H2O2 induces nuclear transport of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-MET in breast cancer cells via a membrane-bound retrograde trafficking mechanism.
ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are cellular by-products produced from metabolism and also anticancer agents, such as ionizing irradiation and chemotherapy drugs. The ROS H2O2 has high rates of production in cancer cells because of their rapid proliferation. ROS oxidize DNA, protein, and lipids, causing oxidative stress in cancer cells and making them vulnerable to other stresses. Therefore, cancer cell survival relies on maintaining ROS-induced stress at tolerable levels. Hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET) is a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed in malignant cancer types, including breast cancer. Full-length c-MET triggers a signal transduction cascade from the plasma membrane that, through downstream signaling proteins, up-regulates cell proliferation and migration. Recently, c-MET was shown to interact and phosphorylate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in the nucleus and to induce poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor resistance. However, it remains unclear how c-MET moves from the cell membrane to the nucleus. Here, we demonstrate that H2O2 induces retrograde transport of membrane-associated full-length c-MET into the nucleus of human MCF10A and MCF12A or primary breast cancer cells. We further show that knocking down either coatomer protein complex subunit ?1 (COPG1) or Sec61 translocon ? subunit (SEC61?) attenuates the accumulation of full-length nuclear c-MET. However, a c-MET kinase inhibitor did not block nuclear c-MET transport. Moreover, nuclear c-MET interacted with KU proteins in breast cancer cells, suggesting a role of full-length nuclear c-MET in ROS-induced DNA damage repair. We conclude that a membrane-bound retrograde vesicle transport mechanism facilitates membrane-to-nucleus transport of c-MET in breast cancer cells.
Project description:Accumulating evidence indicates that endocytosis plays an essential role in the nuclear transport of the ErbB family members, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB-2. Nevertheless, how full-length receptors embedded in the endosomal membrane pass through the nuclear pore complexes and function as non-membrane-bound receptors in the nucleus remains unclear. Here we show that upon EGF treatment, the biotinylated cell surface EGFR is trafficked to the inner nuclear membrane (INM) through the nuclear pore complexes, remaining in a membrane-bound environment. We further find that importin ? regulates EGFR nuclear transport to the INM in addition to the nucleus/nucleoplasm. Unexpectedly, the well known endoplasmic reticulum associated translocon Sec61? is found to reside in the INM and associate with EGFR. Knocking down Sec61? expression reduces EGFR level in the nucleoplasm portion and accumulates it in the INM portion. Thus, the Sec61? translocon plays an unrecognized role in the release of the membrane-anchored EGFR from the lipid bilayer of the INM to the nucleus. The newly identified Sec61? function provides an alternative pathway for nuclear transport that can be utilized by membrane-embedded proteins such as full-length EGFR.
Project description:Nuclear localization of multiple receptor-tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as EGF receptor (EGFR), ErbB-2, FGF receptor (FGFR), and many others, has been reported by several groups. We previously showed that cell surface EGFR is trafficked to the nucleus through a retrograde pathway from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that EGFR is then translocated to the inner nuclear membrane (INM) through the INTERNET (integral trafficking from the ER to the nuclear envelope transport) pathway. However, the nuclear trafficking mechanisms of other membrane RTKs, apart from EGFR, remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the nuclear transport of EGFR family proteins with that of FGFR-1. Interestingly, we found that digitonin permeabilization, which selectively releases soluble nuclear transporters from the cytoplasm and has been shown to inhibit nuclear transport of FGFR-1, had no effects on EGFR nuclear transport, raising the possibility that EGFR and FGFR-1 use different pathways to be translocated into the nucleus. Using the subnuclear fractionation assay, we further demonstrated that biotinylated cell surface ErbB-2, but not FGFR-1, is targeted to the INM, associating with Sec61? in the INM, similar to the nuclear trafficking of EGFR. Thus, ErbB-2, but not FGFR-1, shows a similar trafficking pathway to EGFR for translocation to the nucleus, indicating that at least two different pathways of nuclear transport exist for cell surface receptors. This finding provides a new direction for investigating the trafficking mechanisms of various nuclear RTKs.
Project description:The heterotrimeric Sec61 complex and the dimeric Sec62/Sec63 complex are located in the membrane of the human endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and play a central role in translocation of nascent and newly synthesized precursor polypeptides into the ER. This process involves targeting of the precursors to the membrane and opening of the polypeptide conducting Sec61 channel for translocation. Apart from this central role in the intracellular transport of polypeptides, several studies of the last decade uncovered additional functions of Sec proteins in intracellular signaling: Sec62 can induce ER-phagy in the process of recovery of cells from ER stress and the Sec61 channel can also act as a passive ER calcium leak channel. Furthermore, mutations, amplifications and an overexpression of the SEC genes were linked to various diseases including kidney and liver diseases, diabetes and human cancer. Studies of the last decade could not only elucidate the functional role of Sec proteins in the pathogenesis of these diseases, but also demonstrate a relevance of Sec62 as a prognostic and predictive biomarker in head and neck cancer, prostate and lung cancer including a basis for new therapeutic strategies. In this article, we review the current understanding of protein transport across the ER membrane as central function of Sec proteins and further focus on recent studies that gave first insights into the functional role and therapeutic relevance of Sec61, Sec62 and Sec63 in human diseases.
Project description:?-Dystroglycan (?-DG) is a transmembrane protein with critical roles in cell adhesion, cytoskeleton remodeling and nuclear architecture. This functional diversity is attributed to the ability of ?-DG to target to, and conform specific protein assemblies at the plasma membrane (PM) and nuclear envelope (NE). Although a classical NLS and importin ?/? mediated nuclear import pathway has already been described for ?-DG, the intracellular trafficking route by which ?-DG reaches the nucleus is unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that ?-DG undergoes retrograde intracellular trafficking from the PM to the nucleus via the endosome-ER network. Furthermore, we provided evidence indicating that the translocon complex Sec61 mediates the release of ?-DG from the ER membrane, making it accessible for importins and nuclear import. Finally, we show that phosphorylation of ?-DG at Tyr890 is a key stimulus for ?-DG nuclear translocation. Collectively our data describe the retrograde intracellular trafficking route that ?-DG follows from PM to the nucleus. This dual role for a cell adhesion receptor permits the cell to functionally connect the PM with the nucleus and represents to our knowledge the first example of a cell adhesion receptor exhibiting retrograde nuclear trafficking and having dual roles in PM and NE.
Project description:Maintaining the Ran GTPase at a proper concentration in the nucleus is important for nucleocytoplasmic transport. Previously we found that nuclear levels of Ran are reduced in cells from patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a disease caused by constitutive attachment of a mutant form of lamin A (termed progerin) to the nuclear membrane. Here we explore the relationship between progerin, the Ran GTPase, and oxidative stress. Stable attachment of progerin to the nuclear membrane disrupts the Ran gradient and results in cytoplasmic localization of Ubc9, a Ran-dependent import cargo. Ran and Ubc9 disruption can be induced reversibly with H2O2. CHO cells preadapted to oxidative stress resist the effects of progerin on Ran and Ubc9. Given that HGPS-patient fibroblasts display elevated ROS, these data suggest that progerin inhibits nuclear transport via oxidative stress. A drug that inhibits pre-lamin A cleavage mimics the effects of progerin by disrupting the Ran gradient, but the effects on Ran are observed before a substantial ROS increase. Moreover, reducing the nuclear concentration of Ran is sufficient to induce ROS irrespective of progerin. We speculate that oxidative stress caused by progerin may occur upstream or downstream of Ran, depending on the cell type and physiological setting.
Project description:The Sec61 protein-conducting channel mediates transport of many proteins, such as secretory proteins, across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane during or after translation. Posttranslational transport is enabled by two additional membrane proteins associated with the channel, Sec63 and Sec62, but its mechanism is poorly understood. We determined a structure of the Sec complex (Sec61-Sec63-Sec71-Sec72) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The structure shows that Sec63 tightly associates with Sec61 through interactions in cytosolic, transmembrane, and ER-luminal domains, prying open Sec61's lateral gate and translocation pore and thus activating the channel for substrate engagement. Furthermore, Sec63 optimally positions binding sites for cytosolic and luminal chaperones in the complex to enable efficient polypeptide translocation. Our study provides mechanistic insights into eukaryotic posttranslational protein translocation.
Project description:The membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of nucleated human cells harbors the protein translocon, which facilitates membrane integration or translocation of almost every newly synthesized polypeptide targeted to organelles of the endo- and exocytotic pathway. The translocon comprises the polypeptide-conducting Sec61 channel and several additional proteins and complexes that are permanently or transiently associated with the heterotrimeric Sec61 complex. This ensemble of proteins facilitates ER targeting of precursor polypeptides, modification of precursor polypeptides in transit through the Sec61 complex, and Sec61 channel gating, i.e., dynamic regulation of the pore forming subunit to mediate precursor transport and calcium efflux. Recently, cryoelectron tomography of translocons in native ER membrane vesicles, derived from human cell lines or patient fibroblasts, and even intact cells has given unprecedented insights into the architecture and dynamics of the native translocon and the Sec61 channel. These structural data are discussed in light of different Sec61 channel activities including ribosome receptor function, membrane insertion, and translocation of newly synthesized polypeptides as well as the putative physiological roles of the Sec61 channel as a passive ER calcium leak channel. Furthermore, the structural insights into the Sec61 channel are incorporated into an overview and update on Sec61 channel-related diseases-the Sec61 channelopathies-and novel therapeutic concepts for their treatment.
Project description:Protein transport into the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is mediated by the heterotrimeric Sec61 channel. The signal recognition particle (SRP) and TRC systems and Sec62 have all been characterized as membrane-targeting components for small presecretory proteins, whereas Sec63 and the lumenal chaperone BiP act as auxiliary translocation components. Here, we report the transport requirements of two natural, small presecretory proteins and engineered variants using semipermeabilized human cells after the depletion of specific ER components. Our results suggest that hSnd2, Sec62, and SRP and TRC receptor each provide alternative targeting pathways for short secretory proteins and define rules of engagement for the actions of Sec63 and BiP during their membrane translocation. We find that the Sec62/Sec63 complex plus BiP can facilitate Sec61 channel opening, thereby allowing precursors that have weak signal peptides or other inhibitory features to translocate. A Sec61 inhibitor can mimic the effect of BiP depletion on Sec61 gating, suggesting that they both act at the same essential membrane translocation step.
Project description:The oncogene amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) is a nuclear receptor coactivator that plays a major role in the progression of various cancers. We previously identified a splice variant of AIB1 called AIB1-?4 that is overexpressed in breast cancer. Using mass spectrometry, we define the translation initiation of AIB1-?4 at Met(224) of the full-length AIB1 sequence and have raised an antibody to a peptide representing the acetylated N terminus. We show that AIB1-?4 is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, although leptomycin B nuclear export inhibition demonstrates that AIB1-?4 can enter and traffic through the nucleus. Our data indicate an import mechanism enhanced by other coactivators such as p300/CBP. We report that the endogenously and exogenously expressed AIB1-?4 is recruited as efficiently as full-length AIB1 to estrogen-response elements of genes, and it enhances estrogen-dependent transcription more effectively than AIB1. Expression of an N-terminal AIB1 protein fragment, which is lost in the AIB1-?4 isoform, potentiates AIB1 as a coactivator. This suggests a model whereby the transcriptional activity of AIB1 is squelched by a repressive mechanism utilizing the N-terminal domain and that the increased coactivator function of AIB1-?4 is due to the loss of this inhibitory domain. Finally, we show, using Scorpion primer technology, that AIB1-?4 expression is correlated with metastatic capability of human cancer cell lines.
Project description:Endocytosis directs molecular cargo along three main routes: recycling to the cell surface, transport to the Golgi apparatus or degradation in endolysosomes. Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) is a bacterial protein that typically traffics to the Golgi and then the endoplasmic reticulum before translocating to the cytosol. Here we show that a substantial fraction of internalized PE is also located in nuclear envelope-associated endosomes (NAE), which display limited mobility, exhibit a propensity to undergo fusion and readily discharge their contents into the nuclear envelope. Electron microscopy and protein trapping in the nucleus indicate that NAE mediate PE transfer into the nucleoplasm. RNAi screening further revealed that NAE-mediated transfer depends on the nuclear envelope proteins SUN1 and SUN2, as well as the Sec61 translocon complex. These data reveal a novel endosomal route from the cell surface to the nucleoplasm that facilitates the accumulation of extracellular and cell surface proteins in the nucleus.