Symmetry transitions during gating of the TRPV2 ion channel in lipid membranes.
ABSTRACT: The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) channel is a member of the temperature-sensing thermoTRPV family. Recent advances in cryo-electronmicroscopy (cryo-EM) and X-ray crystallography have provided many important insights into the gating mechanisms of thermoTRPV channels. Interestingly, crystallographic studies of ligand-dependent TRPV2 gating have shown that the TRPV2 channel adopts two-fold symmetric arrangements during the gating cycle. However, it was unclear if crystal packing forces played a role in stabilizing the two-fold symmetric arrangement of the channel. Here, we employ cryo-EM to elucidate the structure of full-length rabbit TRPV2 in complex with the agonist resiniferatoxin (RTx) in nanodiscs and amphipol. We show that RTx induces two-fold symmetric conformations of TRPV2 in both environments. However, the two-fold symmetry is more pronounced in the native-like lipid environment of the nanodiscs. Our data offers insights into a gating pathway in TRPV2 involving symmetry transitions.
Project description:Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) plays a critical role in neuronal development, cardiac function, immunity, and cancer. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-psychotropic therapeutically active ingredient of Cannabis sativa, is an activator of TRPV2 and also modulates other transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Here, we determined structures of the full-length rat TRPV2 channel in apo and CBD-bound states in nanodiscs by cryo-electron microscopy. We show that CBD interacts with TRPV2 through a hydrophobic pocket located between S5 and S6 helices of adjacent subunits, which differs from known ligand and lipid binding sites in other TRP channels. CBD-bound TRPV2 structures revealed that the S4-S5 linker plays a critical role in channel gating upon CBD binding. Additionally, nanodiscs permitted us to visualize two distinct TRPV2 apo states in a lipid environment. Together these results provide a foundation to further understand TRPV channel gating, their divergent physiological functions, and to accelerate structure-based drug design.
Project description:Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels are activated by ligands and heat and are involved in various physiological processes. In contrast to the architecturally related voltage-gated cation channels, TRPV1 and TRPV2 subtypes possess another activation gate at the selectivity filter that can open widely enough to permeate large organic cations. Despite recent structural advances, the mechanism of selectivity filter gating and permeation for both metal ions and large molecules by TRPV1 or TRPV2 is not well known. Here, we determined two crystal structures of rabbit TRPV2 in its Ca2+-bound and resiniferatoxin (RTx)- and Ca2+-bound forms, to 3.9?Å and 3.1?Å, respectively. Notably, our structures show that RTx binding leads to two-fold symmetric opening of the selectivity filter of TRPV2 that is wide enough for large organic cation permeation. Combined with functional characterizations, our studies reveal a structural basis for permeation of Ca2+ and large organic cations in TRPV2.
Project description:Prokaryotic mechanosensitive (MS) channels open by sensing the physical state of the membrane. As such, lipid-protein interactions represent the defining molecular process underlying mechanotransduction. Here, we describe cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of the E. coli small-conductance mechanosensitive channel (MscS) in nanodiscs (ND). They reveal a novel membrane-anchoring fold that plays a significant role in channel activation and establish a new location for the lipid bilayer, shifted ~14 Å from previous consensus placements. Two types of lipid densities are explicitly observed. A phospholipid that 'hooks' the top of each TM2-TM3 hairpin and likely plays a role in force sensing, and a bundle of acyl chains occluding the permeation path above the L105 cuff. These observations reshape our understanding of force-from-lipids gating in MscS and highlight the key role of allosteric interactions between TM segments and phospholipids bound to key dynamic components of the channel.
Project description:Glycinergic synapses play a central role in motor control and pain processing in the central nervous system. Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are key players in mediating fast inhibitory neurotransmission at these synapses. While previous high-resolution structures have provided insights into the molecular architecture of GlyR, several mechanistic questions pertaining to channel function are still unanswered. Here, we present Cryo-EM structures of the full-length GlyR protein complex reconstituted into lipid nanodiscs that are captured in the unliganded (closed), glycine-bound (open and desensitized), and allosteric modulator-bound conformations. A comparison of these states reveals global conformational changes underlying GlyR channel gating and modulation. The functional state assignments were validated by molecular dynamics simulations, and the observed permeation events are in agreement with the anion selectivity and conductance of GlyR. These studies provide the structural basis for gating, ion selectivity, and single-channel conductance properties of GlyR in a lipid environment.
Project description:Fast excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system is largely carried out by AMPA-sensitive ionotropic glutamate receptors. Localized within the postsynaptic density of glutamatergic spines, AMPA receptors are composed of heterotetrameric receptor assemblies associated with auxiliary subunits, the most common of which are transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs). The association of TARPs with AMPA receptors modulates receptor trafficking and the kinetics of receptor gating and pharmacology. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the homomeric rat GluA2 AMPA receptor saturated with TARP ?2 subunits, which shows how the TARPs are arranged with four-fold symmetry around the ion channel domain and make extensive interactions with the M1, M2 and M4 transmembrane helices. Poised like partially opened ‘hands’ underneath the two-fold symmetric ligand-binding domain (LBD) 'clamshells', one pair of TARPs is juxtaposed near the LBD dimer interface, whereas the other pair is near the LBD dimer-dimer interface. The extracellular ‘domains’ of TARP are positioned to not only modulate LBD clamshell closure, but also affect conformational rearrangements of the LBD layer associated with receptor activation and desensitization, while the TARP transmembrane domains buttress the ion channel pore.
Project description:Transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins are a large family of polymodal nonselective cation channels. The TRP vanilloid (TRPV) subfamily consists of six homologous members with diverse functions. TRPV1-TRPV4 are nonselective cation channels proposed to play a role in nociception, while TRPV5 and TRPV6 are involved in epithelial Ca²? homeostasis. Here we present the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of functional, full-length TRPV2 at 13.6 Å resolution. The map reveals that the TRPV2 cytoplasmic domain displays a 4-fold petal-like shape in which high-resolution N-terminal ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) structures can be unambiguously fitted. Fitting of the available ARD structures for other TRPV subfamily members into the TRPV2 EM map suggests that TRPV subfamily members have highly homologous structural topologies. These results allowed us to postulate a structural explanation for the functional diversity among TRPV channels and their differential regulation by proteins and ligands.
Project description:The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV) channel is activated by an array of stimuli, including heat and vanilloid compounds. The TRPV1 homologues TRPV2 and TRPV3 are also activated by heat, but sensitivity to vanilloids and many other agonists is not conserved among TRPV subfamily members. It was recently discovered that four mutations in TRPV2 are sufficient to render the channel sensitive to the TRPV1-specific vanilloid agonist resiniferatoxin (RTx). Here, we show that mutation of six residues in TRPV3 corresponding to the vanilloid site in TRPV1 is sufficient to engineer RTx binding. However, robust activation of TRPV3 by RTx requires facilitation of channel opening by introducing mutations in the pore, temperatures > 30°C, or sensitization with another agonist. Our results demonstrate that the energetics of channel activation can determine the apparent sensitivity to a stimulus and suggest that allosteric pathways for activation are conserved in the TRPV family.
Project description:Otopetrins (Otop1-Otop3) comprise one of two known eukaryotic proton-selective channel families. Otop1 is required for otoconia formation and a candidate mammalian sour taste receptor. Here we report cryo-EM structures of zebrafish Otop1 and chicken Otop3 in lipid nanodiscs. The structures reveal a dimeric architecture, with each subunit forming 12?transmembrane helices divided into structurally similar amino (N) and carboxy (C) domains. Cholesterol-like molecules occupy various sites in Otop1 and Otop3 and occlude a central tunnel. In molecular dynamics simulations, hydrophilic vestibules formed by the N and C?domains and in the intrasubunit interface between N and C?domains form conduits for water entry into the membrane core, suggesting three potential proton conduction pathways. By mutagenesis, we tested the roles of charged residues in each putative permeation pathway. Our results provide a structural basis for understanding selective proton permeation and gating of this conserved family of proton channels.
Project description:Cardiac potassium channels encoded by human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) are major targets for structurally diverse drugs associated with acquired long QT syndrome. This study characterized hERG channel inhibition by a minimally structured high-affinity hERG inhibitor, Cavalli-2, composed of three phenyl groups linked by polymethylene spacers around a central amino group, chosen to probe the spatial arrangement of side chain groups in the high-affinity drug-binding site of the hERG pore. hERG current (IhERG) recorded at physiological temperature from HEK293 cells was inhibited with an IC50 of 35.6 nm with time and voltage dependence characteristic of blockade contingent upon channel gating. Potency of Cavalli-2 action was markedly reduced for attenuated inactivation mutants located near (S620T; 54-fold) and remote from (N588K; 15-fold) the channel pore. The S6 Y652A and F656A mutations decreased inhibitory potency 17- and 75-fold, respectively, whereas T623A and S624A at the base of the selectivity filter also decreased potency (16- and 7-fold, respectively). The S5 helix F557L mutation decreased potency 10-fold, and both F557L and Y652A mutations eliminated voltage dependence of inhibition. Computational docking using the recent cryo-EM structure of an open channel hERG construct could only partially recapitulate experimental data, and the high dependence of Cavalli-2 block on Phe-656 is not readily explainable in that structure. A small clockwise rotation of the inner (S6) helix of the hERG pore from its configuration in the cryo-EM structure may be required to optimize Phe-656 side chain orientations compatible with high-affinity block.
Project description:Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated Ca2+ release channels that are responsible for the increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration leading to muscle contraction. Our current understanding of RyR channel gating and regulation is greatly limited due to the lack of a high-resolution structure of the channel protein. The enormous size and unwieldy shape of Ca2+ release channels make X-ray or NMR methods difficult to apply for high-resolution structural analysis of the full-length functional channel. Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is one of the only effective techniques for the study of such a large integral membrane protein and its molecular interactions. Despite recent developments in cryo-EM technologies and break-through single-particle cryo-EM studies of ion channels, cryospecimen preparation, particularly the presence of detergent in the buffer, remains the main impediment to obtaining atomic-resolution structures of ion channels and a multitude of other integral membrane protein complexes. In this review we will discuss properties of several detergents that have been successfully utilized in cryo-EM studies of ion channels and the emergence of the detergent alternative amphipol to stabilize ion channels for structure-function characterization. Future structural studies of challenging specimen like ion channels are likely to be facilitated by cryo-EM amenable detergents or alternative surfactants.