently mimic the effects of USP7 genetic depletion in a dose-dependent manner.Taken together, our study revealed that protein deubiquitinase USP7 is an essential player in osteogenic differentiation of hASCs through its catalytic activity, and supported the pursuit of USP7 as a potential target for modulation of hASC-based stem cell therapy and bone tissue engineering.
Project description:Human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs) have the proven capacity to ossify skeletal defects. The mechanisms whereby hASCs stimulate bone repair are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the potential for hASCs to stimulate autogenous repair of a mouse calvarial defect. Immunofluoresence, osteogenic stains, and surface electron microscopy were used to demonstrate osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. hASCs were engrafted into 4 mm calvarial defects in athymic mice using an osteoconductive scaffold. Analysis included microcomputed tomography, histology, in situ hybridization, and quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction. Next, the in vitro interaction between hASCs and mouse calvarial osteoblasts (mOBs) was assessed by the conditioned medium and coculture assays. The medium was supplemented with Hedgehog signaling modifiers, including recombinant N-terminal Sonic hedgehog, smoothened agonist, and cyclopamine. Finally, cyclopamine was delivered in vivo to hASC-engrafted defects. Significant calvarial healing was observed among hASC-engrafted defects compared with control groups (no treatment or scaffold alone) (*P<0.05). hASCs showed evidence of stimulation of host mouse osteogenesis, including (1) increased expression of bone markers at the defect edge by in situ hybridization, and (2) increased host osteogenic gene expression by species-specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Using the conditioned medium or coculture assays, hASCs stimulated mOB osteogenic differentiation, accompanied by Hedgehog signaling activation. N-terminal Sonic hedgehog or smoothened agonist replicated, while cyclopamine reversed, the pro-osteogenic effect of the conditioned medium on mOBs. Finally, cyclopamine injection arrested bone formation in vivo. hASCs heal critical-sized mouse calvarial defects, this is, at least in part, via stimulation of autogenous healing of the host defect. Our studies suggest that hASC-derived Hedgehog signaling may play a paracrine role in skeletal repair.
Project description:Introduction:New approaches to treat osteoporosis have focused on promoting bone formation through the targeting of osteoblasts and their progenitors, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The primary cilium is a singular cellular extension known to play an important role in biochemical and biophysical osteogenic induction of MSCs. Defects in ciliary structure have been associated with a plethora of diseases. Therefore targeting the cilium therapeutically (ciliotherapies) has emerged as a potential new treatment modality. Therefore, this study performed a comparison analysis on known ciliotherapies and their potential effects in mediating MSC osteogenic differentiation. Methods:MSCs were treated with forskolin, lithium chloride (LiCl) or fenoldopam to investigate the effect on ciliogenesis and cilia-associated signalling. Moreover, both early and long term biochemical and biophysical (fluid shear) induced osteogenic differentiation was examined in terms of osteogenic gene expression and bone matrix deposition following each treatment. Results:LiCl and fenoldopam were found to enhance MSC ciliogenesis to a similar degree. LiCl significantly altered hedgehog (HH) and Wnt signalling which was associated with inhibited osteogenic gene expression, while fenoldopam demonstrated enhanced early osteogenesis. Long term treatment with both ciliotherapies did not enhance osteogenesis, however LiCl had detrimental effects on cell viability. Intriguingly both ciliotherapies enhanced MSC mechanosensitivity as demonstrated by augmented osteogenic gene expression in response to fluid shear, which over longer durations resulted in enhanced matrix deposition per cell. Conclusions:Therefore, ciliotherapies can be utilised to enhance MSC ciliogenesis resulting in enhanced mechanosensitivity, however, only fenoldopam is a viable ciliotherapeutic option to enhance MSC osteogenesis.
Project description:Adipose tissue is an attractive stem cell source for soft and bone tissue engineering applications and stem cell therapies. The adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) have a multilineage differentiation capacity that is regulated through extracellular signals. The cellular events related to cell adhesion and cytoskeleton have been suggested as central regulators of differentiation fate decision. However, the detailed knowledge of these molecular mechanisms in human ASCs remains limited. This study examined the significance of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Rho-Rho-associated protein kinase (Rho-ROCK), and their downstream target extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) on hASCs differentiation towards osteoblasts and adipocytes. Analyses of osteogenic markers RUNX2A, alkaline phosphatase, and matrix mineralization revealed an essential role of active FAK, ROCK, and ERK1/2 signaling for the osteogenesis of hASCs. Inhibition of these kinases with specific small molecule inhibitors diminished osteogenesis, while inhibition of FAK and ROCK activity led to elevation of adipogenic marker genes AP2 and LEP and lipid accumulation implicating adipogenesis. This denotes to a switch-like function of FAK and ROCK signaling in the osteogenic and adipogenic fates of hASCs. On the contrary, inhibition of ERK1/2 kinase activity deceased adipogenic differentiation, indicating that activation of ERK signaling is required for both adipogenic and osteogenic potential. Our findings highlight the reciprocal role of cell adhesion mechanisms and actin dynamics in regulation of hASC lineage commitment. This study enhances the knowledge of molecular mechanisms dictating hASC differentiation and thus opens possibilities for more efficient control of hASC differentiation.
Project description:Human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs) represent a multipotent stromal cell type with a proven capacity to undergo osteogenic differentiation. Many hurdles exist, however, between current knowledge of hASC osteogenesis and their potential future use in skeletal tissue regeneration. The impact of frozen storage on hASC osteogenic differentiation, for example, has not been studied in detail. To examine the effects of frozen storage, hASCs were harvested from lipoaspirate and either maintained in standard culture conditions or frozen for 2 weeks under standard conditions (90% fetal bovine serum, 10% dimethyl sulfoxide). Next, in vitro parameters of cell morphology (surface electron microscopy [EM]), cell viability and growth (trypan blue; bromodeoxyuridine incorporation), osteogenic differentiation (alkaline phosphatase, alizarin red, and quantitative real-time (RT)-polymerase chain reaction), and adipogenic differentiation (Oil red O staining and quantitative RT-polymerase chain reaction) were performed. Finally, in vivo bone formation was assessed using a critical-sized cranial defect in athymic mice, utilizing a hydroxyapatite (HA)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold for ASC delivery. Healing was assessed by serial microcomputed tomography scans and histology. Freshly derived ASCs differed significantly from freeze-thaw ASCs in all markers examined. Surface EM showed distinct differences in cellular morphology. Proliferation, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation were all significantly hampered by the freeze-thaw process in vitro (*P?<?0.01). In vivo, near complete healing was observed among calvarial defects engrafted with fresh hASCs. This was in comparison to groups engrafted with freeze-thaw hASCs that showed little healing (*P?<?0.01). Finally, recombinant insulin-like growth factor 1 or recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 4 was observed to increase or rescue in vitro osteogenic differentiation among frozen hASCs (*P?<?0.01). The freezing of ASCs for storage significantly impacts their biology, both in vitro and in vivo. The ability of ASCs to successfully undergo osteogenic differentiation after freeze-thaw is substantively muted, both in vitro and in vivo. The use of recombinant proteins, however, may be used to mitigate the deleterious effects of the freeze-thaw process.
Project description:An urgent need exists in clinical medicine for suitable alternatives to available techniques for bone tissue repair. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) represent a readily available, autogenous cell source with well-documented in vivo osteogenic potential. In this article, we manipulated Noggin expression levels in hASCs using lentiviral and nonintegrating minicircle short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA) methodologies in vitro and in vivo to enhance hASC osteogenesis. Human ASCs with Noggin knockdown showed significantly increased bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and osteogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo, and when placed onto a BMP-releasing scaffold embedded with lentiviral Noggin shRNA particles, hASCs more rapidly healed mouse calvarial defects. This study therefore suggests that genetic targeting of hASCs combined with custom scaffold design can optimize hASCs for skeletal regenerative medicine.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Wnt/?-catenin pathway is involved in the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) under cyclic strain. Very little is known about the role of microRNAs in these events. METHODS:Cells were obtained using enzyme digestion methods, and proliferation was detected using Cell Counting Kit 8. Cell cycles and immunophenotypes were detected by flow cytometry. The multilineage potential of hASCs was induced by induction media. Cyclic strain was applied to hASCs (0.5?Hz, 2?h/day, 6?days) to induce osteogenic differentiation and miRNA changes. Bioinformatic and dual-luciferase analyses confirmed lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF1) as a potential target of let-7i-3p. The effect of let-7i-3p on LEF1 in hASCs transfected with a let-7i-3p mimic and inhibitor was analyzed by immunofluorescence. hASCs were transfected with a let-7i-3p mimic, inhibitor, or small interfering RNA (siRNA) against LEF1 and ?-catenin. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and western blotting were performed to examine the osteogenic markers and Wnt/?-catenin pathway at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Immunofluorescence and western blotting were performed to confirm the activation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. RESULTS:Flow cytometry showed that 82.12%?±?5.83% of the cells were in G1 phase and 17.88%?±?2.59% of the cells were in S/G2 phase; hASCs were positive for CD29, CD90, and CD105. hASCs could have the potential for osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation. MicroRNA screening via microarray showed that let-7i-3p expression was decreased under cyclic strain. Bioinformatic and dual-luciferase analyses confirmed that LEF1 in the Wnt/?-catenin pathway was the target of let-7i-3p. Under cyclic strain, the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs was promoted by overexpression of LEF1and ?-catenin and inhibited by overexpression of let-7i-3p. hASCs were transfected with let-7i-3p mimics and inhibitor. Gain- or loss-of-function analyses of let-7i-3p showed that the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs was promoted by decreased let-7i-3p expression and inhibited by increased let-7i-3p expression. Furthermore, high LEF1 expression inactivated the Wnt/?-catenin pathway in let-7i-3p-enhanced hASCs. In contrast, let-7i-3p inhibition activated the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. CONCLUSIONS:Let-7i-3p, acting as a negative regulator of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway by targeting LEF1, inhibits the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs under cyclic strain in vitro.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely studied with regard to their potential use in cell therapy protocols and regenerative medicine. However, a better comprehension about the factors and molecular mechanisms driving cell differentiation is now mandatory to improve our chance to manipulate MSC behavior and to benefit future applications. In this work, we aimed to study gene regulatory networks at an early step of osteogenic differentiation. Therefore, we analyzed both the total mRNA and the mRNA fraction associated with polysomes on human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) at 24?h of osteogenesis induction. The RNA-seq results evidenced that hASC fate is not compromised with osteogenesis at this time and that 21 days of continuous cell culture stimuli are necessary for full osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. Furthermore, early stages of osteogenesis induction involved gene regulation that was linked to the management of cell behavior in culture, such as the control of cell adhesion and proliferation. In conclusion, although discrete initial gene regulation related to osteogenesis occur, the first 24?h of induction is not sufficient to trigger and drive in vitro osteogenic differentiation of hASCs.