The Blue-Light Photoreceptor Sfwc-1 Gene Regulates the Phototropic Response and Fruiting-Body Development in the Homothallic Ascomycete Sordaria fimicola.
ABSTRACT: Sordaria fimicola, a coprophilous ascomycete, is a homothallic fungus that can undergo sexual differentiation with cellular and morphological changes followed by multicellular tissue development to complete its sexual cycle. In this study, we identified and characterized the blue-light photoreceptor gene in S. fimicola The S. fimicola white collar-1 photoreceptor (SfWC-1) contains light-oxygen-voltage-sensing (LOV), Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS), and other conserved domains and is homologous to the WC-1 blue-light photoreceptor of Neurospora crassa The LOV domain of Sfwc-1 was deleted by homologous recombination using Agrobacterium-mediated protoplast transformation. The Sfwc-1 ( ?lov ) mutant showed normal vegetative growth but produced less carotenoid pigment under illumination. The mutant showed delayed and less-pronounced fruiting-body formation, was defective in phototropism of the perithecial beaks, and lacked the fruiting-body zonation pattern compared with the wild type under the illumination condition. Gene expression analyses supported the light-induced functions of the Sfwc-1 gene in the physiology and developmental process of perithecial formation in S. fimicola Moreover, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged SfWC-1 fluorescence signals were transiently strong upon light induction and prominently located inside the nuclei of living hyphae. Our studies focused on the putative blue-light photoreceptor in a model ascomycete and contribute to a better understanding of the photoregulatory functions and networks mediated by the evolutionarily conserved blue-light photoreceptors across diverse fungal phyla.IMPORTANCE Sordaria sp. has been a model for study of fruiting-body differentiation in fungi. Several environmental factors, including light, affect cellular and morphological changes during multicellular tissue development. Here, we created a light-oxygen-voltage-sensing (LOV) domain-deleted Sfwc-1 mutant to study blue-light photoresponses in Sordaria fimicola Phototropism and rhythmic zonation of perithecia were defective in the Sfwc-1 ( ?lov ) mutant. Moreover, fruiting-body development in the mutant was reduced and also significantly delayed. Gene expression analysis and subcellular localization study further revealed the light-induced differential gene expression and cellular responses upon light stimulation in S. fimicola.
Project description:Plants and fungi respond to environmental light stimuli via the action of different photoreceptor modules. One such class, responding to the blue region of light, is constituted by photoreceptors containing so-called light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domains as sensor modules. Four major LOV families are currently identified in eukaryotes: (i) the plant phototropins, regulating various physiological effects such as phototropism, chloroplast relocation, and stomatal opening; (ii) the aureochromes, mediating photomorphogenesis in photosynthetic stramenopile algae; (iii) the plant circadian photoreceptors of the zeitlupe (ZTL)/adagio (ADO)/flavin-binding Kelch repeat F-box protein 1 (FKF1) family; and (iv) the fungal circadian photoreceptors white-collar 1 (WC-1). Blue-light-sensitive LOV signaling modules are also widespread throughout the prokaryotic world, and physiological responses mediated by bacterial LOV photoreceptors were recently reported. Thus, the question arises as to the evolutionary relationship between the pro- and eukaryotic LOV photoreceptor systems. We used Bayesian and maximum-likelihood tree reconstruction methods to infer evolutionary scenarios that might have led to the widespread appearance of LOV domains among the pro- and eukaryotes. The phylogenetic study presented here suggests a bacterial origin for the LOV domains of the four major eukaryotic LOV photoreceptor families, whereas the LOV sensor domains were most likely recruited from the bacteria in the course of plastid and mitochondrial endosymbiosis.
Project description:Phototropin, a major blue-light receptor for phototropism in seed plants, exhibits blue-light-dependent autophosphorylation and contains two light, oxygen, or voltage (LOV) domains and a serine/threonine kinase domain. The LOV domains share homology with the PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) superfamily, a diverse group of sensor proteins. Each LOV domain noncovalently binds a single FMN molecule and exhibits reversible photochemistry in vitro when expressed separately or in tandem. We have determined the crystal structure of the LOV2 domain from the phototropin segment of the chimeric fern photoreceptor phy3 to 2.7-A resolution. The structure constitutes an FMN-binding fold that reveals how the flavin cofactor is embedded in the protein. The single LOV2 cysteine residue is located 4.2 A from flavin atom C(4a), consistent with a model in which absorption of blue light induces formation of a covalent cysteinyl-C(4a) adduct. Residues that interact with FMN in the phototropin segment of the chimeric fern photoreceptor (phy3) LOV2 are conserved in LOV domains from phototropin of other plant species and from three proteins involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis and Neurospora. This conservation suggests that these domains exhibit the same overall fold and share a common mechanism for flavin binding and light-induced signaling.
Project description:We recently investigated the roles of the phototropin 1 (PHOT1) LOV (light, oxygen or voltage) domains in mediating phototropic curvature in transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings expressing either wild-type PHOT1 or PHOT1 with one or both LOV domains inactivated by a single amino acid replacement. We have now investigated the role of the PHOT1 LOV domains in chloroplast movement and in leaf positioning in response to blue light. Low fluence rate blue light is known to mediate a chloroplast accumulation response and high fluence rate blue light an avoidance response in Arabidopsis leaves. As was the case for phototropism, LOV2 of PHOT1 is essential for chloroplast accumulation and LOV1 is dispensable. PHOT1 LOV2 is also essential to maintain developing primary leaves in a horizontal position under white light from above and LOV1 is again dispensable. A red light pulse given to dark-adapted light-grown plants followed by 2 h of darkness enhances both the chloroplast accumulation response under dim blue light and the chloroplast avoidance response under strong blue light. The effect is far-red reversible. This photoreversible response is normal in a phyB null mutant but does not appear in a phyA null mutant. These results suggest that phyA mediates the enhancement, induced by a red light pulse, of blue light-induced chloroplast movements.
Project description:Phototropins (phots) are plasma membrane-associated serine/threonine kinases that coordinate a range of processes linked to optimizing photosynthetic efficiency in plants. These photoreceptors contain two light-, oxygen-, or voltage-sensing (LOV) domains within their N terminus, with each binding one molecule of flavin mononucleotide as a UV/blue light-absorbing chromophore. Although phots contain two LOV domains, light-induced activation of the C-terminal kinase domain and subsequent receptor autophosphorylation is controlled primarily by the A'α-LOV2-Jα photosensory module. Mutations that disrupt interactions between the LOV2 core and its flanking helical segments can uncouple this mode of light regulation. However, the impact of these mutations on phot function in Arabidopsis has not been explored. Here we report that histidine substitution of Arg-472 located within the A'α-helix of Arabidopsis phot1 constitutively activates phot1 kinase activity in vitro without affecting LOV2 photochemistry. Expression analysis of phot1 R472H in the phot-deficient mutant confirmed that it is autophosphorylated in darkness in vivo but unable to initiate phot1 signaling in the absence of light. Instead, we found that phot1 R472H is poorly functional under low-light conditions but can restore phototropism, chloroplast accumulation, stomatal opening, and leaf positioning and expansion at higher light intensities. Our findings suggest that Arabidopsis can adapt to the elevated phosphorylation status of the phot1 R472H mutant in part by reducing its stability, whereas the activity of the mutant under high-light conditions can be attributed to additional increases in LOV2-mediated photoreceptor autophosphorylation.
Project description:The biological and regulatory roles of photosensory proteins are poorly understood for nonphotosynthetic bacteria. The foliar bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae has three photosensory protein-encoding genes that are predicted to encode the blue-light-sensing LOV (light, oxygen, or voltage) histidine kinase (LOV-HK) and two red/far-red-light-sensing bacteriophytochromes, BphP1 and BphP2. We provide evidence that LOV-HK and BphP1 form an integrated network that regulates swarming motility in response to multiple light wavelengths. The swarming motility of P. syringae B728a deletion mutants indicated that LOV-HK positively regulates swarming motility in response to blue light and BphP1 negatively regulates swarming motility in response to red and far-red light. BphP2 does not detectably regulate swarming motility. The histidine kinase activity of each LOV-HK and BphP1 is required for this regulation based on the loss of complementation upon mutation of residues key to their kinase activity. Surprisingly, mutants lacking both lov and bphP1 were similar in motility to a bphP1 single mutant in blue light, indicating that the loss of bphP1 is epistatic to the loss of lov and also that BphP1 unexpectedly responds to blue light. Moreover, whereas expression of bphP1 did not alter motility under blue light in a bphP1 mutant, it reduced motility in a mutant lacking lov and bphP1, demonstrating that LOV-HK positively regulates motility by suppressing negative regulation by BphP1. These results are the first to show cross talk between the LOV protein and phytochrome signaling pathways in bacteria, and the similarity of this regulatory network to that of photoreceptors in plants suggests a possible common ancestry. IMPORTANCE Photosensory proteins enable organisms to perceive and respond to light. The biological and ecological roles of these proteins in nonphotosynthetic bacteria are largely unknown. This study discovered that a blue-light-sensing LOV (light, oxygen, or voltage) protein and a red/far-red-light-sensing bacteriophytochrome both regulate swarming motility in the foliar pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. These proteins form an integrated signaling network in which the bacteriophytochrome represses swarming motility in response to red, far-red, and blue light, and LOV positively regulates swarming motility by suppressing bacteriophytochrome-mediated blue-light signaling. This is the first example of cross talk between LOV and phytochrome signaling pathways in bacteria, which shows unexpected similarity to photoreceptor signaling in plants.
Project description:The fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus reacts to environmental signals, including light, gravity, touch, and the presence of nearby objects, by changing the speed and direction of growth of its fruiting body (sporangiophore). Phototropism, growth toward light, shares many features in fungi and plants but the molecular mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Phycomyces mutants with altered phototropism were isolated approximately 40 years ago and found to have mutations in the mad genes. All of the responses to light in Phycomyces require the products of the madA and madB genes. We showed that madA encodes a protein similar to the Neurospora blue-light photoreceptor, zinc-finger protein WC-1. We show here that madB encodes a protein similar to the Neurospora zinc-finger protein WC-2. MADA and MADB interact to form a complex in yeast 2-hybrid assays and when coexpressed in E. coli, providing evidence that phototropism and other responses to light are mediated by a photoresponsive transcription factor complex. The Phycomyces genome contains 3 genes similar to wc-1, and 4 genes similar to wc-2, many of which are regulated by light in a madA or madB dependent manner. We did not detect any interactions between additional WC proteins in yeast 2-hybrid assays, which suggest that MADA and MADB form the major photoreceptor complex in Phycomyces. However, the presence of multiple wc genes in Phycomyces may enable perception across a broad range of light intensities, and may provide specialized photoreceptors for distinct photoresponses.
Project description:Recent studies have demonstrated that an appropriate light environment is required for the establishment of efficient vegetal resistance responses in several plant-pathogen interactions. The photoreceptors implicated in such responses are mainly those belonging to the phytochrome family. Data obtained from bacterial genome sequences revealed the presence of photosensory proteins of the BLUF (Blue Light sensing Using FAD), LOV (Light, Oxygen, Voltage) and phytochrome families with no known functions. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for citrus canker. The in silico analysis of the X. axonopodis pv. citri genome sequence revealed the presence of a gene encoding a putative LOV photoreceptor, in addition to two genes encoding BLUF proteins. This suggests that blue light sensing could play a role in X. axonopodis pv. citri physiology. We obtained the recombinant Xac-LOV protein by expression in Escherichia coli and performed a spectroscopic analysis of the purified protein, which demonstrated that it has a canonical LOV photochemistry. We also constructed a mutant strain of X. axonopodis pv. citri lacking the LOV protein and found that the loss of this protein altered bacterial motility, exopolysaccharide production and biofilm formation. Moreover, we observed that the adhesion of the mutant strain to abiotic and biotic surfaces was significantly diminished compared to the wild-type. Finally, inoculation of orange (Citrus sinensis) leaves with the mutant strain of X. axonopodis pv. citri resulted in marked differences in the development of symptoms in plant tissues relative to the wild-type, suggesting a role for the Xac-LOV protein in the pathogenic process. Altogether, these results suggest the novel involvement of a photosensory system in the regulation of physiological attributes of a phytopathogenic bacterium. A functional blue light receptor in Xanthomonas spp. has been described for the first time, showing an important role in virulence during citrus canker disease.
Project description:Phototropism, or plant growth in response to unidirectional light, is an adaptive response of crucial importance. Lateral differences in low fluence rates of blue light are detected by phototropin 1 (phot1) in Arabidopsis. Only NONPHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL 3 (NPH3) and root phototropism 2, both belonging to the same family of proteins, have been previously identified as phototropin-interacting signal transducers involved in phototropism. PHYTOCHROME KINASE SUBSTRATE (PKS) 1 and PKS2 are two phytochrome signaling components belonging to a small gene family in Arabidopsis (PKS1-PKS4). The strong enhancement of PKS1 expression by blue light and its light induction in the elongation zone of the hypocotyl prompted us to study the function of this gene family during phototropism. Photobiological experiments show that the PKS proteins are critical for hypocotyl phototropism. Furthermore, PKS1 interacts with phot1 and NPH3 in vivo at the plasma membrane and in vitro, indicating that the PKS proteins may function directly with phot1 and NPH3 to mediate phototropism. The phytochromes are known to influence phototropism but the mechanism involved is still unclear. We show that PKS1 induction by a pulse of blue light is phytochrome A-dependent, suggesting that the PKS proteins may provide a molecular link between these two photoreceptor families.
Project description:In plant photomorphogenesis, it is well accepted that the perception of red/far-red and blue light is mediated by distinct photoreceptor families, i.e., the phytochromes and blue-light photoreceptors, respectively. Here we describe the discovery of a photoreceptor gene from the fern Adiantum that encodes a protein with features of both phytochrome and NPH1, the putative blue-light receptor for second-positive phototropism in seed plants. The fusion of a functional photosensory domain of phytochrome with a nearly full-length NPH1 homolog suggests that this polypeptide could mediate both red/far-red and blue-light responses in Adiantum normally ascribed to distinct photoreceptors.
Project description:Blakeslea trispora is an industrial fungal species used for large-scale production of carotenoids. However, B. trispora light-regulated physiological processes, such as carotenoid biosynthesis and phototropism, are not fully understood. In this study, we isolated and characterized three photoreceptor genes, btwc-1a, btwc-1b, and btwc-1c, in B. trispora Bioinformatics analyses of these genes and their protein sequences revealed that the functional domains (PAS/LOV [Per-ARNT-Sim/light-oxygen-voltage] domain and zinc finger structure) of the proteins have significant homology to those of other fungal blue-light regulator proteins expressed by Mucor circinelloides and Neurospora crassa The photoreceptor proteins were synthesized by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli The chromogenic groups consisting of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) were detected to accompany BTWC-1 proteins by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fluorescence spectrometry, demonstrating that the proteins may be photosensitive. The absorbance changes of the purified BTWC-1 proteins seen under dark and light conditions indicated that they were light responsive and underwent a characteristic photocycle by light induction. Site-directed mutagenesis of the cysteine residual (Cys) in BTWC-1 did not affect the normal expression of the protein in E. coli but did lead to the loss of photocycle response, indicating that Cys represents a flavin-binding domain for photon detection. We then analyzed the functions of BTWC-1 proteins by complementing btwc-1a, btwc-1b, and btwc-1c into the counterpart knockout strains of M. circinelloides for each mcwc-1 gene. Transformation of the btwc-1a complement into mcwc-1a knockout strains restored the positive phototropism, while the addition of btwc-1c complement remedied the deficiency of carotene biosynthesis in the mcwc-1c knockout strains under conditions of illumination. These results indicate that btwc-1a and btwc-1c are involved in phototropism and light-inducible carotenogenesis. Thus, btwc-1 genes share a conserved flavin-binding domain and act as photoreceptors for control of different light transduction pathways in B. trispora IMPORTANCE Studies have confirmed that light-regulated carotenogenesis is prevalent in filamentous fungi, especially in mucorales. However, few investigations have been done to understand photoinduced synthesis of carotenoids and related mechanisms in B. trispora, a well-known industrial microbial strains. In the present study, three photoreceptor genes in B. trispora were cloned, expressed, and characterized by bioinformatics and photoreception analyses, and then in vivo functional analyses of these genes were constructed in M. circinelloides The results of this study will lead to a better understanding of photoreception and light-regulated carotenoid synthesis and other physiological responses in B. trispora.