Curcumin Inhibits the PERK-eIF2?-CHOP Pathway through Promoting SIRT1 Expression in Oxidative Stress-induced Rat Chondrocytes and Ameliorates Osteoarthritis Progression in a Rat Model.
ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the occurrence and development of osteoarthritis (OA) through the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound with significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity among various diseases. To elucidate the role of curcumin in oxidative stress-induced chondrocyte apoptosis, this study investigated the effect of curcumin on ER stress-related apoptosis and its potential mechanism in oxidative stress-induced rat chondrocytes. The results of flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining showed that curcumin can significantly attenuate ER stress-associated apoptosis. Curcumin inhibited the expression of cleaved caspase3, cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and glucose-regulated protein78 (GRP78) and upregulated the chondroprotective protein Bcl2 in TBHP-treated chondrocytes. In addition, curcumin promoted the expression of silent information regulator factor 2-related enzyme 1 (SIRT1) and suppressed the expression of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), the ratio of p-PERK/PERK, p-eIF2?/eIF2?. Our anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) rat OA model research demonstrated that curcumin (50?mg/kg and 150?mg/kg) ameliorated the degeneration of articular cartilage and inhibited chondrocyte apoptosis in ACLT rats in a dose-dependent manner. By applying immunohistochemical analysis, we found that curcumin enhanced the expression of SIRT1 and inhibited the expression of CHOP and cleaved caspase3 in ACLT rats. Taken together, our present findings firstly indicate that curcumin could inhibit the PERK-eIF2?-CHOP axis of the ER stress response through the activation of SIRT1 in tert-Butyl hydroperoxide- (TBHP-) treated rat chondrocytes and ameliorated osteoarthritis development in vivo.
Project description:The NAD+-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) has emerged as an important regulator of chondrogenesis and cartilage homeostasis, processes that are important for physiological skeletal growth and that are dysregulated in osteoarthritis. However, the functional role and underlying mechanism by which SIRT1 regulates chondrogenesis remain unclear. Using cultured rat metatarsal bones and chondrocytes isolated from rat metatarsal rudiments, here we studied the effects of the SIRT1 inhibitor EX527 or of SIRT1 siRNA on chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and apoptosis. We show that EX527 or SIRT1 siRNA inhibits chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy and induces apoptosis. We also observed that SIRT1 inhibition mainly induces the PERK-eIF-2α-CHOP axis of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in growth-plate chondrocytes. Of note, EX527- or SIRT1 siRNA-mediated inhibition of metatarsal growth and growth-plate chondrogenesis were partly neutralized by phenylbutyric acid, a chemical chaperone that attenuates ER stress. Moreover, EX527-mediated impairment of chondrocyte function (i.e. of chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and apoptosis) was partly reversed in CHOP-/- cells. We also present evidence that SIRT1 physically interacts with and deacetylates PERK. Collectively, our findings indicate that SIRT1 deacetylates PERK and attenuates the PERK-eIF-2α-CHOP axis of the unfolded protein response pathway and thereby promotes growth-plate chondrogenesis and longitudinal bone growth.
Project description:Over the past decade, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has emerged as an important mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including heart failure. Cardiac therapy based on ER stress modulation is viewed as a promising avenue toward effective therapies for the diseased heart. Here, we tested whether sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), a NAD+-dependent deacetylase, participates in modulating ER stress response in the heart. Using cardiomyocytes and adult-inducible SIRT1 knockout mice, we demonstrate that SIRT1 inhibition or deficiency increases ER stress-induced cardiac injury, whereas activation of SIRT1 by the SIRT1-activating compound STAC-3 is protective. Analysis of the expression of markers of the three main branches of the unfolded protein response (i.e., PERK/eIF2?, ATF6 and IRE1) showed that SIRT1 protects cardiomyocytes from ER stress-induced apoptosis by attenuating PERK/eIF2? pathway activation. We also present evidence that SIRT1 physically interacts with and deacetylates eIF2?. Mass spectrometry analysis identified lysines K141 and K143 as the acetylation sites on eIF2? targeted by SIRT1. Furthermore, mutation of K143 to arginine to mimic eIF2? deacetylation confers protection against ER stress-induced apoptosis. Collectively, our findings indicate that eIF2? deacetylation on lysine K143 by SIRT1 is a novel regulatory mechanism for protecting cardiac cells from ER stress and suggest that activation of SIRT1 has potential as a therapeutic approach to protect the heart against ER stress-induced injury.
Project description:Avarol is a sesquiterpenoid hydroquinone with potent cytotoxicity. Although resolving endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is essential for intracellular homeostasis, erratic or excessive ER stress can lead to apoptosis. Here, we reported that avarol selectively induces cell death in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC), which are difficult to treat owing to the availability of few chemotherapeutic agents. Analyses of the molecular mechanisms of avarol-induced apoptosis indicated upregulation of ER stress marker BiP and ER stress-dependent apoptosis inducer CHOP in PDAC cells but not in normal cells, suggesting that avarol selectively induces ER stress responses. We also showed that avarol activated the PERK-eIF2? pathway but did not affect the IRE1 and ATF6 pathways. Moreover, CHOP downregulation was significantly suppressed by avarol-induced apoptosis. Thus, the PERK-eIF2?-CHOP signaling pathway may be a novel molecular mechanism of avarol-induced apoptosis. The present data indicate that avarol has potential as a chemotherapeutic agent for PDAC and induces apoptosis by activating the PERK-eIF2? pathway.
Project description:Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection induces autophagy and apoptosis. These cellular responses could be connected with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. It remains unknown if PCV2 induces ER stress and if autophagy or apoptosis is primary to PCV2 infection or secondary responses following ER stress. Here, we demonstrate that PCV2 triggered unfolded protein response (UPR) in PK-15 cells by activating the PERK/eIF2? pathway without concomitant activation of IRE1 or ATF6. Since ATF4 and CHOP were induced later than PERK/eIF2?, it is clear that persistent PCV2 infection could lead to selective activation of PERK via the PERK-eIF2?-ATF4-CHOP axis. Therefore, PERK activation could be part of the pro-apoptotic signaling via induced expression of CHOP by PCV2. Since PERK inhibition by GSK2606414 or RNA silencing or suppression of eIF2? dephosphorylation by salubrinal limited viral replication, we suppose that PCV2 deploys UPR to enhance its replication. Over-expression of GRP78 or treatment with tauroursodeoxycholic acid could enhance viral capsid expression and/or viral titers, indicating that these chaperones, endogenous or exogenous, could help correct folding of viral proteins. Our findings provide the first evidence that ER stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of PCV2 infection probably as part of autophagic and apoptotic responses.
Project description:In this study, the mechanism of Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV) p10.8 protein-induced pathogenesis was investigated, with a focus on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In chicken embryo fibroblasts cell lines (DF1), pCI-neo-flg-p10.8 protein transfection increased the phosphorylation (p-) levels of PERK and eIF2? as shown by Western blotting analysis and led to the dissociation of BiP from PERK as shown by co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) analysis. Results of treatment with both ER stress activator and inhibitor further confirmed that p10.8 protein induced ER stress. Subsequently, using flow cytometry analysis, it was also found that p10.8 protein induced cell cycle arrest during the G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, p10.8 transfection increased the phosphorylation levels of PERK and eIF2?, and reduced the expression levels of CDK2, CDK4, and Cyclin E according to Western blotting analysis. Treatment with ER stress activator and ER stress inhibitor after p10.8 protein transfection in DF1 cells further indicated that p10.8 protein induced ER stress, which resulted in cell cycle arrest. The results of knockdown of either PERK or eIF2? genes further confirmed that p10.8 protein-induced ER stress led to cell cycle arrest through the PERK/eIF2? pathway. Further results showed that p10.8 protein induced ER stress and apoptosis in DF1 cells. The expression levels of p-PERK, p-eIF2?, CHOP, cleaved-Caspase12, and cleaved-Caspase3 were increased by p10.8 protein. Test results of treatment with each of Tunicamycin, TUDCA and knockdown of PERK, and eIF2?, confirmed that p10.8 protein induced ER stress involving apoptosis via the PERK/eIF2? pathway. In conclusion, MDRV p10.8 protein induced ER stress that caused cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through the PERK/eIF2? pathway.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein misfolding activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to help cells cope with ER stress. If ER homeostasis is not restored, UPR promotes cell death. The mechanisms of UPR-mediated cell death are poorly understood. The PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) arm of the UPR is implicated in ER stress-induced cell death, in part through up-regulation of proapoptotic CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Chop((-)/(-)) cells are partially resistant to ER stress-induced cell death, and CHOP overexpression alone does not induce cell death. These findings suggest that additional mechanisms regulate cell death downstream of PERK. Here we find dramatic suppression of antiapoptosis XIAP proteins in response to chronic ER stress. We find that PERK down-regulates XIAP synthesis through eIF2? and promotes XIAP degradation through ATF4. Of interest, PERK's down-regulation of XIAP occurs independently of CHOP activity. Loss of XIAP leads to increased cell death, whereas XIAP overexpression significantly enhances resistance to ER stress-induced cell death, even in the absence of CHOP. Our findings define a novel signaling circuit between PERK and XIAP that operates in parallel with PERK to CHOP induction to influence cell survival during ER stress. We propose a "two-hit" model of ER stress-induced cell death involving concomitant CHOP up-regulation and XIAP down-regulation both induced by PERK.
Project description:Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) is one of the important virulence factors produced by H. pylori. VacA induces apoptotic cell death, which is potentiated by ammonia. VacA also causes cell death by mitochondrial damage, via signaling pathways that are not fully defined. Our aim was to determine whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with VacA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. We found that C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a key signaling protein of ER stress-induced apoptosis, was transcriptionally up-regulated following incubation of gastric epithelial cells with VacA. The effect of VacA on CHOP induction was significantly enhanced by co-incubation with ammonium chloride. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2)-alpha, which is known to occur downstream of the ER stress sensor PKR-like ER-localized eIF2-alpha kinase (PERK) and to regulate CHOP expression, was also observed following incubation with VacA in the presence of ammonium chloride. Knockdown of CHOP by siRNA resulted in inhibition of VacA-induced apoptosis. Further studies showed that silencing of the PERK gene with siRNA attenuated VacA-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2-alpha, CHOP induction, expression of BH3-only protein Bim and Bax activation, and cell death induced by VacA with ammonium chloride, indicating that ER stress may lead to mitochondrial dysfunction during VacA-induced toxicity. Activation of ER stress and up-regulation of BH3-only proteins were also observed in human H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa. Collectively, this study reveals a possible association between VacA-induced apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells, and activation of ER stress in H. pylori-positive gastric mucosa.
Project description:Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has recently been reported to elicit the unfolded protein response (UPR) via activation of the PERK/eIF2? (RNA-activated protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase/eukaryotic initiation factor 2?) pathway. This study attempted to examine which viral protein might be involved in inducing UPR and whether this cellular event would lead to apoptosis of the cells expressing the viral protein. By transient expression, we found that both replicase (Rep) and capsid (Cap) proteins of PCV2 could induce ER stress as shown by increased phosphorylation of PERK with subsequent activation of the eIF2?-ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4)-CHOP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein) axis. Cap expression, but not Rep, significantly reduced anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and increased caspase-3 cleavage, possibly due to increased expression of CHOP. Since knockdown of PERK by RNA interference clearly reduced Cap-induced CHOP expression, caspase-3 cleavage, and apoptotic cell death possibly by partially rescuing Bcl-2 expression, we propose that there is connection between Cap-induced UPR and apoptosis via the PERK/eIF2?/ATF4/CHOP/Bcl-2 pathway. This study, together with our earlier studies, provides insight into the mechanisms underlying PCV2 pathogenesis.
Project description:Although obesity is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in adipose tissue, it is not known how UPR signalling affects adipogenesis. To test whether signalling through protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase/eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (PERK/eIF2?) or inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha/X-box binding protein 1 (IRE1?/XBP1) is required for adipogenesis, we studied the role of UPR signalling in adipocyte differentiation in vitro and in vivo in mice.The role of UPR signalling in adipogenesis was investigated using 3T3-L1 cells and primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) by activation or inhibition of PERK-mediated phosphorylation of the eIF2?- and IRE1?-mediated splicing of Xbp1 mRNA. Body weight change, fat mass composition and adipocyte number and size were measured in wild-type and genetically engineered mice fed a control or high-fat diet (HFD).ER stress repressed adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Impaired eIF2? phosphorylation enhanced adipocyte differentiation in MEFs, as well as in mice. In contrast, increased eIF2? phosphorylation reduced adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Forced production of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP), a downstream target of eIF2? phosphorylation, inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Mice with deletion of Chop (also known as Ddit3) (Chop (-/-)) gained more fat mass than wild-type mice on HFD. In addition, Chop deletion in genetically obese Lepr (db/db) mice increased body fat mass without altering adipocyte size. In contrast to the eIF2?-CHOP pathway, activation or deletion of Ire1a (also known as Ern1) did not alter adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.These results demonstrate that eIF2?-CHOP suppresses adipogenesis and limits expansion of fat mass in vivo in mice, rendering this pathway a potential therapeutic target.
Project description:Fuziline, an aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloid derived from Aconiti lateralis radix preparata, has been reported to have a cardioprotective activity in vitro. However, the potential mechanism of fuziline on myocardial protection remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to explore the efficacy and mechanism of fuziline on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial injury in vitro and in vivo. As a result, fuziline effectively increased cell viability and alleviated ISO-induced apoptosis. Meanwhile, fuziline significantly decreased the production of ROS, maintained mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and blocked the release of cytochrome C, suggesting that fuziline could play the cardioprotective role through restoring the mitochondrial function. Fuziline also could suppress ISO-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress via the PERK/eIF2?/ATF4/Chop pathway. In addition, using ROS scavenger NAC could decrease ISO-induced apoptosis and block ISO-induced ER stress, while PERK inhibitor GSK2606414 did not reduce the production of ROS, indicating that excess production of ROS induced by ISO triggered ER stress. And fuziline protected against ISO-induced myocardial injury by inhibiting ROS-triggered ER stress. Furthermore, fuziline effectively improved cardiac function on ISO-induced myocardial injury in rats. Western blot analysis also showed that fuziline reduced ER stress-induced apoptosis in vivo. Above these results demonstrated that fuziline could reduce ISO-induced myocardial injury in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting ROS-triggered ER stress via the PERK/eIF2?/ATF4/Chop pathway.