Emergence of correlated proton tunnelling in water ice.
ABSTRACT: Several experimental and theoretical studies report instances of concerted or correlated multiple proton tunnelling in solid phases of water. Here, we construct a pseudo-spin model for the quantum motion of protons in a hexameric H2O ring and extend it to open system dynamics that takes environmental effects into account in the form of O-H stretch vibrations. We approach the problem of correlations in tunnelling using quantum information theory in a departure from previous studies. Our formalism enables us to quantify the coherent proton mobility around the hexagonal ring by one of the principal measures of coherence, the l 1 norm of coherence. The nature of the pairwise pseudo-spin correlations underlying the overall mobility is further investigated within this formalism. We show that the classical correlations of the individual quantum tunnelling events in long-time limit is sufficient to capture the behaviour of coherent proton mobility observed in low-temperature experiments. We conclude that long-range intra-ring interactions do not appear to be a necessary condition for correlated proton tunnelling in water ice.
Project description:Modelocked lasers constitute the fundamental source of optically-coherent ultrashort-pulsed radiation, with huge impact in science and technology. Their modeling largely rests on the master equation (ME) approach introduced in 1975 by Hermann A. Haus. However, that description fails when the medium dynamics is fast and, ultimately, when light-matter quantum coherence is relevant. Here we set a rigorous and general ME framework, the coherent ME (CME), that overcomes both limitations. The CME predicts strong deviations from Haus ME, which we substantiate through an amplitude-modulated semiconductor laser experiment. Accounting for coherent effects, like the Risken-Nummedal-Graham-Haken multimode instability, we envisage the usefulness of the CME for describing self-modelocking and spontaneous frequency comb formation in quantum-cascade and quantum-dot lasers. Furthermore, the CME paves the way for exploiting the rich phenomenology of coherent effects in laser design, which has been hampered so far by the lack of a coherent ME formalism.
Project description:Quantum materials displaying intriguing magnetic and electronic properties could be key to the development of future technologies. However, it is poorly understood how the macroscopic behavior emerges in complex materials with strong electronic correlations. While measurements of the dynamics of excited electronic populations have been able to give some insight, they have largely neglected the intricate dynamics of quantum coherence. Here, we apply multidimensional coherent spectroscopy to a prototypical cuprate and report unprecedented coherent dynamics persisting for ~500 fs, originating directly from the quantum superposition of optically excited states separated by 20 to 60 meV. These results reveal that the states in this energy range are correlated with the optically excited states at ~1.5 eV and point to nontrivial interactions between quantum many-body states on the different energy scales. In revealing these dynamics and correlations, we demonstrate that multidimensional coherent spectroscopy can interrogate complex quantum materials in unprecedented ways.
Project description:Single-electron spin qubits employ magnetic fields on the order of 1 Tesla or above to enable quantum state readout via spin-dependent-tunnelling. This requires demanding microwave engineering for coherent spin resonance control, which limits the prospects for large scale multi-qubit systems. Alternatively, singlet-triplet readout enables high-fidelity spin-state measurements in much lower magnetic fields, without the need for reservoirs. Here, we demonstrate low-field operation of metal-oxide-silicon quantum dot qubits by combining coherent single-spin control with high-fidelity, single-shot, Pauli-spin-blockade-based ST readout. We discover that the qubits decohere faster at low magnetic fields with [Formula: see text]??s and [Formula: see text]??s at 150?mT. Their coherence is limited by spin flips of residual 29Si nuclei in the isotopically enriched 28Si host material, which occur more frequently at lower fields. Our finding indicates that new trade-offs will be required to ensure the frequency stabilization of spin qubits, and highlights the importance of isotopic enrichment of device substrates for the realization of a scalable silicon-based quantum processor.
Project description:Scalable quantum processors require tunable two-qubit gates that are fast, coherent and long-range. The Heisenberg exchange interaction offers fast and coherent couplings for spin qubits, but is intrinsically short-ranged. Here, we demonstrate that its range can be increased by employing a multielectron quantum dot as a mediator, while preserving speed and coherence of the resulting spin-spin coupling. We do this by placing a large quantum dot with 50-100 electrons between a pair of two-electron double quantum dots that can be operated and measured simultaneously. Two-spin correlations identify coherent spin-exchange processes across the multielectron quantum dot. We further show that different physical regimes of the mediated exchange interaction allow a reduced susceptibility to charge noise at sweet spots, as well as positive and negative coupling strengths up to several gigahertz. These properties make multielectron dots attractive as scalable, voltage-controlled coherent coupling elements.
Project description:The tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope is an atomic-scale source of electrons and holes. As the injected charge spreads out, it can induce adsorbed molecules to react. By comparing large-scale 'before' and 'after' images of an adsorbate covered surface, the spatial extent of the nonlocal manipulation is revealed. Here, we measure the nonlocal manipulation of toluene molecules on the Si(111)-7 × 7 surface at room temperature. Both the range and probability of nonlocal manipulation have a voltage dependence. A region within 5-15?nm of the injection site shows a marked reduction in manipulation. We propose that this region marks the extent of the initial coherent (that is, ballistic) time-dependent evolution of the injected charge carrier. Using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, we develop a model of this time-dependent expansion of the initially localized hole wavepacket within a particular surface state and deduce a quantum coherence (ballistic) lifetime of ?10?fs.
Project description:Generating electron coherence in quantum materials is essential in optimal control of many-body interactions and correlations. In a multidomain system this signifies nonlocal coherence and emergence of collective phenomena, particularly in layered 2D quantum materials possessing novel electronic structures and high carrier mobilities. Here we report nonlocal ac electron coherence induced in dispersed MoS2 flake domains, using coherent spatial self-phase modulation (SSPM). The gap-dependent nonlinear dielectric susceptibility χ(3) measured is surprisingly large, where direct interband transition and two-photon SSPM are responsible for excitations above and below the bandgap, respectively. A wind-chime model is proposed to account for the emergence of the ac electron coherence. Furthermore, all-optical switching is achieved based on SSPM, especially with two-color intraband coherence, demonstrating that electron coherence generation is a ubiquitous property of layered quantum materials.
Project description:Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational-vibrational, electronic-vibrational and electronic-electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.
Project description:Controlling nanocircuits at the single electron spin level is a possible route for large-scale quantum information processing. In this context, individual electron spins have been identified as versatile quantum information carriers to interconnect different nodes of a spin-based semiconductor quantum circuit. Despite extensive experimental efforts to control the electron displacement over long distances, maintaining electron spin coherence after transfer remained elusive up to now. Here we demonstrate that individual electron spins can be displaced coherently over a distance of 5 µm. This displacement is realized on a closed path made of three tunnel-coupled lateral quantum dots at a speed approaching 100 ms-1. We find that the spin coherence length is eight times longer than expected from the electron spin coherence without displacement, pointing at a process similar to motional narrowing observed in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. The demonstrated coherent displacement will open the route towards long-range interaction between distant spin qubits.The spin states of electrons in quantum dots have well-established potential for use as qubits but some proposed developments require the ability to move the quantum spin state across a larger device. Here, the authors experimentally demonstrate coherent shuttling of spins in a ring of three dots.
Project description:In many layered metals, coherent propagation of electronic excitations is often confined to the highly conducting planes. While strong electron correlations and/or proximity to an ordered phase are believed to be the drivers of this electron confinement, it is still not known what triggers the loss of interlayer coherence in a number of layered systems with strong magnetic fluctuations, such as cuprates. Here, we show that a definitive signature of interlayer coherence in the metallic-layered triangular antiferromagnet PdCrO2 vanishes at the Néel transition temperature. Comparison with the relevant energy scales and with the isostructural non-magnetic PdCoO2 reveals that the interlayer incoherence is driven by the growth of short-range magnetic fluctuations. This establishes a connection between long-range order and interlayer coherence in PdCrO2 and suggests that in many other low-dimensional conductors, incoherent interlayer transport also arises from the strong interaction between the (tunnelling) electrons and fluctuations of some underlying order.
Project description:Many-body correlations govern a variety of important quantum phenomena such as the emergence of superconductivity and magnetism. Understanding quantum many-body systems is thus one of the central goals of modern sciences. Here we demonstrate an experimental approach towards this goal by utilizing an ultracold Rydberg gas generated with a broadband picosecond laser pulse. We follow the ultrafast evolution of its electronic coherence by time-domain Ramsey interferometry with attosecond precision. The observed electronic coherence shows an ultrafast oscillation with a period of 1?femtosecond, whose phase shift on the attosecond timescale is consistent with many-body correlations among Rydberg atoms beyond mean-field approximations. This coherent and ultrafast many-body dynamics is actively controlled by tuning the orbital size and population of the Rydberg state, as well as the mean atomic distance. Our approach will offer a versatile platform to observe and manipulate non-equilibrium dynamics of quantum many-body systems on the ultrafast timescale.